Konvencija Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora i Završni akt Treće konferencije Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora s Prilozima I-VII. i Dodatkom i Sporazum o primjeni XI. dijela Konvencije Ujedinjenih naroda

NN 9/2000 (20.6.2000.), Konvencija Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora i Završni akt Treće konferencije Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora s Prilozima I-VII. i Dodatkom i Sporazum o primjeni XI. dijela Konvencije Ujedinjenih naroda

MINISTARSTVO VANJSKIH POSLOVA

84

 

Na teme­lju točke IV. Odluke o objav­ljiva­nju mnogostranih međunarodnih ugovora kojih je Republika Hrvatska stranka na teme­lju notifikacija o sukcesiji i pristupa (akcesije) (»Narodne novine – Međunarodni ugovori« broj 11/95), Ministarstvo va­njskih poslova Republike Hrvatske objav­ljuje

 

Konvenciju Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora


i Završni akt Treće konferencije Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora
s Prilozima I.-VII. i Dodatkom

i

Sporazum o primjeni XI. dijela konvencije Ujedi­njenih naroda
o pravu mora od 10. prosinca 1982.

 

Konvenciju Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora usvojila je Treća konferencija Ujedi­njenih naroda i ona je otvorena za potpisiva­nje, zajedno sa Završnim aktom Konferencije, u Monte­go Bayu, Jamajka, 10. prosinca 1982. Konvencija je stupila na snagu 16. studenoga 1994., a Republika Hrvatska odgovarajuću notifikaciju o sukcesiji položila je kod glavnog tajnika Ujedi­njenih naroda 5. trav­nja 1995.

Sporazum o primjeni XI. dijela Konvencije Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora od 10. prosinca 1982. usvojila je Opća skupština Ujedi­njenih naroda rezolucijom 48/263 28. srp­nja 1994. Sporazum se je privremeno primje­njivao od 16. studenoga 1994., a stupio je na snagu 28. srp­nja 1996. Republika Hrvatska dala je pristanak biti vezana Sporazumom 5. svib­nja 1995. prigodom polaga­nja notifikacije o sukcesiji Konvencije Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora kod glavnog tajnika Ujedi­njenih naroda.

Konvencija Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora s Prilozima I-IX. koji su ­njezin sastavni dio, Završni akt Treće konferencije Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora s Prilozima I-VII i Dodatkom te Sporazum o primjeni XI. dijela Konvencije Ujedi­njenih naroda o pravu mora od 10. prosinca 1982. s Prilogom koji je ­nje­gov sastavni dio, u izvorniku na engleskom jeziku i u prijevodu na hrvatski jezik glase:

 

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA

 

The States Parties to this Convention,

Prompted by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and co-operation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,

Noting that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea,

Conscious that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole,

Recognizing the desirability of establishing through this Convention, with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,

Bearing in mind that the achievement of these goals will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order which takes into account the interests and needs of mankind as a whole and, in particular, the special interests and needs of developing countries, whether coastal or land-locked,

Desiring by this Convention to develop the principles embodied in resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1970 in which the General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly declared inter alia that the area of the sea-bed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, as well as its resources, are the common heritage of mankind, the exploration and exploitation of which shall be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States,

Believing that the codification and progressive development of the law of the sea achieved in this Convention will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, co-operation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equal rights and will promote the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter,

Affirming that matters not regulated by this Convention continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law,

Have agreed as follows:

PART I

INTRODUCTION

Article 1

Use of terms and scope

1. For the purposes of this Convention:

(1) “Area” means the sea-bed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction;

(2) “Authority” means the International Sea-Bed Authority;

(3) “activities in the Area” means all activities of exploration for, and exploitation of, the resources of the Area;

(4) “pollution of the marine environment” means the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities;

(5) (a) “dumping” means:

(i) any deliberate disposal of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea;

(ii) any deliberate disposal of vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea

(b) “dumping” does not include:

(i) the disposal of wastes or other matter incidental to, or derived from the normal operations of vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea and their equipment, other than wastes or other matter transported by or to vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea, operating for the purpose of disposal of such matter or derived from the treatment of such wastes or other matter on such vessels, aircraft, platforms or structures;

(ii) placement of matter for a purpose other than the mere disposal thereof, provided that such placement is not contrary to the aims of this Convention.

2. (1) “States Parties” means States which have consented to be bound by this Convention and for which this Convention is in force.

(2) This Convention applies mutatis mutandis to the entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph 1(b), (c), (d), (e) and (f), which become Parties to this Convention in accordance with the conditions relevant to each, and to that extent “States Parties” refers to those entities.

PART II

TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 2

Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil

1. The sovereignty of a coastal State extends, beyond its land territory and internal waters and, in the case of an archipelagic State, its archipelagic waters, to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea.

2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to its bed and subsoil.

3. The sovereignty over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this Convention and to other rules of international law.

Section 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Article 3

Breadth of the territorial sea

Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention.

Article 4

Outer limit of the territorial sea

The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the territorial sea.

Article 5

Normal baseline

Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

Article 6

Reefs

In the case of islands situated on atolls or of islands having fringing reefs, the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the seaward low-water line of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

Article 7

Straight baselines

1. In localities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

2. Where because of the presence of a delta and other natural conditions the coastline is highly unstable, the appropriate points may be selected along the furthest seaward extent of the low-water line and, notwithstanding subsequent regression of the low-water line, the straight baselines shall remain effective until changed by the coastal State in accordance with this Convention.

3. The drawing of straight baselines must not depart to any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters.

4. Straight baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them or except in instances where the drawing of baselines to and from such elevations has received general international recognition.

5. Where the method of straight baselines is applicable under paragraph 1, account may be taken, in determining particular baselines, of economic interests peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importance of which are clearly evidenced by long usage.

6. The system of straight baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off the territorial sea of another State from the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

Article 8

Internal waters

1. Except as provided in Part IV, waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State.

2. Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in Article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage as provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters.

Article 9

Mouths of rivers

If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks.

Article 10

Bays

1. This Article relates only to bays the coasts of which belong to a single State.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation.

3. For the purpose of measurement, the area of an indentation is that lying between the low-water mark around the shore of the indentation and a line joining the low-water mark of its natural entrance points. Where, because of the presence of islands, an indentation has more than one mouth, the semicircle shall be drawn on a line as long as the sum total of the lengths of the lines across the different mouths. Islands within an indentation shall be included as if they were part of the water area of the indentation.

4. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered as internal waters.

5. Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay exceeds 24 nautical miles, a straight baseline of 24 nautical miles shall be drawn within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length.

6. The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called “historic” bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in Article 7 is applied.

Article 11

Ports

For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded as forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbour works.

Article 12

Roadsteads

Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea.

Article 13

Low-tide elevations

1. A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea.

2. Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own.

Article 14

Combination of methods for determining baselines

The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methods provided for in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions.

Article 15

Delimitation of the territorial sea between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured. The above provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two States in a way which is at variance therewith.

Article 16

Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates

1. The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in accordance with articles 7, 9 and 10, or the limits derived therefrom, and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with articles 12 and 15 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Alternatively, a list of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Section 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE
TERRITORIAL SEA

Subsection A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

Article 17

Right of innocent passage

Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

Article 18

Meaning of passage

1. Passage means navigation through the territorial sea for the purpose of:

(a) traversing that sea without entering internal waters or calling at a roadstead or port facility outside internal waters; or

(b) proceeding to or from internal waters or a call at such roadstead or port facility.

2. Passage shall be continuous and expeditious. However, passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or distress or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distress.

Article 19

Meaning of innocent passage

1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law.

2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities:

(a) any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;

(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or security of the coastal State;

(d) any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the coastal State;

(e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;

(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device;

(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State;

(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;

(i) any fishing activities;

(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;

(k) any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any other facilities or installations of the coastal State;

(l) any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.

Article 20

Submarines and other underwater vehicles

In the territorial sea, submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag.

Article 21

Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage

1. The coastal State may adopt laws and regulations, in conformity with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law, relating to innocent passage through the territorial sea, in respect of all or any of the following:

(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic;

(b) the protection of navigational aids and facilities and other facilities or installations;

(c) the protection of cables and pipelines;

(d) the conservation of the living resources of the sea;

(e) the prevention of infringement of the fisheries laws and regulations of the coastal State;

(f) the preservation of the environment of the coastal State and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution thereof;

(g) marine scientific research and hydrographic surveys;

(h) the prevention of infringement of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State.

2. Such laws and regulations shall not apply to the design, construction, manning or equipment of foreign ships unless they are giving effect to generally accepted international rules or standards.

3. The coastal State shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.

4. Foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea shall comply with all such laws and regulations and all generally accepted international regulations relating to the prevention of collisions at sea.

Article 22

Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in
the territorial sea

1. The coastal State may, where necessary having regard to the safety of navigation, require foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through its territorial sea to use such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as it may designate or prescribe for the regulation of the passage of ships.

2. In particular, tankers, nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances or materials may be required to confine their passage to such sea lanes.

3. In the designation of sea lanes and the prescription of traffic separation schemes under this article, the coastal State shall take into account:

(a) the recommendations of the competent international organization;

(b) any channels customarily used for international navigation;

(c) the special characteristics of particular ships and channels; and

(d) the density of traffic.

4. The coastal State shall clearly indicate such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

Article 23

Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances

Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances shall, when exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea, carry documents and observe special precautionary measures established for such ships by international agreements.

Article 24

Duties of the coastal State

1. The coastal State shall not hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships through the territorial sea except in accordance with this Convention. In particular, in the application of this Convention or of any laws or regulations adopted in conformity with this Convention, the coastal State shall not:

(a) impose requirements on foreign ships which have the practical effect of denying or impairing the right of innocent passage; or

(b) discriminate in form or in fact against the ships of any State or against ships carrying cargoes to, from or on behalf of any State.

2. The coastal State shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation, of which it has knowledge, within its territorial sea.

Article 25

Rights of protection of the coastal State

1. The coastal State may take the necessary steps in its territorial sea to prevent passage which is not innocent.

2. In the case of ships proceeding to internal waters or a call at a port facility outside internal waters, the coastal State also has the right to take the necessary steps to prevent any breach of the conditions to which admission of those ships to internal waters or such a call is subject.

3. The coastal State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security, including weapons exercises. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.

Article 26

Charges which may be levied upon foreign ships

1. No charge may be levied upon foreign ships by reason only of their passage through the territorial sea.

2. Charges may be levied upon a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea as payment only for specific services rendered to the ship. These charges shall be levied without discrimination.

Subsection B. RULES APPLICABLE TO MERCHANT SHIPS AND GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article 27

Criminal jurisdiction on board a foreign ship

1. The criminal jurisdiction of the coastal State should not be exercised on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed on board the ship during its passage, save only in the following cases:

(a) if the consequences of the crime extend to the coastal State;

(b) if the crime is of a kind to disturb the peace of the country or the good order of the territorial sea;

(c) if the assistance of the local authorities has been requested by the master of the ship or by a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State; or

(d) if such measures are necessary for the suppression of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.

2. The above provisions do not affect the right of the coastal State to take any steps authorized by its laws for the purpose of an arrest or investigation on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

3. In the cases provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2, the coastal State shall, if the master so requests, notify a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State before taking any steps, and shall facilitate contact between such agent or officer and the shipžs crew. In cases of emergency this notification may be communicated while the measures are being taken.

4. In considering whether or in what manner an arrest should be made, the local authorities shall have due regard to the interests of navigation.

5. Except as provided in Part XII or with respect to violations of laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Part V, the coastal State may not take any steps on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed before the ship entered the territorial sea, if the ship, proceeding from a foreign port, is only passing through the territorial sea without entering internal waters.

Article 28

Civil jurisdiction in relation to foreign ships

1. The coastal State should not stop or divert a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea for the purpose of exercising civil jurisdiction in relation to a person on board the ship.

2. The coastal State may not levy execution against or arrest the ship for the purpose of any civil proceedings, save only in respect of obligations or liabilities assumed or incurred by the ship itself in the course or for the purpose of its voyage through the waters of the coastal State.

3. Paragraph 2 is without prejudice to the right of the coastal State, in accordance with its laws, to levy execution against or to arrest, for the purpose of any civil proceedings, a foreign ship lying in the territorial sea, or passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

Subsection C. RULES APPLICABLE TO WARSHIPS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article 29

Definition of warships

For the purposes of this Convention, “warship” means a ship belonging to the armed forces of a State bearing the external marks distinguishing such ships of its nationality, under the command of an officer duly commissioned by the government of the State and whose name appears in the appropriate service list or its equivalent, and manned by a crew which is under regular armed forces discipline.

Article 30

Non-compliance by warships with the laws and regulations of the coastal State

If any warship does not comply with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request for compliance therewith which is made to it, the coastal State may require it to leave the territorial sea immediately.

Article 31

Responsibility of the flag State for damage caused by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes

The flag State shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage to the coastal State resulting from the non-compliance by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea or with the provisions of this Convention or other rules of international law.

Article 32

Immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes

With such exceptions as are contained in subsection A and in articles 30 and 31, nothing in this Convention affects the immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes.

Section 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Article 33

Contiguous zone

1. In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:

(a) prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea;

(b) punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea.

2. The contiguous zone may riot extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

PART III

STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 34

Legal status of waters forming straits used for international navigation

1. The regime of passage through straits used for international navigation established in this Part shall not in other respects affect the legal status of the waters forming such straits or the exercise by the States bordering the straits of their sovereignty or jurisdiction over such waters and their air space, bed and subsoil.

2. The sovereignty or jurisdiction of the States bordering the straits is exercised subject to this Part and to other rules of international law.

Article 35

Scope of this Part

Nothing in this Part affects:

(a) any areas of internal waters within a strait, except where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in Article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such;

(b) the legal status of the waters beyond the territorial seas of States bordering straits as exclusive economic zones or high seas; or

(c) the legal regime in straits in which passage is regulated in whole or in part by long-standing international conventions in force specifically relating to such straits.

Article 36

High seas routes or routes through exclusive economic zones through straits used for international navigation

This Part does not apply to a strait used for international navigation if there exists through the strait a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics; in such routes, the other relevant Parts of this Convention, including the provisions regarding the freedoms of navigation and overflight, apply.

Section 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE

Article 37

Scope of this section

This section applies to straits which are used for international navigation between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

Article 38

Right of transit passage

1. In straits referred to in Article 37, all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of transit passage, which shall not be impeded; except that, if the strait is formed by an island of a State bordering the strait and its mainland, transit passage shall not apply if there exists seaward of the island a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics.

2. Transit passage means the exercise in accordance with this Part of the freedom of navigation and overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of the strait between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone. However, the requirement of continuous and expeditious transit does not preclude passage through the strait for the purpose of entering, leaving or returning from a State bordering the strait, subject to the conditions of entry to that State.

3. Any activity which is not an exercise of the right of transit passage through a strait remains subject to the other applicable provisions of this Convention.

Article 39

Duties of ships and aircraft during transit passage

1. Ships and aircraft, while exercising the right of transit passage, shall:

(a) proceed without delay through or over the strait;

(b) refrain from any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of States bordering the strait, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) refrain from any activities other than those incident to their normal modes of continuous and expeditious transit unless rendered necessary by force majeure or by distress;

(d) comply with other relevant provisions of this Part.

2. Ships in transit passage shall:

(a) comply with generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices for safety at sea, including the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea;

(b) comply with generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from ships.

3. Aircraft in transit passage shall:

(a) observe the Rules of the Air established by the International Civil Aviation Organization as they apply to civil aircraft; state aircraft will normally comply with such safety measures and will at all times operate with due regard for the safety of navigation;

(b) at all times monitor the radio frequency assigned by the competent internationally designated air traffic control authority or the appropriate international distress radio frequency.

Article 40

Research and survey activities

During transit passage, foreign ships, including marine scientific research and hydrographic survey ships, may not carry out any research or survey activities without the prior authorization of the States bordering straits.

Article 41

Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in straits used for international navigation

1. In conformity with this Part, States bordering straits may designate sea lanes and prescribe traffic separation schemes for navigation in straits where necessary to promote the safe passage of ships.

2. Such States may, when circumstances require, and after giving due publicity thereto, substitute other sea lanes or traffic separation schemes for any sea lanes or traffic separation schemes previously designated or prescribed by them.

3. Such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes shall conform to generally accepted international regulations.

4. Before designating or substituting sea lanes or prescribing or substituting traffic separation schemes, States bordering straits shall refer proposals to the competent international organization with a view to their adoption. The organization may adopt only such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as may be agreed with the States bordering the straits, after which the States may designate, prescribe or substitute them.

5. In respect of a strait where sea lanes or traffic separation schemes through the waters of two or more States bordering the strait are being proposed, the States concerned shall co-operate in formulating proposals in consultation with the competent international organization.

6. States bordering straits shall clearly indicate all sea lanes and traffic separation schemes designated or prescribed by them on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

7. Ships in transit passage shall respect applicable sea lanes and traffic separation schemes established in accordance with this article.

Article 42

Laws and regulations of States bordering straits relating to transit passage

1. Subject to the provisions of this section, States bordering straits may adopt laws and regulations relating to transit passage through straits, in respect of all or any of the following:

(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic, as provided in Article 41;

(b) the prevention, reduction and control of pollution, by giving effect to applicable international regulations regarding the discharge of oil, oily wastes and other noxious substances in the strait;

(c) with respect to fishing vessels, the prevention of fishing, including the stowage of fishing gear;

(d) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person in contravention of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of States bordering straits.

2. Such laws and regulations shall not discriminate in form or in fact among foreign ships or in their application have the practical effect of denying, hampering or impairing the right of transit passage as defined in this section.

3. States bordering straits shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.

4. Foreign ships exercising the right of transit passage shall comply with such laws and regulations.

5. The flag State of a ship or the State of registry of an aircraft entitled to sovereign immunity which acts in a manner contrary to such laws and regulations or other provisions of this Part shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage which results to States bordering straits.

Article 43

Navigational and safety aids and other improvements and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution

User States and States bordering a strait should by agreement co-operate:

(a) in the establishment and maintenance in a strait of necessary navigational and safety aids or other improvements in aid of international navigation; and

(b) for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from ships.

Article 44

Duties of States bordering straits

States bordering straits shall not hamper transit passage and shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation or overflight within or over the strait of which they have knowledge. There shall be no suspension of transit passage.

Section 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE

Article 45

Innocent passage

1. The regime of innocent passage, in accordance with Part II, section 3 shall apply in straits used for international navigation:

(a) excluded from the application of the regime of transit passage under Article 38, paragraph 1; or

(b) between a part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and the territorial sea of a foreign State.

2. There shall be no suspension of innocent passage through such straits.

PART IV

ARCHIPELAGIC STATES

Article 46

Use of terms

For the purposes of this Convention:

(a) “archipelagic State” means a State constituted wholly by one or more archipelagos and may include other islands;

(b) “archipelago” means a group of islands, including parts of islands, interconnecting waters and other natural features which are so closely interrelated that such islands, waters and other natural features form an intrinsic geographical, economic and political entity, or which historically have been regarded as such.

Article 47

Archipelagic baselines

1. An archipelagic State may draw straight archipelagic baselines joining the outermost points of the outermost islands and drying reefs of the archipelago provided that within such baselines are included the main islands and an area in which the ratio of the area of the water to the area of the land, including atolls, is between 1 to 1 and 9 to 1.

2. The length of such baselines shall not exceed 100 nautical miles, except that up to 3 per cent of the total number of baselines enclosing any archipelago may exceed that length, up to a maximum length of 125 nautical miles.

3. The drawing of such baselines shall not depart to any appreciable extent from the general configuration of the archipelago.

4. Such baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them or where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the nearest island.

5. The system of such baselines shall not be applied by an archipelagic State in such a manner as to cut off from the high seas or the exclusive economic zone the territorial sea of another State.

6. If a part of the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State lies between two parts of an immediately adjacent neighbouring State, existing rights and all other legitimate interests which the latter State has traditionally exercised in such waters and all rights stipulated by agreement between those States shall continue and be respected.

7. For the purpose of computing the ratio of water to land under paragraph 1, land areas may include waters lying within the fringing reefs of islands and atolls, including that part of a steep-sided oceanic plateau which is enclosed or nearly enclosed by a chain of limestone islands and drying reefs lying on the perimeter of the plateau.

8. The baselines drawn in accordance with this Article shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Alternatively, lists of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted.

9. The archipelagic State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48

Measurement of the breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

The breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf shall be measured from archipelagic baselines drawn in accordance with Article 47.

Article 49

Legal status of archipelagic waters, of the air space over archipelagic waters and of their bed and subsoil

1. The sovereignty of an archipelagic State extends to the waters enclosed by the archipelagic baselines drawn in accordance with Article 47, described as archipelagic waters, regardless of their depth or distance from the coast.

2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the archipelagic waters, as well as to their bed and subsoil, and the resources contained therein.

3. This sovereignty is exercised subject to this Part.

4. The regime of archipelagic sea lanes passage established in this Part shall not in other respects affect the status of the archipelagic waters, including the sea lanes, or the exercise by the archipelagic State of its sovereignty over such waters and their air space, bed and subsoil, and the resources contained therein.

Article 50

Delimitation of internal waters

Within its archipelagic waters, the archipelagic State may draw closing lines for the delimitation of internal waters, in accordance with articles 9, 10 and 11.

Article 51

Existing agreements, traditional fishing rights and existing submarine cables

1. Without prejudice to Article 49, an archipelagic State shall respect existing agreements with other States and shall recognize traditional fishing rights and other legitimate activities of the immediately adjacent neighbouring States in certain areas falling within archipelagic waters. The terms and conditions for the exercise of such rights and activities, including the nature, the extent and the areas to which they apply, shall, at the request of any of the States concerned, be regulated by bilateral agreements between them. Such rights shall not be transferred to or shared with third States or their nationals.

2. An archipelagic State shall respect existing submarine cables laid by other States and passing through its waters without making a landfall. An archipelagic State shall permit the maintenance and replacement of such cables upon receiving due notice of their location and the intention to repair or replace them.

Article 52

Right of innocent passage

1. Subject to Article 53 and without prejudice to Article 50, ships of all States enjoy the right of innocent passage through archipelagic waters, in accordance with Part II, section 3.

2. The archipelagic State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its archipelagic waters the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.

Article 53

Right of archipelagic sea lanes passage

1. An archipelagic State may designate sea lanes and air routes thereabove, suitable for the continuous and expeditious passage of foreign ships and aircraft through or over its archipelagic waters and the adjacent territorial sea.

2. All ships and aircraft enjoy the right of archipelagic sea lanes passage in such sea lanes and air routes.

3. Archipelagic sea lanes passage means the exercise in accordance with this Convention of the rights of navigation and overflight in the normal mode solely for the purpose of continuous, expeditious and unobstructed transit between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

4. Such sea lanes and air routes shall traverse the archipelagic waters and the adjacent territorial sea and shall include all normal passage routes used as routes for international navigation or overflight through or over archipelagic waters and, within such routes, so far as ships are concerned, all normal navigational channels, provided that duplication of routes of similar convenience between the same entry and exit points shall not be necessary.

5. Such sea lanes and air routes shall be defined by a series of continuous axis lines from the entry points of passage routes to the exit points. Ships and aircraft in archipelagic sea lanes passage shall not deviate more than 25 nautical miles to either side of such axis lines during passage, provided that such ships and aircraft shall not navigate closer to the coasts than 10 per cent of the distance between the nearest points on islands bordering the sea lane.

6. An archipelagic State which designates sea lanes under this Article may also prescribe traffic separation schemes for the safe passage of ships through narrow channels in such sea lanes.

7. An archipelagic State may, when circumstances require, after giving due publicity thereto, substitute other sea lanes or traffic separation schemes for any sea lanes or traffic separation schemes previously designated or prescribed by it.

8. Such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes shall conform to generally accepted international regulations.

9. In designating or substituting sea lanes or prescribing or substituting traffic separation schemes, an archipelagic State shall refer proposals to the competent international organization with a view to their adoption. The organization may adopt only such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as may be agreed with the archipelagic State, after which the archipelagic State may designate, prescribe or substitute them.

10. The archipelagic State shall clearly indicate the axis of the sea lanes and the traffic separation schemes designated or prescribed by it on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

11. Ships in archipelagic sea lanes passage shall respect applicable sea lanes and traffic separation schemes established in accordance with this article.

12. If an archipelagic State does not designate sea lanes or air routes, the right of archipelagic sea lanes passage may be exercised through the routes normally used for internal navigation.

Article 54

Duties of ships and aircraft during their passage, research and survey activities, duties of the archipelagic State and laws and regulations of the archipelagic State relating to archipelagic sea lanes passage

Articles 39, 40, 42 and 44 apply mutatis mutandis to archipelagic sea lanes passage.

PART V

EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

Article 55

Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone

The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

Article 56

Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the exclusive economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has:

(a) sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the sea-bed and of the sea-bed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds;

(b) jurisdiction as provided for in the relevant provisions of this Convention with regard to:

(i) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures;

(ii) marine scientific research;

(iii) the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(c) other rights and duties provided for in this Convention.

2. In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have due regard to the rights and duties of other States and shall act in a manner compatible with the provisions of this Convention.

3. The rights set out in this Article with respect to the sea-bed and subsoil shall be exercised in accordance with Part VI.

Article 57

Breadth of the exclusive economic zone

The exclusive economic zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Article 58

Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive
economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy, subject to the relevant provisions of this Convention, the freedoms referred to in Article 87 of navigation and overflight and of the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and other internationally lawful uses of the sea related to these freedoms, such as those associated with the operation of ships, aircraft and submarine cables and pipelines, and compatible with the other provisions of this Convention.

2. Articles 88 to 115 and other pertinent rules of international law apply to the exclusive economic zone in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.

3. In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, States shall have due regard to the rights and duties of the coastal State and shall comply with the laws and regulations adopted by the coastal State in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.

Article 59

Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone

In cases where this Convention does not attribute rights or jurisdiction to the coastal State or to other States within the exclusive economic zone, and a conflict arises between the interests of the coastal State and any other State or States, the conflict should be resolved on the basis of equity and in the light of all the relevant circumstances, taking into account the respective importance of the interests involved to the parties as well as to the international community as a whole.

Article 60

Artificial islands, installations and structures in the exclusive economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have the exclusive right to construct and to authorize and regulate the construction, operation and use of:

(a) artificial islands;

(b) installations and structures for the purposes provided for in Article 56 and other economic purposes;

(c) installations and structures which may interfere with the exercise of the rights of the coastal State in the zone.

2. The coastal State shall have exclusive jurisdiction over such artificial islands installations and structures, including jurisdiction with regard to customs fiscal health, safety and immigration laws and regulations.

3. Due notice must be given of the construction of such artificial islands, installations or structures, and permanent means for giving warning of their presence must be maintained. Any installations or structures which are abandoned or disused shall be removed to ensure safety of navigation, taking into account any generally accepted international standards established in this regard by the competent international organization. Such removal shall also have due regard to fishing, the protection of the marine environment and the rights and duties of other States. Appropriate publicity shall be given to the depth, position and dimensions of any installations or structures not entirely removed.

4. The coastal State may, where necessary, establish reasonable safety zones around such artificial islands, installations and structures in which it may take appropriate measures to ensure the safety both of navigation and of the artificial islands, installations and structures.

5. The breadth of the safety zones shall be determined by the coastal State, taking into account applicable international standards. Such zones shall be designed to ensure that they are reasonably related to the nature and function of the artificial islands, installations or structures, and shall not exceed a distance of 500 metres around them, measured from each point of their outer edge, except as authorized by generally accepted international standards or as recommended by the competent international organization. Due notice shall be given of the extent of safety zones.

6. All ships must respect these safety zones and shall comply with generally accepted international standards regarding navigation in the vicinity of artificial islands, installations, structures and safety zones.

7. Artificial islands, installations and structures and the safety zones around them may not be established where interference may be caused to the use of recognized sea lanes essential to international navigation.

8. Artificial islands, installations and structures do not possess the status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf.

Article 61

Conservation of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall determine the allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone.

2. The coastal State, taking into account the best scientific evidence available to it, shall ensure through proper conservation and management measures that the maintenance of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone is not endangered by over-exploitation. As appropriate, the coastal State and competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, shall co-operate to this end.

3. Such measures shall also be designed to maintain or restore populations of harvested species at levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield, as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, including the economic needs of coastal fishing communities and the special requirements of developing States, and taking into account fishing patterns, the interdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global.

4. In taking such measures the coastal State shall take into consideration the effects on species associated with or dependent upon harvested species with a view to maintaining or restoring populations of such associated or dependent species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened.

5. Available scientific information, catch and fishing effort statistics, and other data relevant to the conservation of fish stocks shall be contributed and exchanged on a regular basis through competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, where appropriate and with participation by all States concerned, including States whose nationals are allowed to fish in the exclusive economic zone.

Article 62

Utilization of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall promote the objective of optimum utilization of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone without prejudice to Article 61.

2. The coastal State shall determine its capacity to harvest the living resources of the exclusive economic zone. Where the coastal State does not have the capacity to harvest the entire allowable catch, it shall, through agreements or other arrangements and pursuant to the terms, conditions, laws and regulations referred to in paragraph 4, give other States access to the surplus of the allowable catch, having particular regard to the provisions of articles 69 and 70, especially in relation to the developing States mentioned therein.

3. In giving access to other States to its exclusive economic zone under this Article the coastal State shall take into account all relevant factors, including, inter alia, the significance of the living resources of the area to the economy of the coastal State concerned and its other national interests, the provisions of articles 69 and 70, the requirements of developing States in the subregion or region in harvesting part of the surplus and the need to minimize economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone or which have made substantial efforts in research and identification of stocks.

4. Nationals of other States fishing in the exclusive economic zone shall comply with the conservation measures and with the other terms and conditions established in the laws and regulations of the coastal State. These laws and regulations shall be consistent with this Convention and may relate, inter alia, to the following:

(a) licensing of fishermen, fishing vessels and equipment, including payment of fees and other forms of remuneration, which, in the case of developing coastal States, may consist of adequate compensation in the field of financing, equipment and technology relating to the fishing industry;

(b) determining the species which may be caught, and fixing quotas of catch, whether in relation to particular stocks or groups of stocks or catch per vessel over a period of time or to the catch by nationals of any State during a specified period;

(c) regulating seasons and areas of fishing, the types, sizes and amount of gear, and the types, sizes and number of fishing vessels that may be used;

(d) fixing the age and size of fish and other species that may be caught;

(e) specifying information required of fishing vessels, including catch and effort statistics and vessel position reports;

(f) requiring, under the authorization and control of the coastal State, the conduct of specified fisheries research programmes and regulating the conduct of such research, including the sampling of catches, disposition of samples and reporting of associated scientific data;

(g) the placing of observers or trainees on board such vessels by the coastal State;

(h) the landing of all or any part of the catch by such vessels in the ports of the coastal State;

(i) terms and conditions relating to joint ventures or other co-operative arrangements;

(j) requirements for the training of personnel and the transfer of fisheries technology, including enhancement of the coastal Statežs capability of undertaking fisheries research;

(k) enforcement procedures.

5. Coastal States shall give due notice of conservation and management laws and regulations.

Article 63

Stocks occurring within the exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States or both within the exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to it

1. Where the same stock or stocks of associated species occur within the exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States, these States shall seek, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organizations, to agree upon the measures necessary to co-ordinate and ensure the conservation and development of such stocks without prejudice to the other provisions of this Part.

2. Where the same stock or stocks of associated species occur both within the exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to the zone, the coastal State and the States fishing for such stocks in the adjacent area shall seek, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organizations, to agree upon the measures necessary for the conservation of these stocks in the adjacent area.

Article 64

Highly migratory species

1. The coastal State and other States whose nationals fish in the region for the highly migratory species listed in Annex I shall co-operate directly or through appropriate international organizations with a view to ensuring conservation and promoting the objective of optimum utilization of such species throughout the region, both within and beyond the exclusive economic zone. In regions for which no appropriate international organization exists, the coastal State and other States whose nationals harvest these species in the region shall co-operate to establish such an organization and participate in its work.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 apply in addition to the other provisions of this Part.

Article 65

Marine mammals

Nothing in this Part restricts the right of a coastal State or the competence of an international organization, as appropriate, to prohibit, limit or regulate the exploitation of marine mammals more strictly than provided for in this Part. States shall co-operate with a view to the conservation of marine mammals and in the case of cetaceans shall in particular work through the appropriate international organizations for their conservation, management and study.

Article 66

Anadromous stocks

1. States in whose rivers anadromous stocks originate shall have the primary interest in and responsibility for such stocks.

2. The State of origin of anadromous stocks shall ensure their conservation by the establishment of appropriate regulatory measures for fishing in all waters landward of the outer limits of its exclusive economic zone and for fishing provided for in paragraph 3(b). The State of origin may, after consultations with the other States referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4 fishing these stocks, establish total allowable catches for stocks originating in its rivers.

3. (a) Fisheries for anadromous stocks shall be conducted only in waters landward of the outer limits of exclusive economic zones, except in cases where this provision would result in economic dislocation for a State other than the State of origin. With respect to such fishing beyond the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone, States concerned shall maintain consultations with a view to achieving agreement on terms and conditions of such fishing giving due regard to the conservation requirements and the needs of the State of origin in respect of these stocks.

(b) The State of origin shall co-operate in minimizing economic dislocation in such other States fishing these stocks, taking into account the normal catch and the mode of operations of such States, and all the areas in which such fishing has occurred.

(c) States referred to in subparagraph (b), participating by agreement with the State of origin in measures to renew anadromous stocks, particularly by expenditures for that purpose, shall be given special consideration by the State of origin in the harvesting of stocks originating in its rivers.

(d) Enforcement of regulations regarding anadromous stocks beyond the exclusive economic zone shall be by agreement between the State of origin and the other States concerned.

4. In cases where anadromous stocks migrate into or through the waters landward of the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone of a State other than the State of origin, such State shall co-operate with the State of origin with regard to the conservation and management of such stocks.

5. The State of origin of anadromous stocks and other States fishing these stocks shall make arrangements for the implementation of the provisions of this article, where appropriate, through regional organizations.

Article 67

Catadromous species

1. A coastal State in whose waters catadromous species spend the greater part of their life cycle shall have responsibility for the management of these species and shall ensure the ingress and egress of migrating fish.

2. Harvesting of catadromous species shall be conducted only in waters landward of the outer limits of exclusive economic zones. When conducted in exclusive economic zones, harvesting shall be subject to this Article and the other provisions of this Convention concerning fishing in these zones.

3. In cases where catadromous fish migrate through the exclusive economic zone of another State, whether as juvenile or maturing fish, the management, including harvesting, of such fish shall be regulated by agreement between the State mentioned in paragraph 1 and the other State concerned. Such agreement shall ensure the rational management of the species and take into account the responsibilities of the State mentioned in paragraph I for the maintenance of these species.

Article 68

Sedentary species

This Part does not apply to sedentary species as defined in Article 77, paragraph 4.

Article 69

Right of land-locked States

1. Land-locked States shall have the right to participate, on an equitable basis, in the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the same subregion or region, taking into account the relevant economic and geographical circumstances of all the States concerned and in conformity with the provisions of this Article and of articles 61 and 62.

2. The terms and modalities of such participation shall be established by the States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements taking into account, inter alia:

(a) the need to avoid effects detrimental to fishing communities or fishing industries of the coastal State;

(b) the extent to which the land-locked State, in accordance with the provisions of this article, is participating or is entitled to participate under existing bilateral, subregional or regional agreements in the exploitation of living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other coastal States;

(c) the extent to which other land-locked States and geographically disadvantaged States are participating in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zone of the coastal State and the consequent need to avoid a particular burden for any single coastal State or a part of it;

(d) the nutritional needs of the populations of the respective States.

3. When the harvesting capacity of a coastal State approaches a point which would enable it to harvest the entire allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone, the coastal State and other States concerned shall co-operate in the establishment of equitable arrangements on a bilateral, subregional or regional basis to allow for participation of developing land-locked States of the same subregion or region in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the subregion or region, as may be appropriate in the circumstances and on terms satisfactory to all parties. In the implementation of this provision the factors mentioned in paragraph 2 shall also be taken into account.

4. Developed land-locked States shall, under the provisions of this article, be entitled to participate in the exploitation of living resources only in the exclusive economic zones of developed coastal States of the same subregion or region having regard to the extent to which the coastal State, in giving access to other States to the living resources of its exclusive economic zone, has taken into account the need to minimize detrimental effects on fishing communities and economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone.

5. The above provisions are without prejudice to arrangements agreed upon in subregions or regions where the coastal States may grant to land-locked States of the same subregion or region equal or preferential rights for the exploitation of the living resources in the exclusive economic zones.

Article 70

Right of geographically disadvantaged States

1. Geographically disadvantaged States shall have the right to participate, on an equitable basis, in the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the same subregion or region, taking into account the relevant economic and geographical circumstances of all the States concerned and in conformity with the provisions of this Article and of articles 61 and 62.

2. For the purposes of this Part, “geographically disadvantaged States” means coastal States, including States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, whose geographical situation makes them dependent upon the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other States in the subregion or region for adequate supplies of fish for the nutritional purposes of their populations or parts thereof, and coastal States which can claim no exclusive economic zones of their own.

3. The terms and modalities of such participation shall be established by the States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements taking into account, inter alia:

(a) the need to avoid effects detrimental to fishing communities or fishing industries of the coastal State;

(b) the extent to which the geographically disadvantaged State, in accordance with the provisions of this article, is participating or is entitled to participate under existing bilateral, subregional or regional agreements in the exploitation of living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other coastal States;

(c) the extent to which other geographically disadvantaged States and landlocked States are participating in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zone of the coastal State and the consequent need to avoid a particular burden for any single coastal State or a part of it;

(d) the nutritional needs of the populations of the respective States.

4. When the harvesting capacity of a coastal State approaches a point which would enable it to harvest the entire allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone, the coastal State and other States concerned shall co-operate in the establishment of equitable arrangements on a bilateral, subregional or regional basis to allow for participation of developing geographically disadvantaged States of the same subregion or region in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the subregion or region, as may be appropriate in the circumstances and on terms satisfactory to all parties. In the implementation of this provision the factors mentioned in paragraph 3 shall also be taken into account.

5. Developed geographically disadvantaged States shall, under the provisions of this article, be entitled to participate in the exploitation of living resources only in the exclusive economic zones of developed coastal States of the same subregion or region having regard to the extent to which the coastal State, in giving access to other States to the living resources of its exclusive economic zone, has taken into account the need to minimize detrimental effects on fishing communities and economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone.

6. The above provisions are without prejudice to arrangements agreed upon in subregions or regions where the coastal States may grant to geographically disadvantaged States of the same subregion or region equal or preferential rights for the exploitation of the living resources in the exclusive economic zones.

Article 71

Non-applicability of articles 69 and 70

The provisions of articles 69 and 70 do not apply in the case of a coastal State whose economy is overwhelmingly dependent on the exploitation of the living resources of its exclusive economic zone.

Article 72

Restrictions on transfer of rights

1. Rights provided under articles 69 and 70 to exploit living resources shall not be directly or indirectly transferred to third States or their nationals by lease or licence, by establishing joint ventures or in any other manner which has the effect of such transfer unless otherwise agreed by the States concerned.

2. The foregoing provision does not preclude the States concerned from obtaining technical or financial assistance from third States or international organizations in order to facilitate the exercise of the rights pursuant to articles 69 and 70, provided that it does not have the effect referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 73

Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State

1. The coastal State may, in the exercise of its sovereign rights to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the living resources in the exclusive economic zone, take such measures, including boarding, inspection, arrest and judicial proceedings, as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations adopted by it in conformity with this Convention.

2. Arrested vessels and their crews shall be promptly released upon the posting of reasonable bond or other security.

3. Coastal State penalties for violations of fisheries laws and regulations in the exclusive economic zone may not include imprisonment, in the absence of agreements to the contrary by the States concerned, or any other form of corporal punishment.

4. In cases of arrest or detention of foreign vessels the coastal State shall promptly notify the flag State, through appropriate channels, of the action taken and of any penalties subsequently imposed.

Article 74

Delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

1. The delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite or adjacent coasts shall be effected by agreement on the basis of international law, as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, in order to achieve an equitable solution.

2. If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the States concerned shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV.

3. Pending agreement as provided for in paragraph 1, the States concerned, in a spirit of understanding and co-operation, shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement. Such arrangements shall be without prejudice to the final delimitation.

4. Where there is an agreement in force between the States concerned, questions relating to the delimitation of the exclusive economic zone shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of that agreement.

Article 75

Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates

1. Subject to this Part, the outer limit lines of the exclusive economic zone and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with Article 74 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Where appropriate, lists of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted for such outer limit lines or lines of delimitation.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

PART VI

CONTINENTAL SHELF

Article 76

Definition of the continental shelf

1. The continental shelf of a coastal State comprises the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance.

2. The continental shelf of a coastal State shall not extend beyond the limits provided for in paragraphs 4 to 6.

3. The continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the land mass of the coastal State, and consists of the sea-bed and subsoil of the shelf the slope and the rise. It does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof.

4. (a) For the purposes of this Convention, the coastal State shall establish the outer edge of the continental margin wherever the margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, by either:

(i) a line delineated in accordance with paragraph 7 by reference to the outermost fixed points at each of which the thickness of sedimentary rocks is at least 1 per cent of the shortest distance from such point to the foot of the continental slope; or

(ii) a line delineated in accordance with paragraph 7 by reference to fixed points not more than 60 nautical miles from the foot of the continental slope.

(b) In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the foot of the continental slope shall be determined as the point of maximum change in the gradient at its base.

5. The fixed points comprising the line of the outer limits of the continental shelf on the sea-bed, drawn in accordance with paragraph 4 (a)(i) and (ii), either shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured or shall not exceed 100 nautical miles from the 2,500 metre isobath, which is a line connecting the depth of 2,500 metres.

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5, on submarine ridges, the outer limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. This paragraph does not apply to submarine elevations that are natural components of the continental margin, such as its plateaux, rises, caps, banks and spurs.

7. The coastal State shall delineate the outer limits of its continental shelf, where that shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, by straight lines not exceeding 60 nautical miles in length, connecting fixed points, defined by coordinates of latitude and longitude.

8. Information on the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured shall be submitted by the coastal State to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf set up under Annex II on the basis of equitable geographical representation. The Commission shall make recommendations to coastal States on matters related to the establishment of the outer limits of their continental shelf. The limits of the shelf established by a coastal State on the basis of these recommendations shall be final and binding.

9. The coastal State shall deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations charts and relevant information, including geodetic data, permanently describing the outer limits of its continental shelf. The Secretary-General shall give due publicity thereto.

10. The provisions of this Article are without prejudice to the question of delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

Article 77

Rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf

1. The coastal State exercises over the continental shelf sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources.

2. The rights referred to in paragraph 1 are exclusive in the sense that if the coastal State does not explore the continental shelf or exploit its natural resources, no one may undertake these activities without the express consent of the coastal State.

3. The rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf do not depend on occupation, effective or notional, or on any express proclamation.

4. The natural resources referred to in this Part consist of the mineral and other non-living resources of the sea-bed and subsoil together with living organisms belonging to sedentary species, that is to say, organisms which, at the harvestable stage, either are immobile on or under the sea-bed or are unable to move except in constant physical contact with the sea-bed or the subsoil.

Article 78

Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space and the rights and freedoms of other States

1. The rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf do not affect the legal status of the superjacent waters or of the air space above those waters.

2. The exercise of the rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf must not infringe or result in any unjustifiable interference with navigation and other rights and freedoms of other States as provided for in this Convention.

Article 79

Submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf

1. All States are entitled to lay submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf, in accordance with the provisions of this article.

2. Subject to its right to take reasonable measures for the exploration of the continental shelf, the exploitation of its natural resources and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from pipelines, the coastal State may not impede the laying or maintenance of such cables or pipelines.

3. The delineation of the course for the laying of such pipelines on the continental shelf is subject to the consent of the coastal State.

4. Nothing in this Part affects the right of the coastal State to establish conditions for cables or pipelines entering its territory or territorial sea, or its jurisdiction over cables and pipelines constructed or used in connection with the exploration of its continental shelf or exploitation of its resources or the operations of artificial islands, installations and structures under its jurisdiction.

5. When laying submarine cables or pipelines, States shall have due regard to cables or pipelines already in position. In particular, possibilities of repairing existing cables or pipelines shall not be prejudiced.

Article 80

Artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf

Article 60 applies mutatis mutandis to artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf.

Article 81

Drilling on the continental shelf

The coastal State shall have the exclusive right to authorize and regulate drilling on the continental shelf for all purposes.

Article 82

Payments and contributions with respect to the exploitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles

1. The coastal State shall make payments or contributions in kind in respect of the exploitation of the non-living resources of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

2. The payments and contributions shall be made annually with respect to all production at a site after the first five years of production at that site. For the sixth year, the rate of payment or contribution shall be 1 per cent of the value or volume of production at the site. The rate shall increase by 1 per cent for each subsequent year until the twelfth year and shall remain at 7 per cent thereafter. Production does not include resources used in connection with exploitation.

3. A developing State which is a net importer of a mineral resource produced from its continental shelf is exempt from making such payments or contributions in respect of that mineral resource.

4. The payments or contributions shall be made through the Authority, which shall distribute them to States Parties to this Convention, on the basis of equitable sharing criteria, taking into account the interests and needs of developing States, particularly the least developed and the land-locked among them.

Article 83

Delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

1. The delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts shall be effected by agreement on the basis of international law, as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, in order to achieve an equitable solution.

2. If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the States concerned shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV.

3. Pending agreement as provided for in paragraph 1, the States concerned, in a spirit of understanding and co-operation, shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement. Such arrangements shall be without prejudice to the final delimitation.

4. Where there is an agreement in force between the States concerned, questions relating to the delimitation of the continental shelf shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of that agreement.

Article 84

Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates

1. Subject to this Part, the outer limit lines of the continental shelf and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with Article 83 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Where appropriate, lists of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted for such outer limit lines or lines of delimitation.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of graphical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and, in the case of those showing the outer limit lines of the continental shelf, with the Secretary-General of the Authority.

Article 85

Tunnelling

This Part does not prejudice the right of the coastal State to exploit the subsoil by means of tunnelling, irrespective of the depth of water above the subsoil.

PART VII

HIGH SEAS

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 86

Application of the provisions of this Part

The provisions of this Part apply to all parts of the sea that are not included in the exclusive economic zone, in the territorial sea or in the internal waters of a State, or in the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State. This Article does not entail any abridgement of the freedoms enjoyed by all States in the exclusive economic zone in accordance with Article 58.

Article 87

Freedom of the high seas

1. The high seas are open to all States, whether coastal or land-locked. Freedom of the high seas is exercised under the conditions laid down by this Convention and by other rules of international law. It comprises, inter alia, both for coastal and land-locked States:

(a) freedom of navigation;

(b) freedom of overflight;

(c) freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines, subject to Part VI;

(d) freedom to construct artificial islands and other installations permitted under international law, subject to Part VI;

(e) freedom of fishing, subject to the conditions laid down in section 2;

(f) freedom of scientific research, subject to Parts VI and XIII.

2. These freedoms shall be exercised by all States with due regard for the interests of other States in their exercise of the freedom of the high seas, and also with due regard for the rights under this Convention with respect to activities in the Area.

Article 88

Reservation of the high seas for peaceful purposes

The high seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes.

Article 89

Invalidity of claims of sovereignty over the high seas

No State may validly purport to subject any part of the high seas to its sovereignty.

Article 90

Right of navigation

Every State, whether coastal or land-locked, has the right to sail ships flying its flag on the high seas.

Article 91

Nationality of ships

1. Every State shall fix the conditions for the grant of its nationality to ships, for the registration of ships in its territory, and for the right to ny its flag. Ships have the nationality of the State whose flag they are entitled to fly. There must exist a genuine link between the State and the ship.

2. Every State shall issue to ships to which it has granted the right to ny its flag documents to that effect.

Article 92

Status of ships

1. Ships shall sail under the flag of one State only and, save in exceptional cases expressly provided for in international treaties or in this Convention, shall be subject to its exclusive jurisdiction on the high seas. A ship may not change its flag during a voyage or while in a port of call, save in the case of a real transfer of ownership or change of registry.

2. A ship which sails under the flags of two or more States, using them according to convenience, may not claim any of the nationalities in question with respect to any other State, and may be assimilated to a ship without nationality.

Article 93

Ships flying the flag of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency

The preceding articles do not prejudice the question of ships employed on the official service of the United Nations, its specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency, flying the flag of the organization.

Article 94

Duties of the flag State

1. Every State shall effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative, technical and social matters over ships flying its flag.

2. In particular every State shall:

(a) maintain a register of ships containing the names and particulars of ships flying its flag, except those which are excluded from generally accepted international regulations on account of their small size; and

(b) assume jurisdiction under its internal law over each ship flying its nag and its master, officers and crew in respect of administrative, technical and social matters concerning the ship.

3. Every State shall take such measures for ships flying its flag as are necessary to ensure safety at sea with regard, inter alia, to:

(a) the construction, equipment and seaworthiness of ships;

(b) the manning of ships, labour conditions and the training of crews, taking into account the applicable international instruments;

(c) the use of signals, the maintenance of communications and the prevention of collisions.

4. Such measures shall include those necessary to ensure:

(a) that each ship, before registration and thereafter at appropriate intervals, is surveyed by a qualified surveyor of ships, and has on board such charts, nautical publications and navigational equipment and instruments as are appropriate for the safe navigation of the ship;

(b) that each ship is in the charge of a master and officers who possess appropriate qualifications, in particular in seamanship, navigation, communications and marine engineering, and that the crew is appropriate in qualification and numbers for the type, size, machinery and equipment of the ship;

(c) that the master, officers and, to the extent appropriate, the crew are fully conversant with and required to observe the applicable international regulations concerning the safety of life at sea, the prevention of collisions, the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution, and the maintenance of communications by radio.

5. In taking the measures called for in paragraphs 3 and 4 each State is required to conform to generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices and to take any steps which may be necessary to secure their observance.

6. A State which has clear grounds to believe that proper jurisdiction and control with respect to a ship have not been exercised may report the facts to the flag State. Upon receiving such a report, the flag State shall investigate the matter and, if appropriate, take any action necessary to remedy the situation.

7. Each State shall cause an inquiry to be held by or before a suitably qualified person or persons into every marine casualty or incident of navigation on the high seas involving a ship flying its flag and causing loss of life or serious injury to nationals of another State or serious damage to ships or installations of another State or to the marine environment. The flag State and the other State shall co-operate in the conduct of any inquiry held by that other State into any such marine casualty or incident of navigation.

Article 95

Immunity of warships on the high seas

Warships on the high seas have complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State.

Article 96

Immunity of ships used only on government
non-commercial service

Ships owned or operated by a State and used only on government non-commercial service shall, on the high seas, have complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State.

Article 97

Penal jurisdiction in matters of collision or any other incident of navigation

1. In the event of a collision or any other incident of navigation concerning a ship on the high seas, involving the penal or disciplinary responsibility of the master or of any other person in the service of the ship, no penal or disciplinary proceedings may be instituted against such person except before the judicial or administrative authorities either of the flag State or of the State of which such person is a national.

2. In disciplinary matters, the State which has issued a masteržs certificate or a certificate of competence or licence shall alone be competent, after due legal process, to pronounce the withdrawal of such certificates, even if the holder is not a national of the State which issued them.

3. No arrest or detention of the ship, even as a measure of investigation, shall be ordered by any authorities other than those of the flag State.

Article 98

Duty to render assistance

1. Every State shall require the master of a ship flying its flag, in so far as he can do so without serious danger to the ship, the crew or the passengers:

(a) to render assistance to any person found at sea in danger of being lost;

(b) to proceed with all possible speed to the rescue of persons in distress, if informed of their need of assistance, in so far as such action may reasonably be expected of him;

(c) after a collision, to render assistance to the other ship, its crew and its passengers and, where possible, to inform the other ship of the name of his own ship, its port of registry and the nearest port at which it will call.

2. Every coastal State shall promote the establishment, operation and maintenance of an adequate and effective search and rescue service regarding safety on and over the sea and, where circumstances so require, by way of mutual regional arrangements co-operate with neighbouring States for this purpose.

Article 99

Prohibition of the transport of slaves

Every State shall take effective measures to prevent and punish the transport of slaves in ships authorized to ny its flag and to prevent the unlawful use of its flag for that purpose. Any slave taking refuge on board any ship, whatever its flag, shall ipso facto be free.

Article 100

Duty to co-operate in the repression of piracy

All States shall co-operate to the fullest possible extent in the repression of piracy on the high seas or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State.

Article 101

Definition of piracy

Piracy consists of any of the following acts:

(a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed:

(i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft;

(ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State;

(b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft;

(c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).

Article 102

Piracy by a warship, government ship or government aircraft whose crew has mutinied

The acts of piracy, as defined in Article 101, committed by a warship, government ship or government aircraft whose crew has mutinied and taken control of the ship or aircraft are assimilated to acts committed by a private ship or aircraft.

Article 103

Definition of a pirate ship or aircraft

A ship or aircraft is considered a pirate ship or aircraft if it is intended by the persons in dominant control to be used for the purpose of committing one of the acts referred to in Article 101. The same applies if the ship or aircraft has been used to commit any such act, so long as it remains under the control of the persons guilty of that act.

Article 104

Retention or loss of the nationality of a pirate ship or aircraft

A ship or aircraft may retain its nationality although it has become a pirate ship or aircraft. The retention or loss of nationality is determined by the law of the State from which such nationality was derived.

Article 105

Seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft

On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State, every State may seize a pirate ship or aircraft, or a ship or aircraft taken by piracy and under the control of pirates, and arrest the persons and seize the property on board. The courts of the State which carried out the seizure may decide upon the penalties to be imposed, and may also determine the action to be taken with regard to the ships, aircraft or property, subject to the rights of third parties acting in good faith.

Article 106

Liability for seizure without adequate grounds

Where the seizure of a ship or aircraft on suspicion of piracy has been effected without adequate grounds, the State making the seizure shall be liable to the State the nationality of which is possessed by the ship or aircraft for any loss or damage caused by the seizure.

Article 107

Ships and aircraft which are entitled to seize on account of piracy

A seizure on account of piracy may be carried out only by warships or military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect.

Article 108

Illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or
psychotropic substances

1. All States shall co-operate in the suppression of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances engaged in by ships on the high seas contrary to international conventions.

2. Any State which has reasonable grounds for believing that a ship flying its flag is engaged in illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances may request the co-operation of other States to suppress such traffic.

Article 109

Unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas

1. All States shall co-operate in the suppression of unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, “unauthorized broadcasting” means the transmission of sound radio or television broadcasts from a ship or installation on the high seas intended for reception by the general public contrary to international regulations, but excluding the transmission of distress calls.

3. Any person engaged in unauthorized broadcasting may be prosecuted before the court of:

(a) the flag State of the ship;

(b) the State of registry of the installation;

(c) the State of which the person is a national;

(d) any State where the transmissions can be received; or

(e) any State where authorized radio communication is suffering interference.

4. On the high seas, a State having jurisdiction in accordance with paragraph 3 may, in conformity with Article 110, arrest any person or ship engaged in unauthorized broadcasting and seize the broadcasting apparatus.

Article 110

Right of visit

1. Except where acts of interference derive from powers conferred by treaty, a warship which encounters on the high seas a foreign ship, other than a ship entitled to complete immunity in accordance with articles 95 and 96, is not justified in boarding it unless there is reasonable ground for suspecting that:

(a) the ship is engaged in piracy;

(b) the ship is engaged in the slave trade;

(c) the ship is engaged in unauthorized broadcasting and the flag State of the warship has jurisdiction under Article 109;

(d) the ship is without nationality; or

(e) though flying a foreign flag or refusing to show its flag, the ship is, in reality, of the same nationality as the warship.

2. In the cases provided for in paragraph 1, the warship may proceed to verify the shipžs right to fly its flag. To this end, it may send a boat under the command of an officer to the suspected ship. If suspicion remains after the documents have been checked, it may proceed to a further examination on board the ship, which must be carried out with all possible consideration.

3. If the suspicions prove to be unfounded, and provided that the ship boarded has not committed any act justifying them, it shall be compensated for any loss or damage that may have been sustained.

4. These provisions apply mutatis mutandis to military aircraft.

5. These provisions also apply to any other duly authorized ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service.

Article 111

Right of hot pursuit

1. The hot pursuit of a foreign ship may be undertaken when the competent authorities of the coastal State have good reason to believe that the ship has violated the laws and regulations of that State. Such pursuit must be commenced when the foreign ship or one of its boats is within the internal waters, the archipelagic waters, the territorial sea or the contiguous zone of the pursuing State, and may only be continued outside the territorial sea or the contiguous zone if the pursuit has not been interrupted. It is not necessary that, at the time when the foreign ship within the territorial sea or the contiguous zone receives the order to stop, the ship giving the order should likewise be within the territorial sea or the contiguous zone. If the foreign ship is within a contiguous zone, as defined in Article 33, the pursuit may only be undertaken if there has been a violation of the rights for the protection of which the zone was established.

2. The right of hot pursuit shall apply mutatis mutandis to violations in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf, including safety zones around continental shelf installations, of the laws and regulations of the coastal State applicable in accordance with this Convention to the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf, including such safety zones.

3. The right of hot pursuit ceases as soon as the ship pursued enters the territorial sea of its own State or of a third State.

4. Hot pursuit is not deemed to have begun unless the pursuing ship has satisfied itself by such practicable means as may be available that the ship pursued or one of its boats or other craft working as a team and using the ship pursued as a mother ship is within the limits of the territorial sea, or, as the case may be, within the contiguous zone or the exclusive economic zone or above the continental shelf. The pursuit may only be commenced after a visual or auditory signal to stop has been given at a distance which enables it to be seen or heard by the foreign ship.

5. The right of hot pursuit may be exercised only by warships or military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect.

6. Where hot pursuit is effected by an aircraft:

(a) the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 4 shall apply mutatis mutandis,

(b) the aircraft giving the order to stop must itself actively pursue the ship until a ship or another aircraft of the coastal State, summoned by the aircraft, arrives to take over the pursuit, unless the aircraft is itself able to arrest the ship. It does not suffice to justify an arrest outside the territorial sea that the ship was merely sighted by the aircraft as an offender or suspected offender, if it was not both ordered to stop and pursued by the aircraft itself or other aircraft or ships which continue the pursuit without interruption.

7. The release of a ship arrested within the jurisdiction of a State and escorted to a port of that State for the purposes of an inquiry before the competent authorities may not be claimed solely on the ground that the ship, in the course of its voyage, was escorted across a portion of the exclusive economic zone or the high seas, if the circumstances rendered this necessary.

8. Where a ship has been stopped or arrested outside the territorial sea in circumstances which do not justify the exercise of the right of hot pursuit, it shall be compensated for any loss or damage that may have been thereby sustained.

Article 112

Right to lay submarine cables and pipelines

1. All States are entitled to lay submarine cables and pipelines on the bed of the high seas beyond the continental shelf.

2. Article 79, paragraph 5, applies to such cables and pipelines.

Article 113

Breaking or injury of a submarine cable or pipeline

Every State shall adopt the laws and regulations necessary to provide that the breaking or injury by a ship flying its flag or by a person subject to its jurisdiction of a submarine cable beneath the high seas done wilfully or through culpable negligence, in such a manner as to be liable to interrupt or obstruct telegraphic or telephonic communications, and similarly the breaking or injury of a submarine pipeline or high-voltage power cable, shall be a punishable offence. This provision shall apply also to conduct calculated or likely to result in such breaking or injury. However, it shall not apply to any break or injury caused by persons who acted merely with the legitimate object of saving their lives or their ships, after having taken all necessary precautions to avoid such break or injury.

Article 114

Breaking or injury by owners of a submarine cable or pipeline of another submarine cable or pipeline

Every State shall adopt the laws and regulations necessary to provide that, if persons subject to its jurisdiction who are the owners of a submarine cable or pipeline beneath the high seas, in laying or repairing that cable or pipeline, cause a break in or injury to another cable or pipeline, they shall bear the cost of the repairs.

Article 115

Indemnity for loss incurred in avoiding injury to a submarine cable or pipeline

Every State shall adopt the laws and regulations necessary to ensure that the owners of ships who can prove that they have sacrificed an anchor, a net or any other fishing gear, in order to avoid injuring a submarine cable or pipeline, shall be indemnified by the owner of the cable or pipeline, provided that the owner of the ship has taken all reasonable precautionary measures beforehand.

Section 2. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES OF THE HIGH SEAS

Article 116

Right to fish on the high seas

All States have the right for their nationals to engage in fishing on the high seas subject to:

(a) their treaty obligations;

(b) the rights and duties as well as the interests of coastal States provided for, inter alia, in Article 63, paragraph 2, and articles 64 to 67; and

(c) the provisions of this section.

Article 117

Duty of States to adopt with respect to their nationals measures for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas

All States have the duty to take, or to co-operate with other States in taking, such measures for their respective nationals as may be necessary for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas.

Article 118

Co-operation of States in the conservation and management of living resources

States shall co-operate with each other in the conservation and management of living resources in the areas of the high seas. States whose nationals exploit identical living resources, or different living resources in the same area, shall enter into negotiations with a view to taking the measures necessary for the conservation of the living resources concerned. They shall, as appropriate, cooperate to establish subregional or regional fisheries organizations to this end.

Article 119

Conservation of the living resources of the high seas

1. In determining the allowable catch and establishing other conservation measures for the living resources in the high seas, States shall:

(a) take measures which are designed, on the best scientific evidence available to the States concerned, to maintain or restore populations of harvested species at levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield, as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, including the special requirements of developing States, and taking into account fishing patterns, the interdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global;

(b) take into consideration the effects on species associated with or dependent upon harvested species with a view to maintaining or restoring populations of such associated or dependent species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened.

2. Available scientific information, catch and fishing effort statistics, and other data relevant to the conservation of fish stocks shall be contributed and exchanged on a regular basis through competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, where appropriate and with participation by all States concerned.

3. States concerned shall ensure that conservation measures and their implementation do not discriminate in form or in fact against the fishermen of any State.

Article 120

Marine mammals

Article 65 also applies to the conservation and management of marine mammals in the high seas.

PART VIII

REGIME OF ISLANDS

Article 121

Regime of islands

1. An island is a naturally formed area of land, surrounded by water, which is above water at high tide.

2. Except as provided for in paragraph 3, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of an island are determined in accordance with the provisions of this Convention applicable to other land territory.

3. Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf.

PART IX

ENCLOSED OR SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS

Article 122

Definition

For the purposes of this Convention, “enclosed or semi-enclosed sea” means a gulf, basin or sea surrounded by two or more States and connected to another sea or the ocean by a narrow outlet or consisting entirely or primarily of the territorial seas and exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States.

Article 123

Co-operation of States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas

States bordering an enclosed or semi-enclosed sea should co-operate with each other in the exercise of their rights and in the performance of their duties under this Convention. To this end they shall endeavour, directly or through an appropriate regional organization:

(a) to co-ordinate the management, conservation, exploration and exploitation of the living resources of the sea;

(b) to co-ordinate the implementation of their rights and duties with respect to the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(c) to co-ordinate their scientific research policies and undertake where appropriate joint programmes of scientific research in the area;

(d) to invite, as appropriate, other interested States or international organizations to co-operate with them in furtherance of the provisions of this article.

PART X

RIGHT OF ACCESS OF LAND-LOCKED STATES TO AND FROM THE SEA AND FREEDOM OF TRANSIT

Article 124

Use of terms

1. For the purposes of this Convention:

(a) “land-locked State” means a State which has no sea-coast;

(b) “transit State” means a State, with or without a sea-coast, situated between a land-locked State and the sea, through whose territory traffic in transit passes;

(c) “traffic in transit” means transit of persons, baggage, goods and means of transport across the territory of one or more transit States, when the passage across such territory, with or without trans-shipment, warehousing, breaking bulk or change in the mode of transport, is only a portion of a complete journey which begins or terminates within the territory of the land-locked State;

(d) “means of transport” means:

(i) railway rolling stock, sea, lake and river craft and road vehicles;

(ii) where local conditions so require, porters and pack animals.

2. Land-locked States and transit States may, by agreement between them, include as means of transport pipelines and gas lines and means of transport other than those included in paragraph 1.

Article 125

Right of access to and from the sea and freedom of transit

1. Land-locked States shall have the right of access to and from the sea for the purpose of exercising the rights provided for in this Convention including those relating to the freedom of the high seas and the common heritage of mankind. To this end, land-locked States shall enjoy freedom of transit through the territory of transit States by all means of transport.

2. The terms and modalities for exercising freedom of transit shall be agreed between the land-locked States and transit States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements.

3. Transit States, in the exercise of their full sovereignty over their territory, shall have the right to take all measures necessary to ensure that the rights and facilities provided for in this Part for land-locked States shall in no way infringe their legitimate interests.

Article 126

Exclusion of application of the most-favoured-nation clause

The provisions of this Convention, as well as special agreements relating to the exercise of the right of access to and from the sea, establishing rights and facilities on account of the special geographical position of land-locked States are excluded from the application of the most-favoured-nation clause.

Article 127

Customs duties, taxes and other charges

1. Traffic in transit shall not be subject to any customs duties, taxes or other charges except charges levied for specific services rendered in connection with such traffic.

2. Means of transport in transit and other facilities provided for and used by land-locked States shall not be subject to taxes or charges higher than those levied for the use of means of transport of the transit State.

Article 128

Free zones and other customs facilities

For the convenience of traffic in transit, free zones or other customs facilities may be provided at the ports of entry and exit in the transit States, by agreement between those States and the land-locked States.

Article 129

Co-operation in the construction and improvement of means of transport

Where there are no means of transport in transit States to give effect to the freedom of transit or where the existing means, including the port installations and equipment, are inadequate in any respect, the transit States and land-locked States concerned may co-operate in constructing or improving them.

Article 130

Measures to avoid or eliminate delays or other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit

1. Transit States shall take all appropriate measures to avoid delays or other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit.

2. Should such delays or difficulties occur, the competent authorities of the transit States and land-locked States concerned shall co-operate towards their expeditious elimination.

Article 131

Equal treatment in maritime ports

Ships flying the flag of land-locked States shall enjoy treatment equal to that accorded to other foreign ships in maritime ports.

Article 132

Grant of greater transit facilities

This Convention does not entail in any way the withdrawal of transit facilities which are greater than those provided for in this Convention and which are agreed between States Parties to this Convention or granted by a State Party. This Convention also does not preclude such grant of greater facilities in the future.

PART XI

THE AREA

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 133

Use of terms

For the purposes of this Part:

(a) “resources” means all solid, liquid or gaseous mineral resources in situ in the Area at or beneath the sea-bed, including polymetallic nodules;

(b) resources, when recovered from the Area, are referred to as “minerals”.

Article 134

Scope of this Part

1. This Part applies to the Area.

2. Activities in the Area shall be governed by the provisions of this Part.

3. The requirements concerning deposit of, and publicity to be given to, the charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates showing the limits referred to in Article 1, paragraph 1 (1), are set forth in Part VI.

4. Nothing in this Article affects the establishment of the outer limits of the continental shelf in accordance with Part VI or the validity of agreements relating to delimitation between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

Article 135

Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space

Neither this Part nor any rights granted or exercised pursuant thereto shall affect the legal status of the waters superjacent to the Area or that of the air space above those waters.

Section 2. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE AREA

Article 136

Common heritage of mankind

The Area and its resources are the common heritage of mankind.

Article 137

Legal status of the Area and its resources

1. No State shall claim or exercise sovereignty or sovereign rights over any part of the Area or its resources, nor shall any State or natural or juridical person appropriate any part thereof. No such claim or exercise of sovereignty or sovereign rights nor such appropriation shall be recognized.

2. All rights in the resources of the Area are vested in mankind as a whole on whose behalf the Authority shall act. These resources are not subject to alienation. The minerals recovered from the Area, however, may only be alienated in accordance with this Part and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

3. No State or natural or juridical person shall claim, acquire or exercise rights with respect to the minerals recovered from the Area except in accordance with this Part. Otherwise, no such claim, acquisition or exercise of such rights shall be recognized.

Article 138

General conduct of States in relation to the Area

The general conduct of States in relation to the Area shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Part, the principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations and other rules of international law in the interests of maintaining peace and security and promoting international co-operation and mutual understanding.

Article 139

Responsibility to ensure compliance and liability for damage

1. States Parties shall have the responsibility to ensure that activities in the Area, whether carried out by States Parties, or state enterprises or natural or juridical persons which possess the nationality of States Parties or are effectively controlled by them or their nationals, shall be carried out in conformity with this Part. The same responsibility applies to international organizations for activities in the Area carried out by such organizations.

2. Without prejudice to the rules of international law and Annex III, Article 22, damage caused by the failure of a State Party or international organization to carry out its responsibilities under this Part shall entail liability, States Parties or international organizations acting together shall bear joint and several liability. A State Party shall not however be liable for damage caused by any failure to comply with this Part by a person whom it has sponsored under Article 153, paragraph 2(b), if the State Party has taken all necessary and appropriate measures to secure effective compliance under Article 153, paragraph 4, and Annex III, Article 4, paragraph 4.

3. States Parties that are members of international organizations shall take appropriate measures to ensure the implementation of this Article with respect to such organizations.

Article 140

Benefit of mankind

1. Activities in the Area shall, as specifically provided for in this Part, be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States, whether coastal or land-locked, and taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of developing States and of peoples who have not attained full independence or other self-governing status recognized by the United Nations in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) and other relevant General Assembly resolutions.

2. The Authority shall provide for the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area through any appropriate mechanism on a non-discriminatory basis, in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2 (f) (i).

Article 141

Use of the Area exclusively for peaceful purposes

The Area shall be open to use exclusively for peaceful purposes by all States, whether coastal or land-locked, without discrimination and without prejudice to the other provisions of this Part.

Article 142

Rights and legitimate interests of coastal States

1. Activities in the Area, with respect to resource deposits in the Area which lie across limits of national jurisdiction, shall be conducted with due regard to the rights and legitimate interests of any coastal State across whose jurisdiction such deposits lie.

2. Consultations, including a system of prior notification, shall be maintained with the State concerned, with a view to avoiding infringement of such rights and interests. In cases where activities in the Area may result in the exploitation of resources lying within national jurisdiction, the prior consent of the coastal State concerned shall be required.

3. Neither this Part nor any rights granted or exercised pursuant thereto shall affect the rights of coastal States to take such measures consistent with the relevant provisions of Part XII as may be necessary to prevent, mitigate or eliminate grave and imminent danger to their coastline, or related interests from pollution or threat thereof or from other hazardous occurrences resulting from or caused by any activities in the Area.

Article 143

Marine scientific research

1. Marine scientific research in the Area shall be carried out exclusively for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of mankind as a whole in accordance with Part XIII.

2. The Authority may carry out marine scientific research concerning the Area and its resources, and may enter into contracts for that purpose. The Authority shall promote and encourage the conduct of marine scientific research in the Area, and shall co-ordinate and disseminate the results of such research and analysis when available.

3. States Parties may carry out marine scientific research in the Area. States Parties shall promote international co-operation in marine scientific research in the Area by:

(a) participating in international programmes and encouraging co-operation in marine scientific research by personnel of different countries and of the Authority;

(b) ensuring that programmes are developed through the Authority or other international organizations as appropriate for the benefit of developing States and technologically less developed States with a view to:

(i) strengthening their research capabilities;

(ii) training their personnel and the personnel of the Authority in the techniques and applications of research;

(iii) fostering the employment of their qualified personnel in research in the Area;

(c) effectively disseminating the results of research and analysis when available, through the Authority or other international channels when appropriate.

Article 144

Transfer of technology

1. The Authority shall take measures in accordance with this Convention:

(a) to acquire technology and scientific knowledge relating to activities in the Area; and

(b) to promote and encourage the transfer to developing States of such technology and scientific knowledge so that all States Parties benefit therefrom.

2. To this end the Authority and States Parties shall co-operate in promoting the transfer of technology and scientific knowledge relating to activities in the Area so that the Enterprise and all States Parties may benefit therefrom. In particular they shall initiate and promote:

(a) programmes for the transfer of technology to the Enterprise and to developing States with regard to activities in the Area, including, inter alia, facilitating the access of the Enterprise and of developing States to the relevant technology, under fair and reasonable terms and conditions;

(b) measures directed towards the advancement of the technology of the Enterprise and the domestic technology of developing States, particularly by providing opportunities to personnel from the Enterprise and from developing States for training in marine science and technology and for their full participation in activities in the Area.

Article 145

Protection of the marine environment

Necessary measures shall be taken in accordance with this Convention with respect to activities in the Area to ensure effective protection for the marine environment from harmful effects which may arise from such activities. To this end the Authority shall adopt appropriate rules, regulations and procedures for inter alia:

(a) the prevention, reduction and control of pollution and other hazards to the marine environment, including the coastline, and of interference with the ecological balance of the marine environment, particular attention being paid to the need for protection from harmful effects of such activities as drilling, dredging, excavation, disposal of waste, construction and operation or maintenance of installations, pipelines and other devices related to such activities;

(b) the protection and conservation of the natural resources of the Area and the prevention of damage to the flora and fauna of the marine environment.

Article 146

Protection of human life

With respect to activities in the Area, necessary measures shall be taken to ensure effective protection of human life. To this end the Authority shall adopt appropriate rules, regulations and procedures to supplement existing international law as embodied in relevant treaties.

Article 147

Accommodation of activities in the Area and in the marine environment

1. Activities in the Area shall be carried out with reasonable regard for other activities in the marine environment.

2. Installations used for carrying out activities in the Area shall be subject to the following conditions:

(a) such installations shall be erected, emplaced and removed solely in accordance with this Part and subject to the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. Due notice must be given of the erection, emplacement and removal of such installations, and permanent means for giving warning of their presence must be maintained;

(b) such installations may not be established where interference may be caused to the use of recognized sea lanes essential to international navigation or in areas of intense fishing activity;

(c) safety zones shall be established around such installations with appropriate markings to ensure the safety of both navigation and the installations. The configuration and location of such safety zones shall not be such as to form a belt impeding the lawful access of shipping to particular maritime zones or navigation along international sea lanes;

(d) such installations shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes;

(e) such installations do not possess the status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf.

3. Other activities in the marine environment shall be conducted with reasonable regard for activities in the Area.

Article 148

Participation of developing States in activities in the Area

The effective participation of developing States in activities in the Area shall be promoted as specifically provided for in this Part, having due regard to their special interests and needs, and in particular to the special need of the landlocked and geographically disadvantaged among them to overcome obstacles arising from their disadvantaged location, including remoteness from the Area and difficulty of access to and from it.

Article 149

Archaeological and historical objects

All objects of an archaeological and historical nature found in the Area shall be preserved or disposed of for the benefit of mankind as a whole, particular regard being paid to the preferential rights of the State or country of origin, or the State of cultural origin, or the State of historical and archaeological origin.

Section 3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE AREA

Article 150

Policies relating to activities in the Area

Activities in the Area shall, as specifically provided for in this Part, be carried out in such a manner as to foster healthy development of the world economy and balanced growth of international trade, and to promote international cooperation for the over-all development of all countries, especially developing States, and with a view to ensuring:

(a) the development of the resources of the Area;

(b) orderly, safe and rational management of the resources of the Area, including the efficient conduct of activities in the Area and, in accordance with sound principles of conservation, the avoidance of unnecessary waste;

(c) the expansion of opportunities for participation in such activities consistent in particular with articles 144 and 148;

(d) participation in revenues by the Authority and the transfer of technology to the Enterprise and developing States as provided for in this Convention;

(e) increased availability of the minerals derived from the Area as needed in conjunction with minerals derived from other sources, to ensure supplies to consumers of such minerals;

(f) the promotion of just and stable prices remunerative to producers and fair to consumers for minerals derived both from the Area and from other sources, and the promotion of long-term equilibrium between supply and demand;

(g) the enhancement of opportunities for all States Parties, irrespective of their social and economic systems or geographical location, to participate in the development of the resources of the Area and the prevention of monopolization of activities in the Area;

(h) the protection of developing countries from adverse effects on their economies or on their export earnings resulting from a reduction in the price of an affected mineral, or in the volume of exports of that mineral, to the extent that such reduction is caused by activities in the Area, as provided in Article 151;

(i) the development of the common heritage for the benefit of mankind as a whole; and

(j) conditions of access to markets for the imports of minerals produced from the resources of the Area and for imports of commodities produced from such minerals shall not be more favourable than the most favourable applied to imports from other sources.

Article 151

Production policies

1. (a) Without prejudice to the objectives set forth in Article 150 and for the purpose of implementing subparagraph (h) of that article, the Authority, acting through existing forums or such new arrangements or agreements as may be appropriate, in which all interested parties, including both producers and consumers, participate, shall take measures necessary to promote the growth, efficiency and stability of markets for those commodities produced from the minerals derived from the Area, at prices remunerative to producers and fair to consumers. All States Parties shall co-operate to this end.

(b) The Authority shall have the right to participate in any commodity conference dealing with those commodities and in which all interested parties including both producers and consumers participate. The Authority shall have the right to become a party to any arrangement or agreement resulting from such conferences. Participation of the Authority in any organs established under those arrangements or agreements shall be in respect of production in the Area and in accordance with the relevant rules of those organs.

(c) The Authority shall carry out its obligations under the arrangements or agreements referred to in this paragraph in a manner which assures a uniform and non-discriminatory implementation in respect of all production in the Area of the minerals concerned. In doing so, the Authority shall act in a manner consistent with the terms of existing contracts and approved plans of work of the Enterprise.

2. (a) During the interim period specified in paragraph 3, commercial production shall not be undertaken pursuant to an approved plan of work until the operator has applied for and has been issued a production authorization by the Authority. Such production authorizations may not be applied for or issued more than five years prior to the planned commencement of commercial production under the plan of work unless, having regard to the nature and timing of project development, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority prescribe another period.

(b) In the application for the production authorization, the operator shall specify the annual quantity of nickel expected to be recovered under the approved plan of work. The application shall include a schedule of expenditures to be made by the operator after he has received the authorization which are reasonably calculated to allow him to begin commercial production on the date planned.

(c) For the purposes of subparagraphs (a) and (b), the Authority shall establish appropriate performance requirements in accordance with Annex III, Article 17.

(d) The Authority shall issue a production authorization for the level of production applied for unless the sum of that level and the levels already authorized exceeds the nickel production ceiling, as calculated pursuant to paragraph 4 in the year of issuance of the authorization, during any year of planned production falling within the interim period.

(e) When issued, the production authorization and approved application shall become a part of the approved plan of work.

(f) If the operatoržs application for a production authorization is denied pursuant to subparagraph (d), the operator may apply again to the Authority at any time.

3. The interim period shall begin five years prior to 1 January of the year in which the earliest commercial production is planned to commence under an approved plan of work. If the earliest commercial production is delayed beyond the year originally planned, the beginning of the interim period and the production ceiling originally calculated shall be adjusted accordingly. The interim period shall last 25 years or until the end of the Review Conference referred to in Article 155 or until the day when such new arrangements or agreements as are referred to in paragraph 1 enter into force, whichever is earliest. The Authority shall resume the power provided in this Article for the remainder of the interim period if the said arrangements or agreements should lapse or become ineffective for any reason whatsoever.

4. (a) The production ceiling for any year of the interim period shall be the sum of:

(i) the difference between the trend line values for nickel consumption as calculated pursuant to subparagraph (b), for the year immediately prior to the year of the earliest commercial production and the year immediately prior to the commencement of the interim period; and

(ii) sixty per cent of the difference between the trend line values for nickel consumption, as calculated pursuant to subparagraph (b), for the year for which the production authorization is being applied for and the year immediately prior to the year of the earliest commercial production.

(b) For the purposes of subparagraph (a):

(i) trend line values used for computing the nickel production ceiling shall be those annual nickel consumption values on a trend line computed during the year in which a production authorization is issued. The trend line shall be derived from a linear regression of the logarithms of actual nickel consumption for the most recent 15-year period for which such data are available, time being the independent variable. This trend line shall be referred to as the original trend line;

(ii) if the annual rate of increase of the original trend line is less than 3 per cent, then the trend line used to determine the quantities referred to in subparagraph (a) shall instead be one passing through the original trend line at the value for the first year of the relevant 15-year period, and increasing at 3 per cent annually; provided however that the production ceiling established for any year of the interim period may not in any case exceed the difference between the original trend line value for that year and the original trend line value for the year immediately prior to the commencement of the interim period.

5. The Authority shall reserve to the Enterprise for its initial production a quantity of 38,000 metric tonnes of nickel from the available production ceiling calculated pursuant to paragraph 4.

6. (a) An operator may in any year produce less than or up to 8 per cent more than the level of annual production of minerals from polymetallic nodules specified in his production authorization, provided that the over-all amount of production shall not exceed that specified in the authorization. Any excess over 8 per cent and up to 20 per cent in any year, or any excess in the first and subsequent years following two consecutive years in which excesses occur, shall be negotiated with the Authority, which may require the operator to obtain a supplementary production authorization to cover additional production.

(b) Applications for such supplementary production authorizations shall be considered by the Authority only after all pending applications by operators who have not yet received production authorizations have been acted upon and due account has been taken of other likely applicants. The Authority shall be guided by the principle of not exceeding the total production allowed under the production ceiling in any year of the interim period. It shall not authorize the production under any plan of work of a quantity in excess of 46,500 metric tonnes of nickel per year.

7. The levels of production of other metals such as copper, cobalt and manganese extracted from the polymetallic nodules that are recovered pursuant to a production authorization should not be higher than those which would have been produced had the operator produced the maximum level of nickel from those nodules pursuant to this article. The Authority shall establish rules, regulations and procedures pursuant to Annex III, Article 17, to implement this paragraph.

8. Rights and obligations relating to unfair economic practices under relevant multilateral trade agreements shall apply to the exploration for and exploitation of minerals from the Area. In the settlement of disputes arising under this provision, States Parties which are Parties to such multilateral trade agreements shall have recourse to the dispute settlement procedures of such agreements.

9. The Authority shall have the power to limit the level of production of minerals from the Area, other than minerals from polymetallic nodules, under such conditions and applying such methods as may be appropriate by adopting regulations in accordance with Article 161, paragraph 8.

10. Upon the recommendation of the Council on the basis of advice from the Economic Planning Commission, the Assembly shall establish a system of compensation or take other measures of economic adjustment assistance including co-operation with specialized agencies and other international organizations to assist developing countries which suffer serious adverse effects on their export earnings or economies resulting from a reduction in the price of an affected mineral or in the volume of exports of that mineral, to the extent that such reduction is caused by activities in the Area. The Authority on request shall initiate studies on the problems of those States which are likely to be most seriously affected with a view to minimizing their difficulties and assisting them in their economic adjustment.

Article 152

Exercise of powers and functions by the Authority

1. The Authority shall avoid discrimination in the exercise of its powers and functions, including the granting of opportunities for activities in the Area.

2. Nevertheless, special consideration for developing States, including particular consideration for the land-locked and geographically disadvantaged among them, specifically provided for in this Part shall be permitted.

Article 153

System of exploration and exploitation

1. Activities in the Area shall be organized, carried out and controlled by the Authority on behalf of mankind as a whole in accordance with this Article as well as other relevant provisions of this Part and the relevant Annexes, and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

2. Activities in the Area shall be carried out as prescribed in paragraph 3:

(a) by the Enterprise, and

(b) in association with the Authority by States Parties, or state enterprises or natural or juridical persons which possess the nationality of States Parties or are effectively controlled by them or their nationals, when sponsored by such States, or any group of the foregoing which meets the requirements provided in this Part and in Annex III.

3. Activities in the Area shall be carried out in accordance with a formal written plan of work drawn up in accordance with Annex III and approved by the Council after review by the Legal and Technical Commission. In the case of activities in the Area carried out as authorized by the Authority by the entities specified in paragraph 2(b), the plan of work shall, in accordance with Annex III, Article 3, be in the form of a contract. Such contracts may provide for joint arrangements in accordance with Annex III, Article 11.

4. The Authority shall exercise such control over activities in the Area as is necessary for the purpose of securing compliance with the relevant provisions of this Part and the Annexes relating thereto, and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and the plans of work approved in accordance with paragraph 3. States Parties shall assist the Authority by taking all measures necessary to ensure such compliance in accordance with Article 139.

5. The Authority shall have the right to take at any time any measures provided for under this Part to ensure compliance with its provisions and the exercise of the functions of control and regulation assigned to it thereunder or under any contract. The Authority shall have the right to inspect all installations in the Area used in connection with activities in the Area.

6. A contract under paragraph 3 shall provide for security of tenure. Accordingly, the contract shall not be revised, suspended or terminated except in accordance with Annex III, articles 18 and 19.

Article 154

Periodic review

Every five years from the entry into force of this Convention, the Assembly shall undertake a general and systematic review of the manner in which the international regime of the Area established in this Convention has operated in practice. In the light of this review the Assembly may take, or recommend that other organs take, measures in accordance with the provisions and procedures of this Part and the Annexes relating thereto which will lead to the improvement of the operation of the regime.

Article 155

The Review Conference

1. Fifteen years from 1 January of the year in which the earliest commercial production commences under an approved plan of work, the Assembly shall convene a conference for the review of those provisions of this Part and the relevant Annexes which govern the system of exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area. The Review Conference shall consider in detail, in the light of the experience acquired during that period:

(a) whether the provisions of this Part which govern the system of exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area have achieved their aims in all respects, including whether they have benefited mankind as a whole;

(b) whether, during the 15-year period, reserved areas have been exploited in an effective and balanced manner in comparison with non-reserved areas;

(c) whether the development and use of the Area and its resources have been undertaken in such a manner as to foster healthy development of the world economy and balanced growth of international trade;

(d) whether monopolization of activities in the Area has been prevented;

(e) whether the policies set forth in articles 150 and 151 have been fulfilled; and

(f) whether the system has resulted in the equitable sharing of benefits derived from activities in the Area, taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of the developing States.

2. The Review Conference shall ensure the maintenance of the principle of the common heritage of mankind, the international regime designed to ensure equitable exploitation of the resources of the Area for the benefit of all countries, especially the developing States, and an Authority to organize, conduct and control activities in the Area. It shall also ensure the maintenance of the principles laid down in this Part with regard to the exclusion of claims or exercise of sovereignty over any part of the Area, the rights of States and their general conduct in relation to the Area, and their participation in activities in the Area in conformity with this Convention, the prevention of monopolization of activities in the Area, the use of the Area exclusively for peaceful purposes, economic aspects of activities in the Area, marine scientific research, transfer of technology, protection of the marine environment, protection of human life, rights of coastal States, the legal status of the waters superjacent to the Area and that of the air space above those waters and accommodation between activities in the Area and other activities in the marine environment.

3. The decision-making procedure applicable at the Review Conference shall be the same as that applicable at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. The Conference shall make every effort to reach agreement on any amendments by way of consensus and there should be no voting on such matters until all efforts at achieving consensus have been exhausted.

4. If, five years after its commencement, the Review Conference has not reached agreement on the system of exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area, it may decide during the ensuing 12 months, by a three-fourths majority of the States Parties, to adopt and submit to the States Parties for ratification or accession such amendments changing or modifying the system as it determines necessary and appropriate. Such amendments shall enter into force for all States Parties 12 months after the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession by three fourths of the States Parties.

5. Amendments adopted by the Review Conference pursuant to this Article shall not affect rights acquired under existing contracts.

Section 4. THE AUTHORITY

Subsection A. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 156

Establishment of the Authority

1. There is hereby established the International Sea-Bed Authority, which shall function in accordance with this Part.

2. All States Parties are ipso facto members of the Authority.

3. Observers at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea who have signed the Final Act and who are not referred to in Article 305, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (e) or (f), shall have the right to participate in the Authority as observers, in accordance with its rules, regulations and procedures.

4. The seat of the Authority shall be in Jamaica.

5. The Authority may establish such regional centres or offices as it deems necessary for the exercise of its functions.

Article 157

Nature and fundamental principles of the Authority

1. The Authority is the organization through which States Parties shall, in accordance with this Part, organize and control activities in the Area, particularly with a view to administering the resources of the Area.

2. The powers and functions of the Authority shall be those expressly conferred upon it by this Convention. The Authority shall have such incidental powers, consistent with this Convention, as are implicit in and necessary for the exercise of those powers and functions with respect to activities in the Area.

3. The Authority is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its members.

4. All members of the Authority shall fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with this Part in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership.

Article 158

Organs of the Authority

1. There are hereby established, as the principal organs of the Authority, an Assembly, a Council and a Secretariat.

2. There is hereby established the Enterprise, the organ through which the Authority shall carry out the functions referred to in Article 170, paragraph 1.

3. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in accordance with this Part.

4. Each principal organ of the Authority and the Enterprise shall be responsible for exercising those powers and functions which are conferred upon it. In exercising such powers and functions each organ shall avoid taking any action which may derogate from or impede the exercise of specific powers and functions conferred upon another organ.

Subsection B. THE ASSEMBLY

Article 159

Composition, procedure and voting

1. The Assembly shall consist of all the members of the Authority. Each member shall have one representative in the Assembly, who may be accompanied by alternates and advisers.

2. The Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special sessions as may be decided by the Assembly, or convened by the Secretary- General at the request of the Council or of a majority of the members of the Authority.

3. Sessions shall take place at the seat of the Authority unless otherwise decided by the Assembly.

4. The Assembly shall adopt its rules of procedure. At the beginning of each regular session, it shall elect its President and such other officers as may be required. They shall hold office until a new President and other officers are elected at the next regular session.

5. A majority of the members of the Assembly shall constitute a quorum.

6. Each member of the Assembly shall have one vote.

7. Decisions on questions of procedure, including decisions to convene special sessions of the Assembly, shall be taken by a majority of the members present and voting.

8. Decisions on questions of substance shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members participating in the session. When the issue arises as to whether a question is one of substance or not, that question shall be treated as one of substance unless otherwise decided by the Assembly by the majority required for decisions on questions of substance.

9. When a question of substance comes up for voting for the first time, the President may, and shall, if requested by at least one fifth of the members of the Assembly, defer the issue of taking a vote on that question for a period not exceeding five calendar days. This rule may be applied only once to any question, and shall not be applied so as to defer the question beyond the end of the session.

10. Upon a written request addressed to the President and sponsored by at least one fourth of the members of the Authority for an advisory opinion on the conformity with this Convention of a proposal before the Assembly on any matter, the Assembly shall request the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to give an advisory opinion thereon and shall defer voting on that proposal pending receipt of the advisory opinion by the Chamber. If the advisory opinion is not received before the final week of the session in which it is requested, the Assembly shall decide when it will meet to vote upon the deferred proposal.

Article 160

Powers and functions

1. The Assembly, as the sole organ of the Authority consisting of all the members, shall be considered the supreme organ of the Authority to which the other principal organs shall be accountable as specifically provided for in this Convention. The Assembly shall have the power to establish general policies in conformity with the relevant provisions of this Convention on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority.

2. In addition, the powers and functions of the Assembly shall be:

(a) to elect the members of the Council in accordance with Article 161;

(b) to elect the Secretary-General from among the candidates proposed by the Council;

(c) to elect, upon the recommendation of the Council, the members of the Governing Board of the Enterprise and the Director-General of the Enterprise;

(d) to establish such subsidiary organs as it finds necessary for the exercise of its functions in accordance with this Part. In the composition of these subsidiary organs due account shall be taken of the principle of equitable geographical distribution and of special interests and the need for members qualified and competent in the relevant technical questions dealt with by such organs;

(e) to assess the contributions of members to the administrative budget of the Authority in accordance with an agreed scale of assessment based upon the scale used for the regular budget of the United Nations until the Authority shall have sufficient income from other sources to meet its administrative expenses;

(f) (i) to consider and approve, upon the recommendation of the Council the rules, regulations and procedures on the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area and the payments and contributions made pursuant to Article 82, taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of developing States and peoples who have not attained full independence or other self-governing status. If the Assembly does not approve the recommendations of the Council, the Assembly shall return them to the Council for reconsideration in the light of the views expressed by the Assembly;

(ii) to consider and approve the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and any amendments thereto, provisionally adopted by the Council pursuant to Article 162, paragraph 2 (o)(ii). These rules, regulations and procedures shall relate to prospecting, exploration and exploitation in the Area, the financial management and internal administration of the Authority, and, upon the recommendation of the Governing Board of the Enterprise, to the transfer of funds from the Enterprise to the Authority;

(g) to decide upon the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area, consistent with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(h) to consider and approve the proposed annual budget of the Authority submitted by the Council;

(i) to examine periodic reports from the Council and from the Enterprise and special reports requested from the Council or any other organ of the Authority;

(j) to initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of promoting international co-operation concerning activities in the Area and encouraging the progressive development of international law relating thereto and its codification;

(k) to consider problems of a general nature in connection with activities in the Area arising in particular for developing States, as well as those problems for States in connection with activities in the Area that are due to their geographical location, particularly for land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States;

(l) to establish, upon the recommendation of the Council, on the basis of advice from the Economic Planning Commission, a system of compensation or other measures of economic adjustment assistance as provided in Article 151, paragraph 10;

(m) to suspend the exercise of rights and privileges of membership pursuant to Article 185;

(n) to discuss any question or matter within the competence of the Authority and to decide as to which organ of the Authority shall deal with any such question or matter not specifically entrusted to a particular organ, consistent with the distribution of powers and functions among the organs of the Authority.

Subsection C. THE COUNCIL

Article 161

Composition, procedure and voting

1. The Council shall consist of 36 members of the Authority elected by the Assembly in the following order:

(a) four members from among those States Parties which, during the last five years for which statistics are available, have either consumed more than 2 per cent of total world consumption or have had net imports of more than 2 per cent of total world imports of the commodities produced from the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, and in any case one State from the Eastern European (Socialist) region, as well as the largest consumer;

(b) four members from among the eight States Parties which have the largest investments in preparation for and in the conduct of activities in the Area, either directly or through their nationals, including at least one State from the Eastern European (Socialist) region;

(c) four members from among States Parties which on the basis of production in areas under their jurisdiction are major net exporters of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, including at least two developing States whose exports of such minerals have a substantial bearing upon their economies;

(d) six members from among developing States Parties, representing special interests. The special interests to be represented shall include those of States with large populations, States which are land-locked or geographically disadvantaged, States which are major importers of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, States which are potential producers of such minerals, and least developed States;

(e) eighteen members elected according to the principle of ensuring an equitable geographical distribution of seats in the Council as a whole, provided that each geographical region shall have at least one member elected under this subparagraph. For this purpose, the geographical regions shall be Africa, Asia, Eastern European (Socialist), Latin America and Western European and Others.

2. In electing the members of the Council in accordance with paragraph 1, the Assembly shall ensure that:

(a) land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States are represented to a degree which is reasonably proportionate to their representation in the Assembly;

(b) coastal States, especially developing States, which do not qualify under paragraph 1 (a), (b), (c) or (d) are represented to a degree which is reasonably proportionate to their representation in the Assembly;

(c) each group of States Parties to be represented on the Council is represented by those members, if any, which are nominated by that group.

3. Elections shall take place at regular sessions of the Assembly. Each member of the Council shall be elected for four years. At the first election, however, the term of one half of the members of each group referred to in paragraph 1 shall be two years.

4. Members of the Council shall be eligible for re-election, but due regard should be paid to the desirability of rotation of membership.

5. The Council shall function at the seat of the Authority, and shall meet as often as the business of the Authority may require, but not less than three times a year.

6. A majority of the members of the Council shall constitute a quorum.

7. Each member of the Council shall have one vote.

8. (a) Decisions on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of the members present and voting.

(b) Decisions on questions of substance arising under the following provisions shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members of the Council: Article 162, paragraph 2, subparagraphs (f); (g); (h); (i); (n); (p); (v); Article 191.

(c) Decisions on questions of substance arising under the following provisions shall be taken by a three-fourths majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members of the Council: Article 162, paragraph 1; Article 162, paragraph 2, subparagraphs (a); (b); (c); (d); (e); (I); (q); (r); (s); (t); (u) in cases of non-compliance by a contractor or a sponsor; (w) provided that orders issued thereunder may be binding for not more than 30 days unless confirmed by a decision taken in accordance with subparagraph (d); Article 162, paragraph 2, subparagraphs (x); (y); (z); Article 163, paragraph 2; Article 174, paragraph 3; Annex IV, Article 11.

(d) Decisions on questions of substance arising under the following provisions shall be taken by consensus: Article 162, paragraph 2(m) and (o); adoption of amendments to Part XI.

(e) For the purposes of subparagraphs (d), (f) and (g), “consensus” means the absence of any formal objection. Within 14 days of the submission of a proposal to the Council, the President of the Council shall determine whether there would be a formal objection to the adoption of the proposal. If the President determines that there would be such an objection, the President shall establish and convene, within three days following such determination, a conciliation committee consisting of not more than nine members of the Council, with the President as chairman, for the purpose of reconciling the differences and producing a proposal which can be adopted by consensus. The committee shall work expeditiously and report to the Council within 14 days following its establishment. If the committee is unable to recommend a proposal which can be adopted by consensus, it shall set out in its report the grounds on which the proposal is being opposed.

(f) Decisions on questions not listed above which the Council is authorized to take by the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority or otherwise shall be taken pursuant to the subparagraphs of this paragraph specified in the rules, regulations and procedures or, if not specified therein, then pursuant to the subparagraph determined by the Council if possible in advance, by consensus.

(g) When the issue arises as to whether a question is within subparagraph (a), (b), (c) or (d), the question shall be treated as being within the subparagraph requiring the higher or highest majority or consensus as the case may be, unless otherwise decided by the Council by the said majority or by consensus.

9. The Council shall establish a procedure whereby a member of the Authority not represented on the Council may send a representative to attend a meeting of the Council when a request is made by such member, or a matter particularly affecting it is under consideration. Such a representative shall be entitled to participate in the deliberations but not to vote.

Article 162

Powers and functions

1. The Council is the executive organ of the Authority. The Council shall have the power to establish, in conformity with this Convention and the general policies established by the Assembly, the specific policies to be pursued by the Authority on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority.

2. In addition, the Council shall:

(a) supervise and co-ordinate the implementation of the provisions of this Part on all questions and matters within the competence of the Authority and invite the attention of the Assembly to cases of non-compliance;

(b) propose to the Assembly a list of candidates for the election of the Secretary-General;

(c) recommend to the Assembly candidates for the election of the members of the Governing Board of the Enterprise and the Director-General of the Enterprise;

(d) establish, as appropriate, and with due regard to economy and efficiency, such subsidiary organs as it finds necessary for the exercise of its functions in accordance with this Part. In the composition of subsidiary organs, emphasis shall be placed on the need for members qualified and competent in relevant technical matters dealt with by those organs provided that due account shall be taken of the principle of equitable geographical distribution and of special interests;

(e) adopt its rules of procedure including the method of selecting its president;

(f) enter into agreements with the United Nations or other international organizations on behalf of the Authority and within its competence, subject to approval by the Assembly;

(g) consider the reports of the Enterprise and transmit them to the Assembly with its recommendations;

(h) present to the Assembly annual reports and such special reports as the Assembly may request;

(i) issue directives to the Enterprise in accordance with Article 170;

(j) approve plans of work in accordance with Annex III, Article 6. The Council shall act upon each plan of work within 60 days of its submission by the Legal and Technical Commission at a session of the Council in accordance with the following procedures:

(i) if the Commission recommends the approval of a plan of work, it shall be deemed to have been approved by the Council if no member of the Council submits in writing to the President within 14 days a specific objection alleging non-compliance with the requirements of Annex III, Article 6. If there is an objection, the conciliation procedure set forth in Article 161, paragraph 8(e), shall apply. If, at the end of the conciliation procedure, the objection is still maintained, the plan of work shall be deemed to have been approved by the Council unless the Council disapproves it by consensus among its members excluding any State or States making the application or sponsoring the applicant;

(ii) if the Commission recommends the disapproval of a plan of work or does not make a recommendation, the Council may approve the plan of work by a three-fourths majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members participating in the session;

(k) approve plans of work submitted by the Enterprise in accordance with Annex IV, Article 12, applying, mutatis mutandis, the procedures set forth in subparagraph (j);

(l) exercise control over activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 4, and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(m) take, upon the recommendation of the Economic Planning Commission, necessary and appropriate measures in accordance with Article 150, subparagraph (h), to provide protection from the adverse economic effects specified therein;

(n) make recommendations to the Assembly, on the basis of advice from the Economic Planning Commission, for a system of compensation or other measures of economic adjustment assistance as provided in Article 151, paragraph 10;

(o) (i) recommend to the Assembly rules, regulations and procedures on the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area and the payments and contributions made pursuant to Article 82, taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of the developing States and peoples who have not attained full independence or other self-governing status;

(ii) adopt and apply provisionally, pending approval by the Assembly, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and any amendments thereto, taking into account the recommendations of the Legal and Technical Commission or other subordinate organ concerned. These rules, regulations and procedures shall relate to prospecting, exploration and exploitation in the Area and the financial management and internal administration of the Authority. Priority shall be given to the adoption of rules, regulations and procedures for the exploration for and exploitation of polymetallic nodules. Rules, regulations and procedures for the exploration for and exploitation of any resource other than polymetallic nodules shall be adopted within three years from the date of a request to the Authority by any of its members to adopt such rules, regulations and procedures in respect of such resource. All rules, regulations and procedures shall remain in effect on a provisional basis until approved by the Assembly or until amended by the Council in the light of any views expressed by the Assembly;

(p) review the collection of all payments to be made by or to the Authority in connection with operations pursuant to this Part;

(q) make the selection from among applicants for production authorizations pursuant to Annex III, Article 7, where such selection is required by that provision;

(r) submit the proposed annual budget of the Authority to the Assembly for its approval;

(s) make recommendations to the Assembly concerning policies on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority;

(t) make recommendations to the Assembly concerning suspension of the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership pursuant to Article 185;

(u) institute proceedings on behalf of the Authority before the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber in cases of non-compliance;

(v) notify the Assembly upon a decision by the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber in proceedings instituted under subparagraph (u), and make any recommendations which it may find appropriate with respect to measures to be taken;

(w) issue emergency orders, which may include orders for the suspension or adjustment of operations, to prevent serious harm to the marine environment arising out of activities in the Area;

(x) disapprove areas for exploitation by contractors or the Enterprise in cases where substantial evidence indicates the risk of serious harm to the marine environment;

(y) establish a subsidiary organ for the elaboration of draft financial rules, regulations and procedures relating to: (i) financial management in accordance with articles 171 to 175; and (ii) financial arrangements in accordance with Annex III, Article 13 and Article 17, paragraph 1 (c);

(z) establish appropriate mechanisms for directing and supervising a staff of inspectors who shall inspect activities in the Area to determine whether this Part, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and the terms and conditions of any contract with the Authority are being complied with.

Article 163

Organs of the Council

1. There are hereby established the following organs of the Council:

(a) an Economic Planning Commission;

(b) a Legal and Technical Commission.

2. Each Commission shall be composed of 15 members, elected by the Council from among the candidates nominated by the States Parties. However, if necessary, the Council may decide to increase the size of either Commission having due regard to economy and efficiency.

3. Members of a Commission shall have appropriate qualifications in the area of competence of that Commission. States Parties shall nominate candidates of the highest standards of competence and integrity with qualifications in relevant fields so as to ensure the effective exercise of the functions of the Commissions.

4. In the election of members of the Commissions, due account shall be taken of the need for equitable geographical distribution and the representation of special interests.

5. No State Party may nominate more than one candidate for the same Commission. No person shall be elected to serve on more than one Commission.

6. Members of the Commissions shall hold office for a term of five years. They shall be eligible for re-election for a further term.

7. In the event of the death, incapacity or resignation of a member of a Commission prior to the expiration of the term of office, the Council shall elect for the remainder of the term, a member from the same geographical region or area of interest.

8. Members of Commissions shall have no financial interest in any activity relating to exploration and exploitation in the Area. Subject to their responsibilities to the Commissions upon which they serve, they shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any industrial secret, proprietary data which are transferred to the Authority in accordance with Annex III, Article 14, or any other confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their duties for the Authority.

9. Each Commission shall exercise its functions in accordance with such guidelines and directives as the Council may adopt.

10. Each Commission shall formulate and submit to the Council for approval such rules and regulations as may be necessary for the efficient conduct of the Commissionžs functions.

11. The decision-making procedures of the Commissions shall be established by the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. Recommendations to the Council shall, where necessary, be accompanied by a summary on the divergencies of opinion in the Commission.

12. Each Commission shall normally function at the seat of the Authority and shall meet as often as is required for the efficient exercise of its functions.

13. In the exercise of its functions, each Commission may, where appropriate, consult another commission, any competent organ of the United Nations or of its specialized agencies or any international organizations with competence in the subject-matter of such consultation.

Article 164

The Economic Planning Commission

1. Members of the Economic Planning Commission shall have appropriate qualifications such as those relevant to mining, management of mineral resource activities, international trade or international economics. The Council shall endeavour to ensure that the membership of the Commission reflects all appropriate qualifications. The Commission shall include at least two members from developing States whose exports of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area have a substantial bearing upon their economies.

2. The Commission shall:

(a) propose, upon the request of the Council, measures to implement decisions relating to activities in the Area taken in accordance with this Convention;

(b) review the trends of and the factors affecting supply, demand and prices of materials which may be derived from the Area, bearing in mind the interests of both importing and exporting countries, and in particular of the developing States among them;

(c) examine any situation likely to lead to the adverse effects referred to in Article 150, subparagraph (h), brought to its attention by the State Party or States Parties concerned, and make appropriate recommendations to the Council;

(d) propose to the Council for submission to the Assembly, as provided in Article 151, paragraph 10, a system of compensation or other measures of economic adjustment assistance for developing States which suffer adverse effects caused by activities in the Area. The Commission shall make the recommendations to the Council that are necessary for the application of the system or other measures adopted by the Assembly in specific cases.

Article 165

The Legal and Technical Commission

1. Members of the Legal and Technical Commission shall have appropriate qualifications such as those relevant to exploration for and exploitation and processing of mineral resources, oceanology, protection of the marine environment, or economic or legal matters relating to ocean mining and related fields of expertise. The Council shall endeavour to ensure that the membership of the Commission reflects all appropriate qualifications.

2. The Commission shall:

(a) make recommendations with regard to the exercise of the Authorityžs functions upon the request of the Council

(b) review formal written plans of work for activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, and submit appropriate recommendations to the Council. The Commission shall base its recommendations solely on the grounds stated in Annex III and shall report fully thereon to the Council;

(c) supervise, upon the request of the Council, activities in the Area, where appropriate, in consultation and collaboration with any entity carrying out such activities or State or States concerned and report to the Council;

(d) prepare assessments of the environmental implications of activities in the Area;

(e) make recommendations to the Council on the protection of the marine environment, taking into account the views of recognized experts in that field;

(f) formulate and submit to the Council the rules regulations and procedures referred to in Article 162, paragraph 2(o) taking into account all relevant factors including assessments of the environmental implications of activities in the Area;

(g) keep such rules, regulations and procedures under review and recommend to the Council from time to time such amendments thereto as it may deem necessary or desirable;

(h) make recommendations to the Council regarding the establishment of a monitoring programme to observe, measure evaluate and analyse by recognized scientific methods, on a regular basis, the risks or effects of pollution of the marine environment resulting from activities in the Area, ensure that existing regulations are adequate and are complied with and co-ordinate the implementation of the monitoring programme approved by the Council;

(i) recommend to the Council that proceedings be instituted on behalf of the Authority before the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber, in accordance with this Part and the relevant Annexes taking into account particularly Article 187;

(j) make recommendations to the Council with respect to measures to be taken, upon a decision by the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber in proceedings instituted in accordance with subparagraph (i);

(k) make recommendations to the Council to issue emergency orders, which may include orders for the suspension or adjustment of operations, to prevent serious harm to the marine environment arising out of activities in the Area. Such recommendations shall be taken up by the Council on a priority basis;

(l) make recommendations to the Council to disapprove areas for exploitation by contractors or the Enterprise in cases where substantial evidence indicates the risk of serious harm to the marine environment;

(m) make recommendations to the Council regarding the direction and supervision of a staff of inspectors who shall inspect activities in the Area to determine whether the provisions of this Part, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority and the terms and conditions of any contract with the Authority are being complied with;

(n) calculate the production ceiling and issue production authorizations on behalf of the Authority pursuant to Article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7, following any necessary selection among applicants for production authorizations by the Council in accordance with Annex III, Article 7.

3. The members of the Commission shall, upon request by any State Party or other party concerned, be accompanied by a representative of such State or other party concerned when carrying out their function of supervision and inspection.

Subsection D. THE SECRETARIAT

Article 166

The Secretariat

1. The Secretariat of the Authority shall comprise a Secretary-General and such staff as the Authority may require.

2. The Secretary-General shall be elected for four years by the Assembly from among the candidates proposed by the Council and may be re-elected.

3. The Secretary-General shall be the chief administrative officer of the Authority, and shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the Assembly, of the Council and of any subsidiary organ, and shall perform such other administrative functions as are entrusted to the Secretary-General by these organs.

4. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the Assembly on the work of the Authority.

Article 167

The staff of the Authority

1. The staff of the Authority shall consist of such qualified scientific and technical and other personnel as may be required to fulfil the administrative functions of the Authority.

2. The paramount consideration in the recruitment and employment of the staff and in the determination of their conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence and integrity. Subject to this consideration, due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.

3. The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General. The terms and conditions on which they shall be appointed, remunerated and dismissed shall be in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

Article 168

International character of the Secretariat

1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other source external to the Authority. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Authority. Each State Party undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities. Any violation of responsibilities by a staff member shall be submitted to the appropriate administrative tribunal as provided in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

2. The Secretary-General and the staff shall have no financial interest in any activity relating to exploration and exploitation in the Area. Subject to their responsibilities to the Authority, they shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any industrial secret, proprietary data which are transferred to the Authority in accordance with Annex III, Article 14, or any other confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their employment with the Authority.

3. Violations of the obligations of a staff member of the Authority set forth in paragraph 2 shall, on the request of a State Party affected by such violation, or a natural or juridical person, sponsored by a State Party as provided in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), and affected by such violation, be submitted by the Authority against the staff member concerned to a tribunal designated by the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. The Party affected shall have the right to take part in the proceedings. If the tribunal so recommends, the Secretary-General shall dismiss the staff member concerned.

4. The rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority shall contain such provisions as are necessary to implement this article.

Article 169

Consultation and co-operation with international and non-governmental organizations

1. The Secretary-General shall, on matters within the competence of the Authority, make suitable arrangements, with the approval of the Council, for consultation and co-operation with international and non-governmental organizations recognized by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

2. Any organization with which the Secretary-General has entered into an arrangement under paragraph 1 may designate representatives to attend meetings of the organs of the Authority as observers in accordance with the rules of procedure of these organs. Procedures shall be established for obtaining the views of such organizations in appropriate cases.

3. The Secretary-General may distribute to States Parties written reports submitted by the non-governmental organizations referred to in paragraph 1 on subjects in which they have special competence and which are related to the work of the Authority.

Subsection E. THE ENTERPRISE

Article 170

The Enterprise

1. The Enterprise shall be the organ of the Authority which shall carry out activities in the Area directly, pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2(a), as well as the transporting, processing and marketing of minerals recovered from the Area.

2. The Enterprise shall, within the framework of the international legal personality of the Authority, have such legal capacity as is provided for in the Statute set forth in Annex IV. The Enterprise shall act in accordance with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, as well as the general policies established by the Assembly, and shall be subject to the directives and control of the Council.

3. The Enterprise shall have its principal place of business at the seat of the Authority.

4. The Enterprise shall, in accordance with Article 173, paragraph 2, and Annex IV, Article 11, be provided with such funds as it may require to carry out its functions, and shall receive technology as provided in Article 144 and other relevant provisions of this Convention.

Subsection F. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY

Article 171

Funds of the Authority

The funds of the Authority shall include:

(a) assessed contributions made by members of the Authority in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(e);

(b) funds received by the Authority pursuant to Annex III, Article 13, in connection with activities in the Area;

(c) funds transferred from the Enterprise in accordance with Annex IV, Article 10;

(d) funds borrowed pursuant to Article 174;

(e) voluntary contributions made by members or other entities; and

(f) payments to a compensation fund, in accordance with Article 151, paragraph 10, whose sources are to be recommended by the Economic Planning Commission.

Article 172

Annual budget of the Authority

The Secretary-General shall draft the proposed annual budget of the Authority and submit it to the Council. The Council shall consider the proposed annual budget and submit it to the Assembly, together with any recommendations thereon. The Assembly shall consider and approve the proposed annual budget in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(h).

Article 173

Expenses of the Authority

1. The contributions referred to in Article 171, subparagraph (a), shall be paid into a special account to meet the administrative expenses of the Authority until the Authority has sufficient funds from other sources to meet those expenses.

2. The administrative expenses of the Authority shall be a first call upon the funds of the Authority. Except for the assessed contributions referred to in Article 171, subparagraph (a), the funds which remain after payment of administrative expenses may, inter alia:

(a) be shared in accordance with Article 140 and Article 160, paragraph 2(g);

(b) be used to provide the Enterprise with funds in accordance with Article 170, paragraph 4;

(c) be used to compensate developing States in accordance with Article 151, paragraph 10, and Article 160, paragraph 2(1).

Article 174

Borrowing power of the Authority

1. The Authority shall have the power to borrow funds.

2. The Assembly shall prescribe the limits on the borrowing power of the Authority in the financial regulations adopted pursuant to Article 160, paragraph 2(f).

3. The Council shall exercise the borrowing power of the Authority.

4. States Parties shall not be liable for the debts of the Authority.

Article 175

Annual audit

The records, books and accounts of the Authority, including its annual financial statements, shall be audited annually by an independent auditor appointed by the Assembly.

Subsection G. LEGAL STATUS, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

Article 176

Legal status

The Authority shall have international legal personality and such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes.

Article 177

Privileges and immunities

To enable the Authority to exercise its functions, it shall enjoy in the territory of each State Party the privileges and immunities set forth in this subsection. The privileges and immunities relating to the Enterprise shall be those set forth in Annex IV, Article 13.

Article 178

Immunity from legal process

The Authority, its property and assets, shall enjoy immunity from legal process except to the extent that the Authority expressly waives this immunity in a particular case.

Article 179

Immunity from search and any form of seizure

The property and assets of the Authority, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from search, requisition, confiscation, expropriation or any other form of seizure by executive or legislative action.

Article 180

Exemption from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria

The property and assets of the Authority shall be exempt from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria of any nature.

Article 181

Archives and official communications of the Authority

1. The archives of the Authority, wherever located, shall be inviolable.

2. Proprietary data, industrial secrets or similar information and personnel records shall not be placed in archives which are open to public inspection.

3. With regard to its official communications, the Authority shall be accorded by each State Party treatment no less favourable than that accorded by that State to other international organizations.

Article 182

Privileges and immunities of certain persons connected with the Authority

Representatives of States Parties attending meetings of the Assembly, the Council or organs of the Assembly or the Council, and the Secretary-General and staff of the Authority, shall enjoy in the territory of each State Party:

(a) immunity from legal process with respect to acts performed by them in the exercise of their functions, except to the extent that the State which they represent or the Authority, as appropriate, expressly waives this immunity in a particular case;

(b) if they are not nationals of that State Party, the same exemptions from immigration restrictions, alien registration requirements and national service obligations, the same facilities as regards exchange restrictions and the same treatment in respect of travelling facilities as are accorded by that State to the representatives, officials and employees of comparable rank of other States Parties.

Article 183

Exemption from taxes and customs duties

1. Within the scope of its official activities, the Authority, its assets and property, its income, and its operations and transactions, authorized by this Convention, shall be exempt from all direct taxation and goods imported or exported for its official use shall be exempt from all customs duties. The Authority shall not claim exemption from taxes which are no more than charges for services rendered.

2. When purchases of goods or services of substantial value necessary for the official activities of the Authority are made by or on behalf of the Authority, and when the price of such goods or services includes taxes or duties, appropriate measures shall, to the extent practicable, be taken by States Parties to grant exemption from such taxes or duties or provide for their reimbursement. Goods imported or purchased under an exemption provided for in this Article shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of in the territory of the State Party which granted the exemption, except under conditions agreed with that State Party.

3. No tax shall be levied by States Parties on or in respect of salaries and emoluments paid or any other form of payment made by the Authority to the Secretary-General and staff of the Authority, as well as experts performing missions for the Authority, who are not their nationals.

Subsection H. SUSPENSION OF THE EXERCISE OF RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS

Article 184

Suspension of the exercise of voting rights

A State Party which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Authority shall have no vote if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the member.

Article 185

Suspension of exercise of rights and privileges of membership

1. A State Party which has grossly and persistently violated the provisions of this Part may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the Assembly upon the recommendation of the Council.

2. No action may be taken under paragraph 1 until the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber has found that a State Party has grossly and persistently violated the provisions of this Part.

Section 5. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND ADVISORY OPINIONS

Article 186

Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

The establishment of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber and the manner in which it shall exercise its jurisdiction shall be governed by the provisions of this section, of Part XV and of Annex VI.

Article 187

Jurisdiction of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber

The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall have jurisdiction under this Part and the Annexes relating thereto in disputes with respect to activities in the Area falling within the following categories:

(a) disputes between States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Part and the Annexes relating thereto;

(b) disputes between a State Party and the Authority concerning:

(i) acts or omissions of the Authority or of a State Party alleged to be in violation of this Part or the Annexes relating thereto or of rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority adopted in accordance therewith; or

(ii) acts of the Authority alleged to be in excess of jurisdiction or a misuse of power;

(c) disputes between parties to a contract, being States Parties, the Authority or the Enterprise, state enterprises and natural or juridical persons referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2 (b), concerning:

(i) the interpretation or application of a relevant contract or a plan of work; or

(ii) acts or omissions of a party to the contract relating to activities in the Area and directed to the other party or directly affecting its legitimate interests;

(d) disputes between the Authority and a prospective contractor who has been sponsored by a State as provided in Article 153, paragraph 2 (b), and has duly fulfilled the conditions referred to in Annex III, Article 4, paragraph 6, and Article 13, paragraph 2, concerning the refusal of a contract or a legal issue arising in the negotiation of the contract;

(e) disputes between the Authority and a State Party, a state enterprise or a natural or juridical person sponsored by a State Party as provided for in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), where it is alleged that the Authority has incurred liability as provided in Annex III, Article 22;

(f) any other disputes for which the jurisdiction of the Chamber is specifically provided in this Convention.

Article 188

Submission of disputes to a special chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea or an ad hoc chamber of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber or to binding commercial arbitration

1. Disputes between States Parties referred to in Article 187, subparagraph (a), may be submitted:

(a) at the request of the parties to the dispute, to a special chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to be formed in accordance with Annex VI, articles 15 and 17; or

(b) at the request of any party to the dispute, to an ad hoc chamber of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber to be formed in accordance with Annex VI, Article 36.

2. (a) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of a contract referred to in Article 187, subparagraph (c) (i), shall be submitted, at the request of any party to the dispute, to binding commercial arbitration, unless the parties otherwise agree. A commercial arbitral tribunal to which the dispute is submitted shall have no jurisdiction to decide any question of interpretation of this Convention. When the dispute also involves a question of the interpretation of Part XI and the Annexes relating thereto, with respect to activities in the Area, that question shall be referred to the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber for a ruling.

(b) If, at the commencement of or in the course of such arbitration, the arbitral tribunal determines, either at the request of any party to the dispute or proprio motu, that its decision depends upon a ruling of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber, the arbitral tribunal shall refer such question to the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber for such ruling. The arbitral tribunal shall then proceed to render its award in conformity with the ruling of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber.

(c) In the absence of a provision in the contract on the arbitration procedure to be applied in the dispute, the arbitration shall be conducted in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules or such other arbitration rules as may be prescribed in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

Article 189

Limitation on jurisdiction with regard to decisions of the Authority

The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall have no jurisdiction with regard to the exercise by the Authority of its discretionary powers in accordance with this Part; in no case shall it substitute its discretion for that of the Authority. Without prejudice to Article 191, in exercising its jurisdiction pursuant to Article 187, the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall not pronounce itself on the question of whether any rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority are in conformity with this Convention, nor declare invalid any such rules, regulations and procedures. Its jurisdiction in this regard shall be confined to deciding claims that the application of any rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority in individual cases would be in conflict with the contractual obligations of the parties to the dispute or their obligations under this Convention, claims concerning excess of jurisdiction or misuse of power, and to claims for damages to be paid or other remedy to be given to the party concerned for the failure of the other party to comply with its contractual obligations or its obligations under this Convention.

Article 190

Participation and appearance of sponsoring States Parties in proceedings

1. If a natural or juridical person is a party to a dispute referred to in Article 187, the sponsoring State shall be given notice thereof and shall have the right to participate in the proceedings by submitting written or oral statements.

2. If an action is brought against a State Party by a natural or juridical person sponsored by another State Party in a dispute referred to in Article 187, subparagraph (c), the respondent State may request the State sponsoring that person to appear in the proceedings on behalf of that person. Failing such appearance, the respondent State may arrange to be represented by a juridical person of its nationality.

Article 191

Advisory opinions

The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall give advisory opinions at the request of the Assembly or the Council on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities. Such opinions shall be given as a matter of urgency.

PART XII

PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 192

General obligation

States have the obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment.

Article 193

Sovereign right of States to exploit their natural
resources

States have the sovereign right to exploit their natural resources pursuant to their environmental policies and in accordance with their duty to protect and preserve the marine environment.

Article 194

Measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment

1. States shall take, individually or jointly as appropriate, all measures consistent with this Convention that are necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from any source, using for this purpose the best practicable means at their disposal and in accordance with their capabilities, and they shall endeavour to harmonize their policies in this connection.

2. States shall take all measures necessary to ensure that activities under their jurisdiction or control are so conducted as not to cause damage by pollution to other States and their environment, and that pollution arising from incidents or activities under their jurisdiction or control does not spread beyond the areas where they exercise sovereign rights in accordance with this Convention.

3. The measures taken pursuant to this Part shall deal with all sources of pollution of the marine environment. These measures shall include, inter alia, those designed to minimize to the fullest possible extent:

(a) the release of toxic, harmful or noxious substances, especially those which are persistent, from land-based sources, from or through the atmosphere or by dumping;

(b) pollution from vessels, in particular measures for preventing accidents and dealing with emergencies, ensuring the safety of operations at sea, preventing intentional and unintentional discharges, and regulating the design, construction, equipment, operation and manning of vessels;

(c) pollution from installations and devices used in exploration or exploitation of the natural resources of the sea-bed and subsoil, in particular measures for preventing accidents and dealing with emergencies, ensuring the safety of operations at sea, and regulating the design, construction, equipment, operation and manning of such installations or devices;

(d) pollution from other installations and devices operating in the marine environment, in particular measures for preventing accidents and dealing with emergencies, ensuring the safety of operations at sea, and regulating the design, construction, equipment, operation and manning of such installations or devices.

4. In taking measures to prevent, reduce or control pollution of the marine environment, States shall refrain from unjustifiable interference with activities carried out by other States in the exercise of their rights and in pursuance of their duties in conformity with this Convention.

5. The measures taken in accordance with this Part shall include those necessary to protect and preserve rare or fragile ecosystems as well as the habitat of depleted, threatened or endangered species and other forms of marine life.

Article 195

Duty not to transfer damage or hazards or transform one type of pollution into another

In taking measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment, States shall act so as not to transfer, directly or indirectly, damage or hazards from one area to another or transform one type of pollution into another.

Article 196

Use of technologies or introduction of alien or new species

1. States shall take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment resulting from the use of technologies under their jurisdiction or control, or the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, which may cause significant and harmful changes thereto.

2. This Article does not affect the application of this Convention regarding the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment.

Section 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL
CO-OPERATION

Article 197

Co-operation on a global or regional basis

States shall co-operate on a global basis and, as appropriate, on a regional basis, directly or through competent international organizations, in formulating and elaborating international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures consistent with this Convention, for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, taking into account characteristic regional features.

Article 198

Notification of imminent or actual damage

When a State becomes aware of cases in which the marine environment is in imminent danger of being damaged or has been damaged by pollution, it shall immediately notify other States it deems likely to be affected by such damage, as well as the competent international organizations.

Article 199

Contingency plans against pollution

In the cases referred to in Article 198, States in the area affected, in accordance with their capabilities, and the competent international organizations shall co-operate, to the extent possible, in eliminating the effects of pollution and preventing or minimizing the damage. To this end, States shall jointly develop and promote contingency plans for responding to pollution incidents in the marine environment.

Article 200

Studies, research programmes and exchange of
information and data

States shall co-operate, directly or through competent international organizations, for the purpose of promoting studies, undertaking programmes of scientific research and encouraging the exchange of information and data acquired about pollution of the marine environment. They shall endeavour to participate actively in regional and global programmes to acquire knowledge for the assessment of the nature and extent of pollution, exposure to it, and its pathways, risks and remedies.

Article 201

Scientific criteria for regulations

In the light of the information and data acquired pursuant to Article 200, States shall co-operate, directly or through competent international organizations, in establishing appropriate scientific criteria for the formulation and elaboration of rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment.

Section 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Article 202

Scientific and technical assistance to developing States

States shall, directly or through competent international organizations:

(a) promote programmes of scientific, educational, technical and other assistance to developing States for the protection and preservation of the marine environment and the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution. Such assistance shall include, inter alia:

(i) training of their scientific and technical personnel;

(ii) facilitating their participation in relevant international programmes;

(iii) supplying them with necessary equipment and facilities;

(iv) enhancing their capacity to manufacture such equipment;

(v) advice on and developing facilities for research, monitoring, educational and other programmes;

(b) provide appropriate assistance, especially to developing States, for the minimization of the effects of major incidents which may cause serious pollution of the marine environment;

(c) provide appropriate assistance, especially to developing States, concerning the preparation of environmental assessments.

Article 203

Preferential treatment for developing States

Developing States shall, for the purposes of prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment or minimization of its effects, be granted preference by international organizations in:

(a) the allocation of appropriate funds and technical assistance; and

(b) the utilization of their specialized services.

Section 4. MONITORING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Article 204

Monitoring of the risks or effects of pollution

1. States shall, consistent with the rights of other States, endeavour, as far as practicable, directly or through the competent international organizations, to observe, measure, evaluate and analyse, by recognized scientific methods, the risks or effects of pollution of the marine environment.

2. In particular, States shall keep under surveillance the effects of any activities which they permit or in which they engage in order to determine whether these activities are likely to pollute the marine environment.

Article 205

Publication of reports

States shall publish reports of the results obtained pursuant to Article 204 or provide such reports at appropriate intervals to the competent international organizations, which should make them available to all States.

Article 206

Assessment of potential effects of activities

When States have reasonable grounds for believing that planned activities under their jurisdiction or control may cause substantial pollution of or significant and harmful changes to the marine environment, they shall, as far as practicable, assess the potential effects of such activities on the marine environment and shall communicate reports of the results of such assessments in the manner provided in Article 205.

Section 5. INTERNATIONAL RULES AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION TO PREVENT, REDUCE AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE
ENVIRONMENT

Article 207

Pollution from land-based sources

1. States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources, including rivers, estuaries, pipelines and outfall structures, taking into account internationally agreed rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. States shall endeavour to harmonize their policies in this connection at the appropriate regional level.

4. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall endeavour to establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources, taking into account characteristic regional features, the economic capacity of developing States and their need for economic development. Such rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures shall be reexamined from time to time as necessary.

5. Laws, regulations, measures, rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 shall include those designed to minimize, to the fullest extent possible, the release of toxic, harmful or noxious substances, especially those which are persistent, into the marine environment.

Article 208

Pollution from sea-bed activities subject to national jurisdiction

1. Coastal States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment arising from or in connection with seabed activities subject to their jurisdiction and from artificial islands, installations and structures under their jurisdiction, pursuant to articles 60 and 80.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. Such laws, regulations and measures shall be no less effective than international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures.

4. States shall endeavour to harmonize their policies in this connection at the appropriate regional level.

5. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment referred to in paragraph 1. Such rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

Article 209

Pollution from activities in the Area

1. International rules, regulations and procedures shall be established in accordance with Part XI to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from activities in the Area. Such rules, regulations and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

2. Subject to the relevant provisions of this section, States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from activities in the Area undertaken by vessels, installations, structures and other devices flying their flag or of their registry or operating under their authority, as the case may be. The requirements of such laws and regulations shall be no less effective than the international rules, regulations and procedures referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 210

Pollution by dumping

1. States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment by dumping.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. Such laws, regulations and measures shall ensure that dumping is not carried out without the permission of the competent authorities of States.

4. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall endeavour to establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control such pollution. Such rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

5. Dumping within the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone or onto the continental shelf shall not be carried out without the express prior approval of the coastal State, which has the right to permit, regulate and control such dumping after due consideration of the matter with other States which by reason of their geographical situation may be adversely affected thereby.

6. National laws, regulations and measures shall be no less effective in preventing, reducing and controlling such pollution than the global rules and standards.

Article 211

Pollution from vessels

1. States, acting through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference, shall establish international rules and standards to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from vessels and promote the adoption, in the same manner, wherever appropriate, of routeing systems designed to minimize the threat of accidents which might cause pollution of the marine environment, including the coastline, and pollution damage to the related interests of coastal States. Such rules and standards shall, in the same manner, be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

2. States shall adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment from vessels flying their flag or of their registry. Such laws and regulations shall at least have the same effect as that of generally accepted international rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference.

3. States which establish particular requirements for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment as a condition for the entry of foreign vessels into their ports or internal waters or for a call at their off-shore terminals shall give due publicity to such requirements and shall communicate them to the competent international organization. Whenever such requirements are established in identical form by two or more coastal States in an endeavour to harmonize policy, the communication shall indicate which States are participating in such co-operative arrangements. Every State shall require the master of a vessel flying its flag or of its registry, when navigating within the territorial sea of a State participating in such co-operative arrangements, to furnish, upon the request of that State, information as to whether it is proceeding to a State of the same region participating in such co-operative arrangements and, if so, to indicate whether it complies with the port entry requirements of that State. This Article is without prejudice to the continued exercise by a vessel of its right of innocent passage or to the application of Article 25, paragraph 2.

4. Coastal States may, in the exercise of their sovereignty within their territorial sea, adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from foreign vessels, including vessels exercising the right of innocent passage. Such laws and regulations shall, in accordance with Part 11, section 3, not hamper innocent passage of foreign vessels.

5. Coastal States, for the purpose of enforcement as provided for in section 6, may in respect of their exclusive economic zones adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels conforming to and giving effect to generally accepted international rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference.

6. (a) Where the international rules and standards referred to in paragraph 1 are inadequate to meet special circumstances and coastal States have reasonable grounds for believing that a particular, clearly defined area of their respective exclusive economic zones is an area where the adoption of special mandatory measures for the prevention of pollution from vessels is required for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographical and ecological conditions, as well as its utilization or the protection of its resources and the particular character of its traffic, the coastal States, after appropriate consultations through the competent international organization with any other States concerned, may, for that area, direct a communication to that organization, submitting scientific and technical evidence in support and information on necessary reception facilities. Within 12 months after receiving such a communication, the organization shall determine whether the conditions in that area correspond to the requirements set out above. If the organization so determines, the coastal States may, for that area, adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels implementing such international rules and standards or navigational practices as are made applicable, through the organization, for special areas. These laws and regulations shall not become applicable to foreign vessels until 15 months after the submission of the communication to the organization.

(b) The coastal States shall publish the limits of any such particular, clearly defined area.

(c) If the coastal States intend to adopt additional laws and regulations for the same area for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels, they shall, when submitting the aforesaid communication, at the same time notify the organization thereof. Such additional laws and regulations may relate to discharges or navigational practices but shall not require foreign vessels to observe design, construction, manning or equipment standards other than generally accepted international rules and standards; they shall become applicable to foreign vessels 15 months after the submission of the communication to the organization, provided that the organization agrees within 12 months after the submission of the communication.

7. The international rules and standards referred to in this Article should include inter alia those relating to prompt notification to coastal States, whose coastline or related interests may be affected by incidents, including maritime casualties, which involve discharges or probability of discharges.

Article 212

Pollution from or through the atmosphere

1. States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from or through the atmosphere, applicable to the air space under their sovereignty and to vessels flying their flag or vessels or aircraft of their registry, taking into account internationally agreed rules standards and recommended practices and procedures and the safety of air navigation.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall endeavour to establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

Section 6. ENFORCEMENT

Article 213

Enforcement with respect to pollution from land-based sources

States shall enforce their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Article 207 and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources.

Article 214

Enforcement with respect to pollution from sea-bed activities

States shall enforce their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Article 208 and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment arising from or in connection with sea-bed activities subject to their jurisdiction and from artificial islands, installations and structures under their jurisdiction, pursuant to articles 60 and 80.

Article 215

Enforcement with respect to pollution from activities in the Area

Enforcement of international rules, regulations and procedures established in accordance with Part XI to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from activities in the Area shall be governed by that Part.

Article 216

Enforcement with respect to pollution by dumping

1. Laws and regulations adopted in accordance with this Convention and applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment by dumping shall be enforced:

(a) by the coastal State with regard to dumping within its territorial sea or its exclusive economic zone or onto its continental shelf;

(b) by the flag State with regard to vessels flying its flag or vessels or aircraft of its registry;

(c) by any State with regard to acts of loading of wastes or other matter occurring within its territory or at its off-shore terminals.

2. No State shall be obliged by virtue of this Article to institute proceedings when another State has already instituted proceedings in accordance with this article.

Article 217

Enforcement by flag States

1. States shall ensure compliance by vessels flying their flag or of their registry with applicable international rules and standards, established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference, and with their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with this Convention for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment from vessels and shall accordingly adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary for their implementation. Flag States shall provide for the effective enforcement of such rules, standards, laws and regulations, irrespective of where a violation occurs.

2. States shall, in particular, take appropriate measures in order to ensure that vessels flying their flag or of their registry are prohibited from sailing, until they can proceed to sea in compliance with the requirements of the international rules and standards referred to in paragraph I, including requirements in respect of design, construction, equipment and manning of vessels.

3. States shall ensure that vessels flying their flag or of their registry carry on board certificates required by and issued pursuant to international rules and standards referred to in paragraph 1. States shall ensure that vessels flying their flag are periodically inspected in order to verify that such certificates are in conformity with the actual condition of the vessels. These certificates shall be accepted by other States as evidence of the condition of the vessels and shall be regarded as having the same force as certificates issued by them, unless there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of the vessel does not correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates.

4. If a vessel commits a violation of rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference, the flag State, without prejudice to articles 218, 220 and 228, shall provide for immediate investigation and where appropriate institute proceedings in respect of the alleged violation irrespective of where the violation occurred or where the pollution caused by such violation has occurred or has been spotted.

5. Flag States conducting an investigation of the violation may request the assistance of any other State whose co-operation could be useful in clarifying the circumstances of the case. States shall endeavour to meet appropriate requests of flag States.

6. States shall, at the written request of any State, investigate any violation alleged to have been committed by vessels flying their flag. If satisfied that sufficient evidence is available to enable proceedings to be brought in respect of the alleged violation, flag States shall without delay institute such proceedings in accordance with their laws.

7. Flag States shall promptly inform the requesting State and the competent international organization of the action taken and its outcome. Such information shall be available to all States.

8. Penalties provided for by the laws and regulations of States for vessels flying their flag shall be adequate in severity to discourage violations wherever they occur.

Article 218

Enforcement by port States

1. When a vessel is voluntarily within a port or at an off-shore terminal of a State, that State may undertake investigations and, where the evidence so warrants, institute proceedings in respect of any discharge from that vessel outside the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of that State in violation of applicable international rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference.

2. No proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 shall be instituted in respect of a discharge violation in the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of another State unless requested by that State, the flag State, or a State damaged or threatened by the discharge violation, or unless the violation has caused or is likely to cause pollution in the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of the State instituting the proceedings.

3. When a vessel is voluntarily within a port or at an off-shore terminal of a State, that State shall, as far as practicable, comply with requests from any State for investigation of a discharge violation referred to in paragraph 1, believed to have occurred in, caused, or threatened damage to the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of the requesting State. It shall likewise, as far as practicable, comply with requests from the flag State for investigation of such a violation, irrespective of where the violation occurred.

4. The records of the investigation carried out by a port State pursuant to this Article shall be transmitted upon request to the flag State or to the coastal State. Any proceedings instituted by the port State on the basis of such an investigation may, subject to section 7, be suspended at the request of the coastal State when the violation has occurred within its internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone. The evidence and records of the case, together with any bond or other financial security posted with the authorities of the port State, shall in that event be transmitted to the coastal State. Such transmittal shall preclude the continuation of proceedings in the port State.

Article 219

Measures relating to seaworthiness of vessels to avoid pollution

Subject to section 7, States which, upon request or on their own initiative, have ascertained that a vessel within one of their ports or at one of their offshore terminals is in violation of applicable international rules and standards relating to seaworthiness of vessels and thereby threatens damage to the marine environment shall, as far as practicable, take administrative measures to prevent the vessel from sailing. Such States may permit the vessel to proceed only to the nearest appropriate repair yard and, upon removal of the causes of the violation, shall permit the vessel to continue immediately.

Article 220

Enforcement by coastal States

1. When a vessel is voluntarily within a port or at an off-shore terminal of a State, that State may, subject to section 7, institute proceedings in respect of any violation of its laws and regulations adopted in accordance with this Convention or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels when the violation has occurred within the territorial sea or the exclusive economic zone of that State.

2. Where there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel navigating in the territorial sea of a State has, during its passage therein, violated laws and regulations of that State adopted in accordance with this Convention or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels, that State, without prejudice to the application of the relevant provisions of Part II, section 3, may undertake physical inspection of the vessel relating to the violation and may, where the evidence so warrants institute proceedings, including detention of the vessel, in accordance with its laws, subject to the provisions of section 7.

3. Where there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel navigating in the exclusive economic zone or the territorial sea of a State has, in the exclusive economic zone, committed a violation of applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels or laws and regulations of that State conforming and giving effect to such rules and standards, that State may require the vessel to give information regarding its identity and port of registry, its last and its next port of call and other relevant information required to establish whether a violation has occurred.

4. States shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures so that vessels flying their flag comply with requests for information pursuant to paragraph 3.

5. Where there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel navigating in the exclusive economic zone or the territorial sea of a State has, in the exclusive economic zone, committed a violation referred to in paragraph 3 resulting in a substantial discharge causing or threatening significant pollution of the marine environment, that State may undertake physical inspection of the vessel for matters relating to the violation if the vessel has refused to give information or if the information supplied by the vessel is manifestly at variance with the evident factual situation and if the circumstances of the case justify such inspection.

6. Where there is clear objective evidence that a vessel navigating in the exclusive economic zone or the territorial sea of a State has, in the exclusive economic zone, committed a violation referred to in paragraph 3 resulting in a discharge causing major damage or threat of major damage to the coastline or related interests of the coastal State, or to any resources of its territorial sea or exclusive economic zone, that State may, subject to section 7, provided that the evidence so warrants, institute proceedings, including detention of the vessel, in accordance with its laws.

7. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 6, whenever appropriate procedures have been established, either through the competent international organization or as otherwise agreed, whereby compliance with requirements for bonding or other appropriate financial security has been assured, the coastal State if bound by such procedures shall allow the vessel to proceed.

8. The provisions of paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 also apply in respect of national laws and regulations adopted pursuant to Article 211, paragraph 6.

Article 221

Measures to avoid pollution arising from maritime casualties

1. Nothing in this Part shall prejudice the right of States, pursuant to international law, both customary and conventional, to take and enforce measures beyond the territorial sea proportionate to the actual or threatened damage to protect their coastline or related interests, including fishing, from pollution or threat of pollution following upon a maritime casualty or acts relating to such a casualty, which may reasonably be expected to result in major harmful consequences.

2. For the purposes of this article, “maritime casualty” means a collision of vessels, stranding or other incident of navigation, or other occurrence on board a vessel or external to it resulting in material damage or imminent threat of material damage to a vessel or cargo.

Article 222

Enforcement with respect to pollution from or through the atmosphere

States shall enforce, within the air space under their sovereignty or with regard to vessels flying their flag or vessels or aircraft of their registry, their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Article 212, paragraph 1, and with other provisions of this Convention and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from or through the atmosphere, in conformity with all relevant international rules and standards concerning the safety of air navigation.

Section 7. SAFEGUARDS

Article 223

Measures to facilitate proceedings

In proceedings instituted pursuant to this Part, States shall take measures to facilitate the hearing of witnesses and the admission of evidence submitted by authorities of another State, or by the competent international organization, and shall facilitate the attendance at such proceedings of official representatives of the competent international organization, the flag State and any State affected by pollution arising out of any violation. The official representatives attending such proceedings shall have such rights and duties as may be provided under national laws and regulations or international law.

Article 224

Exercise of powers of enforcement

The powers of enforcement against foreign vessels under this Part may only be exercised by officials or by warships, military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect.

Article 225

Duty to avoid adverse consequences in the exercise of the powers of enforcement

In the exercise under this Convention of their powers of enforcement against foreign vessels, States shall not endanger the safety of navigation or otherwise create any hazard to a vessel, or bring it to an unsafe port or anchorage, or expose the marine environment to an unreasonable risk.

Article 226

Investigation of foreign vessels

1. (a) States shall not delay a foreign vessel longer than is essential for purposes of the investigations provided for in articles 216, 218 and 220. Any physical inspection of a foreign vessel shall be limited to an examination of such certificates, records or other documents as the vessel is required to carry by generally accepted international rules and standards or of any similar documents which it is carrying; further physical inspection of the vessel may be undertaken only after such an examination and only when:

(i) there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of the vessel or its equipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of those documents;

(ii) the contents of such documents are not sufficient to confirm or verify a suspected violation; or

(iii) the vessel is not carrying valid certificates and records.

(b) If the investigation indicates a violation of applicable laws and regulations or international rules and standards for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, release shall be made promptly subject to reasonable procedures such as bonding or other appropriate financial security.

(c) Without prejudice to applicable international rules and standards relating to the seaworthiness of vessels, the release of a vessel may, whenever it would present an unreasonable threat of damage to the marine environment, be refused or made conditional upon proceeding to the nearest appropriate repair yard. Where release has been refused or made conditional, the flag State of the vessel must be promptly notified, and may seek release of the vessel in accordance with Part XV.

2. States shall co-operate to develop procedures for the avoidance of unnecessary physical inspection of vessels at sea.

Article 227

Non-discrimination with respect to foreign vessels

In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Part, States shall not discriminate in form or in fact against vessels of any other State.

Article 228

Suspension and restrictions on institution of proceedings

1. Proceedings to impose penalties in respect of any violation of applicable laws and regulations or international rules and standards relating to the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels committed by a foreign vessel beyond the territorial sea of the State instituting proceedings shall be suspended upon the taking of proceedings to impose penalties in respect of corresponding charges by the flag State within six months of the date on which proceedings were first instituted, unless those proceedings relate to a case of major damage to the coastal State or the flag State in question has repeatedly disregarded its obligation to enforce effectively the applicable international rules and standards in respect of violations committed by its vessels. The flag State shall in due course make available to the State previously instituting proceedings a full dossier of the case and the records of the proceedings, whenever the flag State has requested the suspension of proceedings in accordance with this article. When proceedings instituted by the flag State have been brought to a conclusion, the suspended proceedings shall be terminated. Upon payment of costs incurred in respect of such proceedings, any bond posted or other financial security provided in connection with the suspended proceedings shall be released by the coastal State.

2. Proceedings to impose penalties on foreign vessels shall not be instituted after the expiry of three years from the date on which the violation was committed, and shall not be taken by any State in the event of proceedings having been instituted by another State subject to the provisions set out in paragraph 1.

3. The provisions of this Article are without prejudice to the right of the flag State to take any measures, including proceedings to impose penalties, according to its laws irrespective of prior proceedings by another State.

Article 229

Institution of civil proceedings

Nothing in this Convention affects the institution of civil proceedings in respect of any claim for loss or damage resulting from pollution of the marine environment.

Article 230

Monetary penalties and the observance of recognized rights of the accused

1. Monetary penalties only may be imposed with respect to violations of national laws and regulations or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment, committed by foreign vessels beyond the territorial sea.

2. Monetary penalties only may be imposed with respect to violations of national laws and regulations or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment, committed by foreign vessels in the territorial sea, except in the case of a wilful and serious act of pollution in the territorial sea.

3. In the conduct of proceedings in respect of such violations committed by a foreign vessel which may result in the imposition of penalties, recognized rights of the accused shall be observed.

Article 231

Notification to the flag State and other States concerned

States shall promptly notify the flag State and any other State concerned of any measures taken pursuant to section 6 against foreign vessels, and shall submit to the flag State all official reports concerning such measures. However, with respect to violations committed in the territorial sea, the foregoing obligations of the coastal State apply only to such measures as are taken in proceedings. The diplomatic agents or consular officers and where possible the maritime authority of the flag State, shall be immediately informed of any such measures taken pursuant to section 6 against foreign vessels.

Article 232

Liability of States arising from enforcement measures

States shall be liable for damage or loss attributable to them arising from measures taken pursuant to section 6 when such measures are unlawful or exceed those reasonably required in the light of available information. States shall provide for recourse in their courts for actions in respect of such damage or loss.

Article 233

Safeguards with respect to straits used for international navigation

Nothing in sections 5, 6 and 7 affects the legal regime of straits used for international navigation. However, if a foreign ship other than those referred to in section 10 has committed a violation of the laws and regulations referred to in Article 42, paragraph 1 (a) and (b), causing or threatening major damage to the marine environment of the straits, the States bordering the straits may take appropriate enforcement measures and if so shall respect mutatis mutandis the provisions of this section.

Section 8. ICE-COVERED AREAS

Article 234

Ice-covered areas

Coastal States have the right to adopt and enforce non-discriminatory laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from vessels in ice-covered areas within the limits of the exclusive economic zone, where particularly severe climatic conditions and the presence of ice covering such areas for most of the year create obstructions or exceptional hazards to navigation, and pollution of the marine environment could cause major harm to or irreversible disturbance of the ecological balance. Such laws and regulations shall have due regard to navigation and the protection and preservation of the marine environment based on the best available scientific evidence.

Section 9. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

Article 235

Responsibility and liability

1. States are responsible for the fulfilment of their international obligations concerning the protection and preservation of the marine environment. They shall be liable in accordance with international law.

2. States shall ensure that recourse is available in accordance with their legal systems for prompt and adequate compensation or other relief in respect of damage caused by pollution of the marine environment by natural or juridical persons under their jurisdiction.

3. With the objective of assuring prompt and adequate compensation in respect of all damage caused by pollution of the marine environment, States shall co-operate in the implementation of existing international law and the further development of international law relating to responsibility and liability for the assessment of and compensation for damage and the settlement of related disputes, as well as, where appropriate, development of criteria and procedures for payment of adequate compensation, such as compulsory insurance or compensation funds.

Section 10. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY

Article 236

Sovereign immunity

The provisions of this Convention regarding the protection and preservation of the marine environment do not apply to any warship, naval auxiliary, other vessels or aircraft owned or operated by a State and used, for the time being only on government non-commercial service. However, each State shall ensure, by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing operations or operational capabilities of such vessels or aircraft owned or operated by it, that such vessels or aircraft act in a manner consistent, so far as is reasonable and practicable, with this Convention.

Section 11. OBLIGATIONS UNDER OTHER
CONVENTIONS ON THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE
ENVIRONMENT

Article 237

Obligations under other conventions on the protection and preservation of the marine environment

1. The provisions of this Part are without prejudice to the specific obligations assumed by States under special conventions and agreements concluded previously which relate to the protection and preservation of the marine environment and to agreements which may be concluded in furtherance of the general principles set forth in this Convention.

2. Specific obligations assumed by States under special conventions, with respect to the protection and preservation of the marine environment, should be carried out in a manner consistent with the general principles and objectives of this Convention.

PART XIII

MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 238

Right to conduct marine scientific research

All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right to conduct marine scientific research subject to the rights and duties of other States as provided for in this Convention.

Article 239

Promotion of marine scientific research

States and competent international organizations shall promote and facilitate the development and conduct of marine scientific research in accordance with this Convention.

Article 240

General principles for the conduct of marine scientific research

In the conduct of marine scientific research the following principles shall apply:

(a) marine scientific research shall be conducted exclusively for peaceful purposes;

(b) marine scientific research shall be conducted with appropriate scientific methods and means compatible with this Convention;

(c) marine scientific research shall not unjustifiably interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea compatible with this Convention and shall be duly respected in the course of such uses;

(d) marine scientific research shall be conducted in compliance with all relevant regulations adopted in conformity with this Convention including those for the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

Article 241

Non-recognition of marine scientific research activities as the legal basis for claims

Marine scientific research activities shall not constitute the legal basis for any claim to any part of the marine environment or its resources.

Section 2. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION

Article 242

Promotion of international co-operation

1. States and competent international organizations shall, in accordance with the principle of respect for sovereignty and jurisdiction and on the basis of mutual benefit, promote international co-operation in marine scientific research for peaceful purposes.

2. In this context, without prejudice to the rights and duties of States under this Convention, a State, in the application of this Part, shall provide, as appropriate, other States with a reasonable opportunity to obtain from it, or with its co-operation, information necessary to prevent and control damage to the health and safety of persons and to the marine environment.

Article 243

Creation of favourable conditions

States and competent international organizations shall co-operate, through the conclusion of bilateral and multilateral agreements, to create favourable conditions for the conduct of marine scientific research in the marine environment and to integrate the efforts of scientists in studying the essence of phenomena and processes occurring in the marine environment and the interrelations between them.

Article 244

Publication and dissemination of information and knowledge

1. States and competent international organizations shall, in accordance with this Convention, make available by publication and dissemination through appropriate channels information on proposed major programmes and their objectives as well as knowledge resulting from marine scientific research.

2. For this purpose, States, both individually and in co-operation with other States and with competent international organizations, shall actively promote the flow of scientific data and information and the transfer of knowledge resulting from marine scientific research, especially to developing States, as well as the strengthening of the autonomous marine scientific research capabilities of developing States through, inter alia, programmes to provide adequate education and training of their technical and scientific personnel.

Section 3. CONDUCT AND PROMOTION OF MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Article 245

Marine scientific research in the territorial sea

Coastal States, in the exercise of their sovereignty, have the exclusive right to regulate, authorize and conduct marine scientific research in their territorial sea. Marine scientific research therein shall be conducted only with the express consent of and under the conditions set forth by the coastal State.

Article 246

Marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf

1. Coastal States, in the exercise of their jurisdiction, have the right to regulate, authorize and conduct marine scientific research in their exclusive economic zone and on their continental shelf in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Convention.

2. Marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf shall be conducted with the consent of the coastal State.

3. Coastal States shall, in normal circumstances, grant their consent for marine scientific research projects by other States or competent international organizations in their exclusive economic zone or on their continental shelf to be carried out in accordance with this Convention exclusively for peaceful purposes and in order to increase scientific knowledge of the marine environment for the benefit of all mankind. To this end, coastal States shall establish rules and procedures ensuring that such consent will not be delayed or denied unreasonably.

4. For the purposes of applying paragraph 3, normal circumstances may exist in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between the coastal State and the researching State.

5. Coastal States may however in their discretion withhold their consent to the conduct of a marine scientific research project of another State or competent international organization in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of the coastal State if that project:

(a) is of direct significance for the exploration and exploitation of natural resources, whether living or non-living;

(b) involves drilling into the continental shelf, the use of explosives or the introduction of harmful substances into the marine environment;

(c) involves the construction, operation or use of artificial islands, installations and structures referred to in articles 60 and 80;

(d) contains information communicated pursuant to Article 248 regarding the nature and objectives of the project which is inaccurate or if the researching State or competent international organization has outstanding obligations to the coastal State from a prior research project.

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5, coastal States may not exercise their discretion to withhold consent under subparagraph (a) of that paragraph in respect of marine scientific research projects to be undertaken in accordance with the provisions of this Part on the continental shelf, beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, outside those specific areas which coastal States may at any time publicly designate as areas in which exploitation or detailed exploratory operations focused on those areas are occurring or will occur within a reasonable period of time. Coastal States shall give reasonable notice of the designation of such areas, as well as any modifications thereto, but shall not be obliged to give details of the operations therein.

7. The provisions of paragraph 6 are without prejudice to the rights of coastal States over the continental shelf as established in Article 77.

8. Marine scientific research activities referred to in this Article shall not unjustifiably interfere with activities undertaken by coastal States in the exercise of their sovereign rights and jurisdiction provided for in this Convention.

Article 247

Marine scientific research projects undertaken by or under the auspices of international organizations

A coastal State which is a member of or has a bilateral agreement with an international organization, and in whose exclusive economic zone or on whose continental shelf that organization wants to carry out a marine scientific research project, directly or under its auspices, shall be deemed to have authorized the project to be carried out in conformity with the agreed specifications if that State approved the detailed project when the decision was made by the organization for the undertaking of the project, or is willing to participate in it, and has not expressed any objection within four months of notification of the project by the organization to the coastal State.

Article 248

Duty to provide information to the coastal State

States and competent international organizations which intend to undertake marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of a coastal State shall, not less than six months in advance of the expected starting date of the marine scientific research project, provide that State with a full description of:

(a) the nature and objectives of the project;

(b) the method and means to be used, including name, tonnage, type and class of vessels and a description of scientific equipment;

(c) the precise geographical areas in which the project is to be conducted;

(d) the expected date of first appearance and final departure of the research vessels, or deployment of the equipment and its removal, as appropriate;

(e) the name of the sponsoring institution, its director, and the person in charge of the project; and

(f) the extent to which it is considered that the coastal State should be able to participate or to be represented in the project.

Article 249

Duty to comply with certain conditions

1. States and competent international organizations when undertaking marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of a coastal State shall comply with the following conditions:

(a) ensure the right of the coastal State, if it so desires, to participate or be represented in the marine scientific research project, especially on board research vessels and other craft or scientific research installations, when practicable, without payment of any remuneration to the scientists of the coastal State and without obligation to contribute towards the costs of the project;

(b) provide the coastal State, at its request, with preliminary reports, as soon as practicable, and with the final results and conclusions after the completion of the research;

(c) undertake to provide access for the coastal State, at its request, to all data and samples derived from the marine scientific research project and likewise to furnish it with data which may be copied and samples which may be divided without detriment to their scientific value;

(d) if requested, provide the coastal State with an assessment of such data, samples and research results or provide assistance in their assessment or interpretation;

(e) ensure, subject to paragraph 2, that the research results are made internationally available through appropriate national or international channels, as soon as practicable;

(f) inform the coastal State immediately of any major change in the research programme;

(g) unless otherwise agreed, remove the scientific research installations or equipment once the research is completed.

2. This Article is without prejudice to the conditions established by the laws and regulations of the coastal State for the exercise of its discretion to grant or withhold consent pursuant to Article 246, paragraph 5, including requiring prior agreement for making internationally available the research results of a project of direct significance for the exploration and exploitation of natural resources.

Article 250

Communications concerning marine scientific research projects

Communications concerning the marine scientific research projects shall be made through appropriate official channels, unless otherwise agreed.

Article 251

General criteria and guidelines

States shall seek to promote through competent international organizations the establishment of general criteria and guidelines to assist States in ascertaining the nature and implications of marine scientific research.

Article 252

Implied consent

States or competent international organizations may proceed with a marine scientific research project six months after the date upon which the information required pursuant to Article 248 was provided to the coastal State unless within four months of the receipt of the communication containing such information the coastal State has informed the State or organization conducting the research that:

(a) it has withheld its consent under the provisions of Article 246; or

(b) the information given by that State or competent international organization regarding the nature or objectives of the project does not conform to the manifestly evident facts; or

(c) it requires supplementary information relevant to conditions and the information provided for under articles 248 and 249; or

(d) outstanding obligations exist with respect to a previous marine scientific research project carried out by that State or organization, with regard to conditions established in Article 249.

Article 253

Suspension or cessation of marine scientific research activities

1. A coastal State shall have the right to require the suspension of any marine scientific research activities in progress within its exclusive economic zone or on its continental shelf if:

(a) the research activities are not being conducted in accordance with the information communicated as provided under Article 248 upon which the consent of the coastal State was based; or

(b) the State or competent international organization conducting the research activities fails to comply with the provisions of Article 249 concerning the rights of the coastal State with respect to the marine scientific research project.

2. A coastal State shall have the right to require the cessation of any marine scientific research activities in case of any non-compliance with the provisions of Article 248 which amounts to a major change in the research project or the research activities.

3. A coastal State may also require cessation of marine scientific research activities if any of the situations contemplated in paragraph 1 are not rectified within a reasonable period of time.

4. Following notification by the coastal State of its decision to order suspension or cessation, States or competent international organizations authorized to conduct marine scientific research activities shall terminate the research activities that are the subject of such a notification.

5. An order of suspension under paragraph 1 shall be lifted by the coastal State and the marine scientific research activities allowed to continue once the researching State or competent international organization has complied with the conditions required under articles 248 and 249.

Article 254

Rights of neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States

1. States and competent international organizations which have submitted to a coastal State a project to undertake marine scientific research referred to in Article 246, paragraph 3, shall give notice to the neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States of the proposed research project, and shall notify the coastal State thereof.

2. After the consent has been given for the proposed marine scientific research project by the coastal State concerned, in accordance with Article 246 and other relevant provisions of this Convention, States and competent international organizations undertaking such a project shall provide to the neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, at their request and when appropriate, relevant information as specified in Article 248 and Article 249, paragraph 1 (f).

3. The neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States referred to above shall, at their request, be given the opportunity to participate, whenever feasible, in the proposed marine scientific research project through qualified experts appointed by them and not objected to by the coastal State, in accordance with the conditions agreed for the project, in conformity with the provisions of this Convention, between the coastal State concerned and the State or competent international organizations conducting the marine scientific research.

4. States and competent international organizations referred to in paragraph 1 shall provide to the above-mentioned land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, at their request, the information and assistance specified in Article 249, paragraph 1 (d), subject to the provisions of Article 249, paragraph 2.

Article 255

Measures to facilitate marine scientific research and assist research vessels

States shall endeavour to adopt reasonable rules, regulations and procedures to promote and facilitate marine scientific research conducted in accordance with this Convention beyond their territorial sea and, as appropriate, to facilitate, subject to the provisions of their laws and regulations, access to their harbours and promote assistance for marine scientific research vessels which comply with the relevant provisions of this Part.

Article 256

Marine scientific research in the Area

All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right, in conformity with the provisions of Part XI, to conduct marine scientific research in the Area.

Article 257

Marine scientific research in the water column beyond the exclusive economic zone

All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right, in conformity with this Convention, to conduct marine scientific research in the water column beyond the limits of the exclusive economic zone.

Section 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT IN THE
MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Article 258

Deployment and use

The deployment and use of any type of scientific research installations or equipment in any area of the marine environment shall be subject to the same conditions as are prescribed in this Convention for the conduct of marine scientific research in any such area.

Article 259

Legal status

The installations or equipment referred to in this section do not possess the status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf.

Article 260

Safety zones

Safety zones of a reasonable breadth not exceeding a distance of 500 metres may be created around scientific research installations in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Convention. All States shall ensure that such safety zones are respected by their vessels.

Article 261

Non-interference with shipping routes

The deployment and use of any type of scientific research installations or equipment shall not constitute an obstacle to established international shipping routes.

Article 262

Identification markings and warning signals

Installations or equipment referred to in this section shall bear identification markings indicating the State of registry or the international organization to which they belong and shall have adequate internationally agreed warning signals to ensure safety at sea and the safety of air navigation, taking into account rules and standards established by competent international organizations.

Section 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

Article 263

Responsibility and liability

1. States and competent international organizations shall be responsible for ensuring that marine scientific research, whether undertaken by them or on their behalf, is conducted in accordance with this Convention.

2. States and competent international organizations shall be responsible and liable for the measures they take in contravention of this Convention in respect of marine scientific research conducted by other States, their natural or juridical persons or by competent international organizations, and shall provide compensation for damage resulting from such measures.

3. States and competent international organizations shall be responsible and liable pursuant to Article 235 for damage caused by pollution of the marine environment arising out of marine scientific research undertaken by them or on their behalf.

Section 6. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND
INTERIM MEASURES

Article 264

Settlement of disputes

Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention with regard to marine scientific research shall be settled in accordance with Part XV, sections 2 and 3.

Article 265

Interim measures

Pending settlement of a dispute in accordance with Part XV, sections 2 and 3, the State or competent international organization authorized to conduct a marine scientific research project shall not allow research activities to commence or continue without the express consent of the coastal State concerned.

PART XIV

DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 266

Promotion of the development and transfer of marine technology

1. States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall cooperate in accordance with their capabilities to promote actively the development and transfer of marine science and marine technology on fair and reasonable terms and conditions.

2. States shall promote the development of the marine scientific and technological capacity of States which may need and request technical assistance in this field, particularly developing States, including land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, with regard to the exploration, exploitation, conservation and management of marine resources, the protection and preservation of the marine environment, marine scientific research and other activities in the marine environment compatible with this Convention, with a view to accelerating the social and economic development of the developing States.

3. States shall endeavour to foster favourable economic and legal conditions for the transfer of marine technology for the benefit of all parties concerned on an equitable basis.

Article 267

Protection of legitimate interests

States, in promoting co-operation pursuant to Article 266, shall have due regard for all legitimate interests including, inter alia, the rights and duties of holders, suppliers and recipients of marine technology.

Article 268

Basic objectives

States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall promote:

(a) the acquisition, evaluation and dissemination of marine technological knowledge and facilitate access to such information and data;

(b) the development of appropriate marine technology;

(c) the development of the necessary technological infrastructure to facilitate the transfer of marine technology;

(d) the development of human resources through training and education of nationals of developing States and countries and especially the nationals of the least developed among them;

(e) international co-operation at all levels, particularly at the regional, subregional and bilateral levels.

Article 269

Measures to achieve the basic objectives

In order to achieve the objectives referred to in Article 268, States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall endeavour, inter alia, to:

(a) establish programmes of technical co-operation for the effective transfer of all kinds of marine technology to States which may need and request technical assistance in this field, particularly the developing land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, as well as other developing States which have not been able either to establish or develop their own technological capacity in marine science and in the exploration and exploitation of marine resources or to develop the infrastructure of such technology;

(b) promote favourable conditions for the conclusion of agreements, contracts and other similar arrangements, under equitable and reasonable conditions;

(c) hold conferences, seminars and symposia on scientific and technological subjects, in particular on policies and methods for the transfer of marine technology;

(d) promote the exchange of scientists and of technological and other experts;

(e) undertake projects and promote joint ventures and other forms of bilateral and multilateral co-operation.

Section 2. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION

Article 270

Ways and means of international co-operation

International co-operation for the development and transfer of marine technology shall be carried out, where feasible and appropriate, through existing bilateral, regional or multilateral programmes, and also through expanded and new programmes in order to facilitate marine scientific research, the transfer of marine technology, particularly in new fields, and appropriate international funding for ocean research and development.

Article 271

Guidelines, criteria and standards

States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall promote the establishment of generally accepted guidelines, criteria and standards for the transfer of marine technology on a bilateral basis or within the framework of international organizations and other fora, taking into account, in particular, the interests and needs of developing States.

Article 272

Co-ordination of international programmes

In the field of transfer of marine technology, States shall endeavour to ensure that competent international organizations co-ordinate their activities, including any regional or global programmes, taking into account the interests and needs of developing States, particularly land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States.

Article 273

Co-operation with international organizations and the Authority

States shall co-operate actively with competent international organizations and the Authority to encourage and facilitate the transfer to developing States, their nationals and the Enterprise of skills and marine technology with regard to activities in the Area.

Article 274

Objectives of the Authority

Subject to all legitimate interests including, inter alia, the rights and duties of holders, suppliers and recipients of technology, the Authority, with regard to activities in the Area, shall ensure that:

(a) on the basis of the principle of equitable geographical distribution, nationals of developing States, whether coastal, land-locked or geographically disadvantaged, shall be taken on for the purposes of training as members of the managerial, research and technical staff constituted for its undertakings;

(b) the technical documentation on the relevant equipment, machinery, devices and processes is made available to all States, in particular developing States which may need and request technical assistance in this field;

(c) adequate provision is made by the Authority to facilitate the acquisition of technical assistance in the field of marine technology by States which may need and request it, in particular developing States, and the acquisition by their nationals of the necessary skills and know-how, including professional training;

(d) States which may need and request technical assistance in this field, in particular developing States, are assisted in the acquisition of necessary equipment, processes, plant and other technical know-how through any financial arrangements provided for in this Convention.

Section 3. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL MARINE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CENTRES

Article 275

Establishment of national centres

1. States, directly or through competent international organizations and the Authority, shall promote the establishment, particularly in developing coastal States, of national marine scientific and technological research centres and the strengthening of existing national centres, in order to stimulate and advance the conduct of marine scientific research by developing coastal States and to enhance their national capabilities to utilize and preserve their marine resources for their economic benefit.

2. States, through competent international organizations and the Authority, shall give adequate support to facilitate the establishment and strengthening of such national centres so as to provide for advanced training facilities and necessary equipment, skills and know-how as well as technical experts to such States which may need and request such assistance.

Article 276

Establishment of regional centres

1. States, in co-ordination with the competent international organizations, the Authority and national marine scientific and technological research institutions, shall promote the establishment of regional marine scientific and technological research centres, particularly in developing States, in order to stimulate and advance the conduct of marine scientific research by developing States and foster the transfer of marine technology.

2. All States of a region shall co-operate with the regional centres therein to ensure the more effective achievement of their objectives.

Article 277

Functions of regional centres

The functions of such regional centres shall include, inter alia:

(a) training and educational programmes at all levels on various aspects of marine scientific and technological research, particularly marine biology, including conservation and management of living resources, oceanography, hydrography, engineering, geological exploration of the sea-bed, mining and desalination technologies;

(b) management studies;

(c) study programmes related to the protection and preservation of the marine environment and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution;

(d) organization of regional conferences, seminars and symposia;

(e) acquisition and processing of marine scientific and technological data and information;

(f) prompt dissemination of results of marine scientific and technological research in readily available publications;

(g) publicizing national policies with regard to the transfer of marine technology and systematic comparative study of those policies;

(h) compilation and systematization of information on the marketing of technology and on contracts and other arrangements concerning patents;

(i) technical co-operation with other States of the region.

Section 4. CO-OPERATION AMONG
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Article 278

Co-operation among international organizations

The competent international organizations referred to in this Part and in Part XIII shall take all appropriate measures to ensure, either directly or in close cooperation among themselves, the effective discharge of their functions and responsibilities under this Part.

PART XV

SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 279

Obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means

States Parties shall settle any dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by peaceful means in accordance with Article 2, paragraph 3, of the Charter of the United Nations and, to this end, shall seek a solution by the means indicated in Article 33, paragraph 1, of the Charter.

Article 280

Settlement of disputes by any peaceful means chosen by the parties

Nothing in this Part impairs the right of any States Parties to agree at any time to settle a dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by any peaceful means of their own choice.

Article 281

Procedure where no settlement has been reached by the parties

1. If the States Parties which are parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention have agreed to seek settlement of the dispute by a peaceful means of their own choice, the procedures provided for in this Part apply only where no settlement has been reached by recourse to such means and the agreement between the parties does not exclude any further procedure.

2. If the parties have also agreed on a time-limit, paragraph 1 applies only upon the expiration of that time-limit.

Article 282

Obligations under general, regional or bilateral
agreements

If the States Parties which are parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention have agreed, through a general, regional or bilateral agreement or otherwise, that such dispute shall, at the request of any party to the dispute, be submitted to a procedure that entails a binding decision, that procedure shall apply in lieu of the procedures provided for in this Part, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

Article 283

Obligation to exchange views

1. When a dispute arises between States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, the parties to the dispute shall proceed expeditiously to an exchange of views regarding its settlement by negotiation or other peaceful means.

2. The parties shall also proceed expeditiously to an exchange of views where a procedure for the settlement of such a dispute has been terminated without a settlement or where a settlement has been reached and the circumstances require consultation regarding the manner of implementing the settlement.

Article 284

Conciliation

1. A State Party which is a party to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention may invite the other party or parties to submit the dispute to conciliation in accordance with the procedure under Annex V, section 1, or another conciliation procedure.

2. If the invitation is accepted and if the parties agree upon the conciliation procedure to be applied, any party may submit the dispute to that procedure.

3. If the invitation is not accepted or the parties do not agree upon the procedure, the conciliation proceedings shall be deemed to be terminated.

4. Unless the parties otherwise agree, when a dispute has been submitted to conciliation, the proceedings may be terminated only in accordance with the agreed conciliation procedure.

Article 285

Application of this section to disputes submitted pursuant to Part XI

This section applies to any dispute which pursuant to Part XI, section 5, is to be settled in accordance with procedures provided for in this Part. If an entity other than a State Party is a party to such a dispute, this section applies mutatis mutandis.

Section 2. COMPULSORY PROCEDURES
ENTAILING BINDING DECISIONS

Article 286

Application of procedures under this section

Subject to section 3, any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention shall, where no settlement has been reached by recourse to section 1, be submitted at the request of any party to the dispute to the court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section.

Article 287

Choice of procedure

1. When signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter, a State shall be free to choose, by means of a written declaration, one or more of the following means for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention:

(a) the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea established in accordance with Annex VI;

(b) the International Court of Justice;

(c) an arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VII;

(d) a special arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VIII for one or more of the categories of disputes specified therein.

2. A declaration made under paragraph 1 shall not affect or be affected by the obligation of a State Party to accept the jurisdiction of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to the extent and in the manner provided for in Part XI, section 5.

3. A State Party, which is a party to a dispute not covered by a declaration in force, shall be deemed to have accepted arbitration in accordance with Annex VII.

4. If the parties to a dispute have accepted the same procedure for the settlement of the dispute, it may be submitted only to that procedure, unless the parties otherwise agree.

5. If the parties to a dispute have not accepted the same procedure for the settlement of the dispute, it may be submitted only to arbitration in accordance with Annex VII, unless the parties otherwise agree.

6. A declaration made under paragraph 1 shall remain in force until three months after notice of revocation has been deposited with the Secretary- General of the United Nations.

7. A new declaration, a notice of revocation or the expiry of a declaration does not in any way affect proceedings pending before a court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this article, unless the parties otherwise agree.

8. Declarations and notices referred to in this Article shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the States Parties.

Article 288

Jurisdiction

1. A court or tribunal referred to in Article 287 shall have jurisdiction over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which is submitted to it in accordance with this Part.

2. A court or tribunal referred to in Article 287 shall also have jurisdiction over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of an international agreement related to the purposes of this Convention, which is submitted to it in accordance with the agreement.

3. The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea established in accordance with Annex VI, and any other chamber or arbitral tribunal referred to in Part XI, section 5, shall have jurisdiction in any matter which is submitted to it in accordance therewith.

4. In the event of a dispute as to whether a court or tribunal has jurisdiction, the matter shall be settled by decision of that court or tribunal.

Article 289

Experts

In any dispute involving scientific or technical matters, a court or tribunal exercising jurisdiction under this section may, at the request of a party or proprio motu, select in consultation with the parties no fewer than two scientific or technical experts chosen preferably from the relevant list prepared in accordance with Annex VIII, Article 2, to sit with the court or tribunal but without the right to vote.

Article 290

Provisional measures

1. If a dispute has been duly submitted to a court or tribunal which considers that prima facie it has jurisdiction under this Part or Part XI, section 5, the court or tribunal may prescribe any provisional measures which it considers appropriate under the circumstances to preserve the respective rights of the parties to the dispute or to prevent serious harm to the marine environment, pending the final decision.

2. Provisional measures may be modified or revoked as soon as the circumstances justifying them have changed or ceased to exist.

3. Provisional measures may be prescribed, modified or revoked under this Article only at the request of a party to the dispute and after the parties have been given an opportunity to be heard.

4. The court or tribunal shall forthwith give notice to the parties to the dispute, and to such other States Parties as it considers appropriate, of the prescription, modification or revocation of provisional measures.

5. Pending the constitution of an arbitral tribunal to which a dispute is being submitted under this section, any court or tribunal agreed upon by the parties or, failing such agreement within two weeks from the date of the request for provisional measures, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea or, with respect to activities in the Area, the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber, may prescribe, modify or revoke provisional measures in accordance with this Article if it considers that prima facie the tribunal which is to be constituted would have jurisdiction and that the urgency of the situation so requires. Once constituted, the tribunal to which the dispute has been submitted may modify, revoke or affirm those provisional measures, acting in conformity with paragraphs 1 to 4.

6. The parties to the dispute shall comply promptly with any provisional measures prescribed under this article.

Article 291

Access

1. All the dispute settlement procedures specified in this Part shall be open to States Parties.

2. The dispute settlement procedures specified in this Part shall be open to entities other than States Parties only as specifically provided for in this Convention.

Article 292

Prompt release of vessels and crews

1. Where the authorities of a State Party have detained a vessel flying the flag of another State Party and it is alleged that the detaining State has not complied with the provisions of this Convention for the prompt release of the vessel or its crew upon the posting of a reasonable bond or other financial security, the question of release from detention may be submitted to any court or tribunal agreed upon by the parties or, failing such agreement within 10 days from the time of detention, to a court or tribunal accepted by the detaining State under Article 287 or to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, unless the parties otherwise agree.

2. The application for release may be made only by or on behalf of the flag State of the vessel.

3. The court or tribunal shall deal without delay with the application for release and shall deal only with the question of release, without prejudice to the merits of any case before the appropriate domestic forum against the vessel, its owner or its crew. The authorities of the detaining State remain competent to release the vessel or its crew at any time.

4. Upon the posting of the bond or other financial security determined by the court or tribunal, the authorities of the detaining State shall comply promptly with the decision of the court or tribunal concerning the release of the vessel or its crew.

Article 293

Applicable law

1. A court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section shall apply this Convention and other rules of international law not incompatible with this Convention.

2. Paragraph 1 does not prejudice the power of the court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section to decide a case ex aequo et bono, if the parties so agree.

Article 294

Preliminary proceedings

1. A court or tribunal provided for in Article 287 to which an application is made in respect of a dispute referred to in Article 297 shall determine at the request of a party, or may determine proprio motu, whether the claim constitutes an abuse of legal process or whether prima facie it is well founded. If the court or tribunal determines that the claim constitutes an abuse of legal process or is prima facie unfounded, it shall take no further action in the case.

2. Upon receipt of the application, the court or tribunal shall immediately notify the other party or parties of the application, and shall fix a reasonable time-limit within which they may request it to make a determination in accordance with paragraph 1.

3. Nothing in this Article affects the right of any party to a dispute to make preliminary objections in accordance with the applicable rules of procedure.

Article 295

Exhaustion of local remedies

Any dispute between States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention may be submitted to the procedures provided for in this section only after local remedies have been exhausted where this is required by international law.

Article 296

Finality and binding force of decisions

1. Any decision rendered by a court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section shall be final and shall be complied with by all the parties to the dispute.

2. Any such decision shall have no binding force except between the parties and in respect of that particular dispute.

Section 3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2

Article 297

Limitations on applicability of section 2

1. Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention with regard to the exercise by a coastal State of its sovereign rights or jurisdiction provided for in this Convention shall be subject to the procedures provided for in section 2 in the following cases:

(a) when it is alleged that a coastal State has acted in contravention of the provisions of this Convention in regard to the freedoms and rights of navigation, overflight or the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, or in regard to other internationally lawful uses of the sea specified in Article 58;

(b) when it is alleged that a State in exercising the aforementioned freedoms, rights or uses has acted in contravention of this Convention or of laws or regulations adopted by the coastal State in conformity with this Convention and other rules of international law not incompatible with this Convention; or

(c) when it is alleged that a coastal State has acted in contravention of specified international rules and standards for the protection and preservation of the marine environment which are applicable to the coastal State and which have been established by this Convention or through a competent international organization or diplomatic conference in accordance with this Convention.

2. (a) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention with regard to marine scientific research shall be settled in accordance with section 2, except that the coastal State shall not be obliged to accept the submission to such settlement of any dispute arising out of:

(i) the exercise by the coastal State of a right or discretion in accordance with Article 246, or

(ii) a decision by the coastal State to order suspension or cessation of a research project in accordance with Article 253.

(b) A dispute arising from an allegation by the researching State that with respect to a specific project the coastal State is not exercising its rights under articles 246 and 253 in a manner compatible with this Convention shall be submitted, at the request of either party, to conciliation under Annex V, section 2, provided that the conciliation commission shall not call in question the exercise by the coastal State of its discretion to designate specific areas as referred to in Article 246, paragraph 6, or of its discretion to withhold consent in accordance with Article 246, paragraph 5.

3. (a) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention with regard to fisheries shall be settled in accordance with section 2, except that the coastal State shall not be obliged to accept the submission to such settlement of any dispute relating to its sovereign rights with respect to the living resources in the exclusive economic zone or their exercise, including its discretionary powers for determining the allowable catch, its harvesting capacity, the allocation of surpluses to other States and the terms and conditions established in its conservation and management laws and regulations.

(b) Where no settlement has been reached by recourse to section 1 of this Part, a dispute shall be submitted to conciliation under Annex V, section 2, at the request of any party to the dispute, when it is alleged that:

(i) a coastal State has manifestly failed to comply with its obligations to ensure through proper conservation and management measures that the maintenance of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone is not seriously endangered;

(ii) a coastal State has arbitrarily refused to determine, at the request of another State, the allowable catch and its capacity to harvest living resources with respect to stocks which that other State is interested in fishing, or

(iii) a coastal State has arbitrarily refused to allocate to any State, under articles 62, 69 and 70 and under the terms and conditions established by the coastal State consistent with this Convention, the whole or part of the surplus it has declared to exist.

(c) In no case shall the conciliation commission substitute its discretion for that of the coastal State.

(d) The report of the conciliation commission shall be communicated to the appropriate international organizations.

(e) In negotiating agreements pursuant to articles 69 and 70, States Parties, unless they otherwise agree, shall include a clause on measures which they shall take in order to minimize the possibility of a disagreement concerning the interpretation or application of the agreement, and on how they should proceed if a disagreement nevertheless arises.

Article 298

Optional exceptions to applicability of section 2

1. When signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter, a State may, without prejudice to the obligations arising under section 1, declare in writing that it does not accept any one or more of the procedures provided for in section 2 with respect to one or more of the following categories of disputes:

(a) (i) disputes concerning the interpretation or application of articles 15, 74 and 83 relating to sea boundary delimitations, or those involving historic bays or titles, provided that a State having made such a declaration shall, when such a dispute arises subsequent to the entry into force of this Convention and where no agreement within a reasonable period of time is reached in negotiations between the parties, at the request of any party to the dispute, accept submission of the matter to conciliation under Annex V, section 2; and provided further that any dispute that necessarily involves the concurrent consideration of any unsettled dispute concerning sovereignty or other rights over continental or insular land territory shall be excluded from such submission;

(ii) after the conciliation commission has presented its report, which shall state the reasons on which it is based, the parties shall negotiate an agreement on the basis of that report; if these negotiations do not result in an agreement, the parties shall, by mutual consent, submit the question to one of the procedures provided for in section 2, unless the parties otherwise agree;

(iii) this subparagraph does not apply to any sea boundary dispute finally settled by an arrangement between the parties, or to any such dispute which is to be settled in accordance with a bilateral or multilateral agreement binding upon those parties;

(b) disputes concerning military activities, including military activities by government vessels and aircraft engaged in non-commercial service, and disputes concerning law enforcement activities in regard to the exercise of sovereign rights or jurisdiction excluded from the jurisdiction of a court or tribunal under Article 297, paragraph 2 or 3;

(c) disputes in respect of which the Security Council of the United Nations is exercising the functions assigned to it by the Charter of the United Nations, unless the Security Council decides to remove the matter from its agenda or calls upon the parties to settle it by the means provided for in this Convention.

2. A State Party which has made a declaration under paragraph 1 may at any time withdraw it, or agree to submit a dispute excluded by such declaration to any procedure specified in this Convention.

3. A State Party which has made a declaration under paragraph 1 shall not be entitled to submit any dispute falling within the excepted category of disputes to any procedure in this Convention as against another State Party, without the consent of that party.

4. If one of the States Parties has made a declaration under paragraph 1 (a), any other State Party may submit any dispute falling within an excepted category against the declarant party to the procedure specified in such declaration.

5. A new declaration, or the withdrawal of a declaration, does not in any way affect proceedings pending before a court or tribunal in accordance with this article, unless the parties otherwise agree.

6. Declarations and notices of withdrawal of declarations under this Article shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the States Parties.

Article 299

Right of the parties to agree upon a procedure

1. A dispute excluded under Article 297 or excepted by a declaration made under Article 298 from the dispute settlement procedures provided for in section 2 may be submitted to such procedures only by agreement of the parties to the dispute.

2. Nothing in this section impairs the right of the parties to the dispute to agree to some other procedure for the settlement of such dispute or to reach an amicable settlement.

PART XVI

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 300

Good faith and abuse of rights

States Parties shall fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed under this Convention and shall exercise the rights, jurisdiction and freedoms recognized in this Convention in a manner which would not constitute an abuse of right.

Article 301

Peaceful uses of the seas

In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention, States Parties shall refrain from any threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations.

Article 302

Disclosure of information

Without prejudice to the right of a State Party to resort to the procedures for the settlement of disputes provided for in this Convention, nothing in this Convention shall be deemed to require a State Party, in the fulfilment of its obligations under this Convention, to supply information the disclosure of which is contrary to the essential interests of its security.

Article 303

Archaeological and historical objects found at sea

1. States have the duty to protect objects of an archaeological and historical nature found at sea and shall co-operate for this purpose.

2. In order to control traffic in such objects, the coastal State may, in applying Article 33, presume that their removal from the sea-bed in the zone referred to in that Article without its approval would result in an infringement within its territory or territorial sea of the laws and regulations referred to in that article.

3. Nothing in this Article affects the rights of identifiable owners, the law of salvage or other rules of admiralty, or laws and practices with respect to cultural exchanges.

4. This Article is without prejudice to other international agreements and rules of international law regarding the protection of objects of an archaeological and historical nature.

Article 304

Responsibility and liability for damage

The provisions of this Convention regarding responsibility and liability for damage are without prejudice to the application of existing rules and the development of further rules regarding responsibility and liability under international law.

PART XVII

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 305

Signature

1. This Convention shall be open for signature by:

(a) all States;

(b) Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for Namibia;

(c) all self-governing associated States which have chosen that status in an act of self-determination supervised and approved by the United Nations in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) and which have competence over the matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters;

(d) all self-governing associated States which, in accordance with their respective instruments of association, have competence over the matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters;

(e) all territories which enjoy full internal self-government, recognized as such by the United Nations, but have not attained full independence in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) and which have competence over the matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters;

(f) international organizations, in accordance with Annex IX.

2. This Convention shall remain open for signature until 9 December 1984 at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Jamaica and also, from 1 July 1983 until 9 December 1984, at United Nations Headquarters in New York.

Article 306

Ratification and formal confirmation

This Convention is subject to ratification by States and the other entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph 1 (b), (c), (d) and (e), and to formal confirmation, in accordance with Annex IX, by the entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph 1 (f). The instruments of ratification and of formal confirmation shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 307

Accession

This Convention shall remain open for accession by States and the other entities referred to in Article 305. Accession by the entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph 1 (f), shall be in accordance with Annex IX. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 308

Entry into force

1. This Convention shall enter into force 12 months after the date of deposit of the sixtieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State ratifying or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the sixtieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession, subject to paragraph 1.

3. The Assembly of the Authority shall meet on the date of entry into force of this Convention and shall elect the Council of the Authority. The first Council shall be constituted in a manner consistent with the purpose of Article 161 if the provisions of that Article cannot be strictly applied.

4. The rules, regulations and procedures drafted by the Preparatory Commission shall apply provisionally pending their formal adoption by the Authority in accordance with Part XI.

5. The Authority and its organs shall act in accordance with resolution II of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea relating to preparatory investment and with decisions of the Preparatory Commission taken pursuant to that resolution.

Article 309

Reservations and exceptions

No reservations or exceptions may be made to this Convention unless expressly permitted by other articles of this Convention.

Article 310

Declarations and statements

Article 309 does not preclude a State, when signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention, from making declarations or statements, however phrased or named, with a view, inter alia, to the harmonization of its laws and regulations with the provisions of this Convention, provided that such declarations or statements do not purport to exclude or to modify the legal effect of the provisions of this Convention in their application to that State.

Article 311

Relation to other conventions and international
agreements

1. This Convention shall prevail, as between States Parties, over the Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea of 29 April 1958.

2. This Convention shall not alter the rights and obligations of States Parties which arise from other agreements compatible with this Convention and which do not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Convention.

3. Two or more States Parties may conclude agreements modifying or suspending the operation of provisions of this Convention, applicable solely to the relations between them, provided that such agreements do not relate to a provision derogation from which is incompatible with the effective execution of the object and purpose of this Convention, and provided further that such agreements shall not affect the application of the basic principles embodied herein, and that the provisions of such agreements do not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Convention.

4. States Parties intending to conclude an agreement referred to in paragraph 3 shall notify the other States Parties through the depositary of this Convention of their intention to conclude the agreement and of the modification or suspension for which it provides.

5. This Article does not affect international agreements expressly permitted or preserved by other articles of this Convention.

6. States Parties agree that there shall be no amendments to the basic principle relating to the common heritage of mankind set forth in Article 136 and that they shall not be party to any agreement in derogation thereof.

Article 312

Amendment

1. After the expiry of a period of 10 years from the date of entry into force of this Convention, a State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, propose specific amendments to this Convention, other than those relating to activities in the Area, and request the convening of a conference to consider such proposed amendments. The Secretary-General shall circulate such communication to all States Parties. If, within 12 months from the date of the circulation of the communication, not less than one half of the States Parties reply favourably to the request, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference.

2. The decision-making procedure applicable at the amendment conference shall be the same as that applicable at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea unless otherwise decided by the conference. The conference should make every effort to reach agreement on any amendments by way of consensus and there should be no voting on them until all efforts at consensus have been exhausted.

Article 313

Amendment by simplified procedure

1. A State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Secretary- General of the United Nations, propose an amendment to this Convention, other than an amendment relating to activities in the Area, to be adopted by the simplified procedure set forth in this Article without convening a conference. The Secretary-General shall circulate the communication to all States Parties.

2. If, within a period of 12 months from the date of the circulation of the communication, a State Party objects to the proposed amendment or to the proposal for its adoption by the simplified procedure, the amendment shall be considered rejected. The Secretary-General shall immediately notify all States Parties accordingly.

3. If, 12 months from the date of the circulation of the communication, no State Party has objected to the proposed amendment or to the proposal for its adoption by the simplified procedure, the proposed amendment shall be considered adopted. The Secretary-General shall notify all States Parties that the proposed amendment has been adopted.

Article 314

Amendments to the provisions of this Convention relating exclusively to activities in the Area

1. A State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Secretary- General of the Authority, propose an amendment to the provisions of this Convention relating exclusively to activities in the Area, including Annex VI, section 4. The Secretary-General shall circulate such communication to all States Parties. The proposed amendment shall be subject to approval by the Assembly following its approval by the Council. Representatives of States Parties in those organs shall have full powers to consider and approve the proposed amendment. The proposed amendment as approved by the Council and the Assembly shall be considered adopted.

2. Before approving any amendment under paragraph 1, the Council and the Assembly shall ensure that it does not prejudice the system of exploration for and exploitation of the resources of the Area, pending the Review Conference in accordance with Article 155.

Article 315

Signature, ratification oft accession to and authentic texts of amendments

1. Once adopted, amendments to this Convention shall be open for signature by States Parties for 12 months from the date of adoption, at United Nations Headquarters in New York, unless otherwise provided in the amendment itself.

2. Articles 306, 307 and 320 apply to all amendments to this Convention.

Article 316

Entry into force of amendments

1. Amendments to this Convention, other than those referred to in paragraph 5, shall enter into force for the States Parties ratifying or acceding to them on the thirtieth day following the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession by two thirds of the States Parties or by 60 States Parties, whichever is greater. Such amendments shall not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Convention.

2. An amendment may provide that a larger number of ratifications or accessions shall be required for its entry into force than are required by this article.

3. For each State Party ratifying or acceding to an amendment referred to in paragraph 1 after the deposit of the required number of instruments of ratification or accession, the amendment shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.

4. A State which becomes a Party to this Convention after the entry into force of an amendment in accordance with paragraph 1 shall, failing an expression of a different intention by that State:

(a) be considered as a Party to this Convention as so amended; and

(b) be considered as a Party to the unamended Convention in relation to any State Party not bound by the amendment.

5. Any amendment relating exclusively to activities in the Area and any amendment to Annex VI shall enter into force for all States Parties one year following the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession by three fourths of the States Parties.

6. A State which becomes a Party to this Convention after the entry into force of amendments in accordance with paragraph 5 shall be considered as a Party to this Convention as so amended.

Article 317

Denunciation

1. A State Party may, by written notification addressed to the Secretary- General of the United Nations, denounce this Convention and may indicate its reasons. Failure to indicate reasons shall not affect the validity of the denunciation. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of receipt of the notification, unless the notification specifies a later date.

2. A State shall not be discharged by reason of the denunciation from the financial and contractual obligations which accrued while it was a Party to this Convention, nor shall the denunciation affect any right, obligation or legal situation of that State created through the execution of this Convention prior to its termination for that State.

3. The denunciation shall not in any way affect the duty of any State Party to fulfil any obligation embodied in this Convention to which it would be subject under international law independently of this Convention.

Article 318

Status of Annexes

The Annexes form an integral part of this Convention and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention or to one of its Parts includes a reference to the Annexes relating thereto.

Article 319

Depositary

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of this Convention and amendments thereto.

2. In addition to his functions as depositary, the Secretary-General shall:

(a) report to all States Parties, the Authority and competent international organizations on issues of a general nature that have arisen with respect to this Convention;

(b) notify the Authority of ratifications and formal confirmations of and accessions to this Convention and amendments thereto, as well as of denunciations of this Convention;

(c) notify States Parties of agreements in accordance with Article 311, paragraph 4;

(d) circulate amendments adopted in accordance with this Convention to States Parties for ratification or accession;

(e) convene necessary meetings of States Parties in accordance with this Convention.

3. (a) The Secretary-General shall also transmit to the observers referred to in Article 156:

(i) reports referred to in paragraph 2 (a);

(ii) notifications referred to in paragraph 2 (b) and (c); and

(iii) texts of amendments referred to in paragraph 2 (d), for their information.

(b) The Secretary-General shall also invite those observers to participate as observers at meetings of States Parties referred to in paragraph 2(e).

Article 320

Authentic texts

The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall, subject to Article 305, paragraph 2, be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.

DONE AT MONTEGO BAY, this tenth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and eighty-two.

***

ANNEX I. HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES

1. Albacore tuna: Thunnus alalunga.

2. Bluefin tuna: Thunnus thynnus.

3. Bigeye tuna: Thunnus obesus.

4. Skipjack tuna: Katsuwonus pelamis.

5. Yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares.

6. Blackfin tuna: Thunnus atlanticus.

7. Little tuna: Euthynnus alletteratus; Euthynnus affinis.

8. Southern bluefin tuna: Thunnus maccoyii

9. Frigate mackerel: Auxis thazard; Auxis rochei.

10. Pomfrets: Family Bramidae.

11. Marlins: Tetrapturus angustirostris; Tetrapturus belone; Tetrapturus pnuegeri; Tetrapturus albidus; Tetrapturus audax; Tetrapturus georgei; Makaira mazara; Makaira indica; Makaira nigricans.

12. Sail-fishes: Istiophorus platypterus; Istiophorus albicans.

13. Swordfish: Xiphias gladius.

14. Sauries: Scomberesox saurus; Cololabis saira; Cololabis adocetus; Scomberesox saurus scombroides.

15. Dolphin: Coryphaena hippurus; Coryphaena equiselis.

16. Oceanic sharks: Hexanchus griseus; Cetorhinus maximus; Family Alopiidae; Rhincodon typus; Family Carcharhinidae; Family Sphyrnidae; Family Isurida.

17. Cetaceans: Family Physeteridae, Family Balaenopteridae; Family Balaenidae; Family Eschrichtiidae; Family Monodontidae; Family Ziphiidae; Family Delphinidae.

***

ANNEX II. COMMISSION ON THE LIMITS OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF

Article 1

In accordance with the provisions of Article 76, a Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles shall be established in conformity with the following articles.

Article 2

1. The Commission shall consist of 21 members who shall be experts in the field of geology, geophysics or hydrography, elected by States Parties to this Convention from among their nationals, having due regard to the need to ensure equitable geographical representation, who shall serve in their personal capacities.

2. The initial election shall be held as soon as possible but in any case within 18 months after the date of entry into force of this Convention. At least three months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties, inviting the submission of nominations, after appropriate regional consultations, within three months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated and shall submit it to all the States Parties.

3. Elections of the members of the Commission shall be held at a meeting of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Commission shall be those nominees who obtain a two-thirds majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting. Not less than three members shall be elected from each geographical region.

4. The members of the Commission shall be elected for a term of five years. They shall be eligible for re-election.

5. The State Party which submitted the nomination of a member of the Commission shall defray the expenses of that member while in performance of Commission duties. The coastal State concerned shall defray the expenses incurred in respect of the advice referred to in Article 3, paragraph 1 (b), of this Annex. The secretariat of the Commission shall be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 3

1. The functions of the Commission shall be:

(a) to consider the data and other material submitted by coastal States concerning the outer limits of the continental shelf in areas where those limits extend beyond 200 nautical miles, and to make recommendations in accordance with Article 76 and the Statement of Understanding adopted on 29 August 1980 by the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea;

(b) to provide scientific and technical advice, if requested by the coastal State concerned during the preparation of the data referred to in subparagraph (a).

2. The Commission may co-operate, to the extent considered necessary and useful, with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, the International Hydrographic Organization and other competent international organizations with a view to exchanging scientific and technical information which might be of assistance in discharging the Commissionžs responsibilities.

Article 4

Where a coastal State intends to establish, in accordance with Article 76, the outer limits of its continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, it shall submit particulars of such limits to the Commission along with supporting scientific and technical data as soon as possible but in any case within 10 years of the entry into force of this Convention for that State. The coastal State shall at the same time give the names of any Commission members who have provided it with scientific and technical advice.

Article 5

Unless the Commission decides otherwise, the Commission shall function by way of sub-commissions composed of seven members, appointed in a balanced manner taking into account the specific elements of each submission by a coastal State. Nationals of the coastal State making the submission who are members of the Commission and any Commission member who has assisted a coastal State by providing scientific and technical advice with respect to the delineation shall not be a member of the sub-commission dealing with that submission but has the right to participate as a member in the proceedings of the Commission concerning the said submission. The coastal State which has made a submission to the Commission may send its representatives to participate in the relevant proceedings without the right to vote.

Article 6

1. The sub-commission shall submit its recommendations to the Commission.

2. Approval by the Commission of the recommendations of the subcommission shall be by a majority of two thirds of Commission members present and voting.

3. The recommendations of the Commission shall be submitted in writing to the coastal State which made the submission and to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 7

Coastal States shall establish the outer limits of the continental shelf in conformity with the provisions of Article 76, paragraph 8, and in accordance with the appropriate national procedures.

Article 8

In the case of disagreement by the coastal State with the recommendations of the Commission, the coastal State shall, within a reasonable time, make a revised or new submission to the Commission.

Article 9

The actions of the Commission shall not prejudice matters relating to delimitation of boundaries between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

***

ANNEX III. BASIC CONDITIONS OF PROSPECTING, EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION

Article 1

Title to minerals

Title to minerals shall pass upon recovery in accordance with this Convention.

Article 2

Prospecting

1. (a) The Authority shall encourage prospecting in the Area.

(b) Prospecting shall be conducted only after the Authority has received a satisfactory written undertaking that the proposed prospector will comply with this Convention and the relevant rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority concerning co-operation in the training programmes referred to in articles 143 and 144 and the protection of the marine environment, and will accept verification by the Authority of compliance therewith. The proposed prospector shall, at the same time, notify the Authority of the approximate area or areas in which prospecting is to be conducted.

(c) Prospecting may be conducted simultaneously by more than one prospector in the same area or areas.

2. Prospecting shall not confer on the prospector any rights with respect to resources. A prospector may, however, recover a reasonable quantity of minerals to be used for testing.

Article 3

Exploration and exploitation

1. The Enterprise, States Parties, and the other entities referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), may apply to the Authority for approval of plans of work for activities in the Area.

2. The Enterprise may apply with respect to any part of the Area, but applications by others with respect to reserved areas are subject to the additional requirements of Article 9 of this Annex.

3. Exploration and exploitation shall be carried out only in areas specified in plans of work referred to in Article 153, paragraph 3, and approved by the Authority in accordance with this Convention and the relevant rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

4. Every approved plan of work shall:

(a) be in conformity with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(b) provide for control by the Authority of activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 4;

(c) confer on the operator, in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, the exclusive right to explore for and exploit the specified categories of resources in the area covered by the plan of work. If, however, the applicant presents for approval a plan of work covering only the stage of exploration or the stage of exploitation, the approved plan of work shall confer such exclusive right with respect to that stage only.

5. Upon its approval by the Authority, every plan of work, except those presented by the Enterprise, shall be in the form of a contract concluded between the Authority and the applicant or applicants.

Article 4

Qualifications of applicants

1. Applicants, other than the Enterprise, shall be qualified if they have the nationality or control and sponsorship required by Article 153, paragraph 2(b), and if they follow the procedures and meet the qualification standards set forth in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

2. Except as provided in paragraph 6, such qualification standards shall relate to the financial and technical capabilities of the applicant and his performance under any previous contracts with the Authority.

3. Each applicant shall be sponsored by the State Party of which it is a national unless the applicant has more than one nationality, as in the case of a partnership or consortium of entities from several States, in which event all States Parties involved shall sponsor the application, or unless the applicant is effectively controlled by another State Party or its nationals, in which event both States Parties shall sponsor the application. The criteria and procedures for implementation of the sponsorship requirements shall be set forth in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

4. The sponsoring State or States shall, pursuant to Article 139, have the responsibility to ensure, within their legal systems, that a contractor so sponsored shall carry out activities in the Area in conformity with the terms of its contract and its obligations under this Convention. A sponsoring State shall not, however, be liable for damage caused by any failure of a contractor sponsored by it to comply with its obligations if that State Party has adopted laws and regulations and taken administrative measures which are, within the framework of its legal system, reasonably appropriate for securing compliance by persons under its jurisdiction.

5. The procedures for assessing the qualifications of States Parties which are applicants shall take into account their character as States.

6. The qualification standards shall require that every applicant, without exception, shall as part of his application undertake:

(a) to accept as enforceable and comply with the applicable obligations created by the provisions of Part XI, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, the decisions of the organs of the Authority and terms of his contracts with the Authority;

(b) to accept control by the Authority of activities in the Area, as authorized by this Convention;

(c) to provide the Authority with a written assurance that his obligations under the contract will be fulfilled in good faith;

(d) to comply with the provisions on the transfer of technology set forth in Article 5 of this Annex.

Article 5

Transfer of technology

1. When submitting a plan of work, every applicant shall make available to the Authority a general description of the equipment and methods to be used in carrying out activities in the Area, and other relevant non-proprietary information about the characteristics of such technology and information as to where such technology is available.

2. Every operator shall inform the Authority of revisions in the description and information made available pursuant to paragraph 1 whenever a substantial technological change or innovation is introduced.

3. Every contract for carrying out activities in the Area shall contain the following undertakings by the contractor:

(a) to make available to the Enterprise on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, whenever the Authority so requests, the technology which he uses in carrying out activities in the Area under the contract, which the contractor is legally entitled to transfer. This shall be done by means of licences or other appropriate arrangements which the contractor shall negotiate with the Enterprise and which shall be set forth in a specific agreement supplementary to the contract. This undertaking may be invoked only if the Enterprise finds that it is unable to obtain the same or equally efficient and useful technology on the open market on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions;

(b) to obtain a written assurance from the owner of any technology used in carrying out activities in the Area under the contract, which is not generally available on the open market and which is not covered by subparagraph (a), that the owner will, whenever the Authority so requests, make that technology available to the Enterprise under licence or other appropriate arrangements and on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, to the same extent as made available to the contractor. If this assurance is not obtained, the technology in question shall not be used by the contractor in carrying out activities in the Area;

(c) to acquire from the owner by means of an enforceable contract, upon the request of the Enterprise and if it is possible to do so without substantial cost to the contractor, the legal right to transfer to the Enterprise any technology used by the contractor, in carrying out activities in the Area under the contract, which the contractor is otherwise not legally entitled to transfer and which is not generally available on the open market. In cases where there is a substantial corporate relationship between the contractor and the owner of the technology, the closeness of this relationship and the degree of control or influence shall be relevant to the determination whether all feasible measures have been taken to acquire such a right. In cases where the contractor exercises effective control over the owner, failure to acquire from the owner the legal right shall be considered relevant to the contractoržs qualification for any subsequent application for approval of a plan of work;

(d) to facilitate, upon the request of the Enterprise, the acquisition by the Enterprise of any technology covered by subparagraph (b), under licence or other appropriate arrangements and on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, if the Enterprise decides to negotiate directly with the owner of the technology;

(e) to take the same measures as are prescribed in subparagraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) for the benefit of a developing State or group of developing States which has applied for a contract under Article 9 of this Annex, provided that these measures shall be limited to the exploitation of the part of the area proposed by the contractor which has been reserved pursuant to Article 8 of this Annex and provided that activities under the contract sought by the developing State or group of developing States would not involve transfer of technology to a third State or the nationals of a third State. The obligation under this provision shall only apply with respect to any given contractor where technology has not been requested by the Enterprise or transferred by that contractor to the Enterprise.

4. Disputes concerning undertakings required by paragraph 3, like other provisions of the contracts, shall be subject to compulsory settlement in accordance with Part XI and, in cases of violation of these undertakings, suspension or termination of the contract or monetary penalties may be ordered in accordance with Article 18 of this Annex. Disputes as to whether offers made by the contractor are within the range of fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions may be submitted by either party to binding commercial arbitration in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules or such other arbitration rules as may be prescribed in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. If the finding is that the offer made by the contractor is not within the range of fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, the contractor shall be given 45 days to revise his offer to bring it within that range before the Authority takes any action in accordance with Article 18 of this Annex.

5. If the Enterprise is unable to obtain on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions appropriate technology to enable it to commence in a timely manner the recovery and processing of minerals from the Area, either the Council or the Assembly may convene a group of States Parties composed of those which are engaged in activities in the Area, those which have sponsored entities which are engaged in activities in the Area and other States Parties having access to such technology. This group shall consult together and shall take effective measures to ensure that such technology is made available to the Enterprise on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions. Each such State Party shall take all feasible measures to this end within its own legal system .

6. In the case of joint ventures with the Enterprise, transfer of technology will be in accordance with the terms of the joint venture agreement.

7. The undertakings required by paragraph 3 shall be included in each contract for the carrying out of activities in the Area until 10 years after the commencement of commercial production by the Enterprise, and may be invoked during that period.

8. For the purposes of this article, “technology” means the specialized equipment and technical know-how, including manuals, designs, operating instructions, training and technical advice and assistance, necessary to assemble, maintain and operate a viable system and the legal right to use these items for that purpose on a non-exclusive basis.

Article 6

Approval of plans of work

1. Six months after the entry into force of this Convention, and thereafter each fourth month, the Authority shall take up for consideration proposed plans of work.

2. When considering an application for approval of a plan of work in the form of a contract, the Authority shall first ascertain whether:

(a) the applicant has complied with the procedures established for applications in accordance with Article 4 of this Annex and has given the Authority the undertakings and assurances required by that article. In cases of non-compliance with these procedures or in the absence of any of these undertakings and assurances, the applicant shall be given 45 days to remedy these defects;

(b) the applicant possesses the requisite qualifications provided for in Article 4 of this Annex.

3. All proposed plans of work shall be taken up in the order in which they are received. The proposed plans of work shall comply with and be governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, including those on operational requirements, financial contributions and the undertakings concerning the transfer of technology. If the proposed plans of work conform to these requirements, the Authority shall approve them provided that they are in accordance with the uniform and nondiscriminatory requirements set forth in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, unless:

(a) part or all of the area covered by the proposed plan of work is included in an approved plan of work or a previously submitted proposed plan of work which has not yet been finally acted on by the Authority;

(b) part or all of the area covered by the proposed plan of work is disapproved by the Authority pursuant to Article 162, paragraph 2 (x); or

(c) the proposed plan of work has been submitted or sponsored by a State Party which already holds:

(i) plans of work for exploration and exploitation of polymetallic nodules in non-reserved areas that, together with either part of the area covered by the application for a plan of work, exceed in size 30 per cent of a circular area of 400,000 square kilometres surrounding the centre of either part of the area covered by the proposed plan of work;

(ii) plans of work for the exploration and exploitation of polymetallic nodules in non-reserved areas which, taken together, constitute 2 per cent of the total sea-bed area which is not reserved or disapproved for exploitation pursuant to Article 162, paragraph (2) (x).

4. For the purpose of the standard set forth in paragraph 3(c), a plan of work submitted by a partnership or consortium shall be counted on a pro rata basis among the sponsoring States Parties involved in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 3, of this Annex. The Authority may approve plans of work covered by paragraph 3 (c) if it determines that such approval would not permit a State Party or entities sponsored by it to monopolize the conduct of activities in the Area or to preclude other States Parties from activities in the Area.

5. Notwithstanding paragraph 3(a), after the end of the interim period specified in Article 151, paragraph 3, the Authority may adopt by means of rules regulations and procedures other procedures and criteria consistent with this Convention for deciding which applicants shall have plans of work approved in cases of selection among applicants for a proposed area. These procedures and criteria shall ensure approval of plans of work on an equitable and nondiscriminatory basis.

Article 7

Selection among applicants for production
authorizations

1. Six months after the entry into force of this Convention and thereafter each fourth month, the Authority shall take up for consideration applications for production authorizations submitted during the immediately preceding period. The Authority shall issue the authorizations applied for if all such applications can be approved without exceeding the production limitation or contravening the obligations of the Authority under a commodity agreement or arrangement to which it has become a party, as provided in Article 151.

2. When a selection must be made among applicants for production authorizations because of the production limitation set forth in Article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7, or because of the obligations of the Authority under a commodity agreement or arrangement to which it has become a party, as provided for in Article 151, paragraph 1, the Authority shall make the selection on the basis of objective and non-discriminatory standards set forth in its rules, regulations and procedures.

3. In the application of paragraph 2, the Authority shall give priority to those applicants which:

(a) give better assurance of performance, taking into account their financial and technical qualifications and their performance, if any, under previously approved plans of work;

(b) provide earlier prospective financial benefits to the Authority, taking into account when commercial production is scheduled to begin;

(c) have already invested the most resources and effort in prospecting or exploration.

4. Applicants which are not selected in any period shall have priority in subsequent periods until they receive a production authorization.

5. Selection shall be made taking into account the need to enhance opportunities for all States Parties, irrespective of their social and economic systems or geographical locations so as to avoid discrimination against any State or system, to participate in activities in the Area and to prevent monopolization of those activities.

6. Whenever fewer reserved areas than non-reserved areas are under exploitation, applications for production authorizations with respect to reserved areas shall have priority.

7. The decisions referred to in this Article shall be taken as soon as possible after the close of each period.

Article 8

Reservation of areas

Each application, other than those submitted by the Enterprise or by any other entities for reserved areas, shall cover a total area, which need not be a single continuous area, sufficiently large and of sufficient estimated commercial value to allow two mining operations. The applicant shall indicate the coordinates dividing the area into two parts of equal estimated commercial value and submit all the data obtained by him with respect to both parts. Without prejudice to the powers of the Authority pursuant to Article 17 of this Annex, the data to be submitted concerning polymetallic nodules shall relate to mapping, sampling, the abundance of nodules, and their metal content. Within 45 days of receiving such data, the Authority shall designate which part is to be reserved solely for the conduct of activities by the Authority through the Enterprise or in association with developing States. This designation may be deferred for a further period of 45 days if the Authority requests an independent expert to assess whether all data required by this Article has been submitted. The area designated shall become a reserved area as soon as the plan of work for the non-reserved area is approved and the contract is signed.

Article 9

Activities in reserved areas

1. The Enterprise shall be given an opportunity to decide whether it intends to carry out activities in each reserved area. This decision may be taken at any time, unless a notification pursuant to paragraph 4 is received by the Authority, in which event the Enterprise shall take its decision within a reasonable time. The Enterprise may decide to exploit such areas in joint ventures with the interested State or entity.

2. The Enterprise may conclude contracts for the execution of part of its activities in accordance with Annex IV, Article 12. It may also enter into joint ventures for the conduct of such activities with any entities which are eligible to carry out activities in the Area pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2(b). When considering such joint ventures, the Enterprise shall offer to States Parties which are developing States and their nationals the opportunity of effective participation.

3. The Authority may prescribe, in its rules, regulations and procedures, substantive and procedural requirements and conditions with respect to such contracts and joint ventures.

4. Any State Party which is a developing State or any natural or juridical person sponsored by it and effectively controlled by it or by other developing State which is a qualified applicant, or any group of the foregoing, may notify the Authority that it wishes to submit a plan of work pursuant to Article 6 of this Annex with respect to a reserved area. The plan of work shall be considered if the Enterprise decides, pursuant to paragraph 1, that it does not intend to carry out activities in that area.

Article 10

Preference and priority among applicants

An operator who has an approved plan of work for exploration only, as provided in Article 3, paragraph 4(c), of this Annex shall have a preference and a priority among applicants for a plan of work covering exploitation of the same area and resources. However, such preference or priority may be withdrawn if the operatoržs performance has not been satisfactory.

Article 11

Joint arrangements

1. Contracts may provide for joint arrangements between the contractor and the Authority through the Enterprise, in the form of joint ventures or production sharing, as well as any other form of joint arrangement, which shall have the same protection against revision, suspension or termination as contracts with the Authority.

2. Contractors entering into such joint arrangements with the Enterprise may receive financial incentives as provided for in Article 13 of this Annex.

3. Partners in joint ventures with the Enterprise shall be liable for the payments required by Article 13 of this Annex to the extent of their share in the joint ventures, subject to financial incentives as provided for in that article.

Article 12

Activities carried out by the Enterprise

1. Activities in the Area carried out by the Enterprise pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2(a), shall be governed by Part XI, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority and its relevant decisions.

2. Any plan of work submitted by the Enterprise shall be accompanied by evidence supporting its financial and technical capabilities.

Article 13

Financial terms of contracts

1. In adopting rules, regulations and procedures concerning the financial terms of a contract between the Authority and the entities referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2 (b), and in negotiating those financial terms in accordance with Part XI and those rules, regulations and procedures, the Authority shall be guided by the following objectives:

(a) to ensure optimum revenues for the Authority from the proceeds of commercial production;

(b) to attract investments and technology to the exploration and exploitation of the Area;

(c) to ensure equality of financial treatment and comparable financial obligations for contractors;

(d) to provide incentives on a uniform and non-discriminatory basis for contractors to undertake joint arrangements with the Enterprise and developing States or their nationals, to stimulate the transfer of technology thereto, and to train the personnel of the Authority and of developing States;

(e) to enable the Enterprise to engage in sea-bed mining effectively at the same time as the entities referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2(b); and

(f) to ensure that, as a result of the financial incentives provided to contractors under paragraph 14, under the terms of contracts reviewed in accordance with Article 19 of this Annex or under the provisions of Article 11 of this Annex with respect to joint ventures, contractors are not subsidized so as to be given an artificial competitive advantage with respect to land-based miners.

2. A fee shall be levied for the administrative cost of processing an application for approval of a plan of work in the form of a contract and shall be fixed at an amount of $US 500,000 per application. The amount of the fee shall be reviewed from time to time by the Council in order to ensure that it covers the administrative cost incurred. If such administrative cost incurred by the Authority in processing an application is less than the fixed amount, the Authority shall refund the difference to the applicant.

3. A contractor shall pay an annual fixed fee of $US 1 million from the date of entry into force of the contract. If the approved date of commencement of commercial production is postponed because of a delay in issuing the production authorization, in accordance with Article 151, the annual fixed fee shall be waived for the period of postponement. From the date of commencement of commercial production, the contractor shall pay either the production charge or the annual fixed fee, whichever is greater.

4 Within a year of the date of commencement of commercial production, in conformity with paragraph 3, a contractor shall choose to make his financial contribution to the Authority by either:

(a) paying a production charge only; or

(b) paying a combination of a production charge and a share of net proceeds.

5. (a) If a contractor chooses to make his financial contribution to the Authority by paying a production charge only, it shall be fixed at a percentage of the market value of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract. This percentage shall be fixed as follows:

(i) years 1-10 of commercial production 5 per cent

(ii) years 11 to the end of commercial production 12 per cent

(b) The said market value shall be the product of the quantity of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules extracted from the area covered by the contract and the average price for those metals during the relevant accounting year, as defined in paragraphs 7 and 8.

6. If a contractor chooses to make his financial contribution to the Authority by paying a combination of a production charge and a share of net proceeds, such payments shall be determined as follows:

(a) The production charge shall be fixed at a percentage of the market value, determined in accordance with subparagraph (b), of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract. This percentage shall be fixed as follows:

(i) first period of commercial production 2 per cent

(ii) second period of commercial production 4 per cent

If, in the second period of commercial production, as defined in subparagraph (d), the return on investment in any accounting year as defined in subparagraph (m) falls below 15 per cent as a result of the payment of the production charge at 4 per cent, the production charge shall be 2 per cent instead of 4 per cent in that accounting year.

(b) The said market value shall be the product of the quantity of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract and the average price for those metals during the relevant accounting year as defined in paragraphs 7 and 8.

(c) (i) The Authorityžs share of net proceeds shall be taken out of that portion of the contractoržs net proceeds which is attributable to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract, referred to hereinafter as attributable net proceeds.

(ii) The Authorityžs share of attributable net proceeds shall be determined in accordance with the following incremental schedule:

                                           Share of the Authority

    Portion of attributable First period ofSecond period
            net proceeds
           commercial of commercial
                                             productionproduction

That portion representing return on      a 35 per cent    40 per cent
investment which is greater than 0
per cent, but less than 10 per cent

That portion representing return on    a 42.5 per cent  50 per cent
investment which is 10 per cent or
greater, but less than 20 per cent

That portion representing return on      a 50 per cent    70 per cent
investment which is 20 per cent or
greater

(d) (i) The first period of commercial production referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (c) shall commence in the first accounting year of commercial production and terminate in the accounting year in which the contractoržs development costs with interest on the unrecovered portion thereof are fully recovered by his cash surplus, as follows: In the first accounting year during which development costs are incurred, unrecovered development costs shall equal the development costs less cash surplus in that year. In each subsequent accounting year, unrecovered development costs shall equal the unrecovered development costs at the end of the preceding accounting year, plus interest thereon at the rate of 10 per cent per annum, plus development costs incurred in the current accounting year and less contractoržs cash surplus in the current accounting year. The accounting year in which unrecovered development costs become zero for the first time shall be the accounting year in which the contractoržs development costs with interest on the unrecovered portion thereof are fully recovered by his cash surplus. The contractoržs cash surplus in any accounting year shall be his gross proceeds less his operating costs and less his payments to the Authority under subparagraph (c).

(ii) The second period of commercial production shall commence in the accounting year following the termination of the first period of commercial production and shall continue until the end of the contract.

(e) “Attributable net proceeds” means the product of the contractoržs net proceeds and the ratio of the development costs in the mining sector to the contractoržs development costs. If the contractor engages in mining, transporting polymetallic nodules and production primarily of three processed metals, namely, cobalt, copper and nickel, the amount of attributable net proceeds shall not be less than 25 per cent of the contractoržs net proceeds. Subject to subparagraph (n), in all other cases, including those where the contractor engages in mining, transporting polymetallic nodules, and production primarily of four processed metals, namely, cobalt, copper, manganese and nickel, the Authority may, in its rules, regulations and procedures, prescribe appropriate floors which shall bear the same relationship to each case as the 25 per cent floor does to the three-metal case.

(f) “Contractoržs net proceeds” means the contractoržs gross proceeds less his operating costs and less the recovery of his development costs as set out in subparagraph (j).

(g) (i) If the contractor engages in mining, transporting polymetallic nodules and production of processed metals, “contractoržs gross proceeds” means the gross revenues from the sale of the processed metals and any other monies deemed reasonably attributable to operations under the contract in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

(ii) In all cases other than those specified in subparagraphs (g)(i) and (n)(iii), “contractoržs gross proceeds” means the gross revenues from the sale of the semi-processed metals from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract, and any other monies deemed reasonably attributable to operations under the contract in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

(h) “Contractoržs development costs” means: (i) all expenditures incurred prior to the commencement of commercial production which are directly related to the development of the productive capacity of the area covered by the contract and the activities related thereto for operations under the contract in all cases other than that specified in subparagraph (n), in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles, including, inter alia, costs of machinery, equipment, ships, processing plant, construction, buildings, land, roads, prospecting and exploration of the area covered by the contract, research and development, interest, required leases, licences and fees; and

(ii) expenditures similar to those set forth in (i) above incurred subsequent to the commencement of commercial production and necessary to carry out the plan of work, except those chargeable to operating costs.

(i) The proceeds from the disposal of capital assets and the market value of those capital assets which are no longer required for operations under the contract and which are not sold shall be deducted from the contractoržs development costs during the relevant accounting year. When these deductions exceed the contractoržs development costs the excess shall be added to the contractoržs gross proceeds.

(j) The contractoržs development costs incurred prior to the commencement of commercial production referred to in subparagraphs (h) (i) and (n) (iv) shall be recovered in 10 equal annual instalments from the date of commencement of commercial production. The contractoržs development costs incurred subsequent to the commencement of commercial production referred to in subparagraphs (h)(ii) and (n)(iv) shall be recovered in 10 or fewer equal annual instalments so as to ensure their complete recovery by the end of the contract.

(k) “Contractoržs operating costs” means all expenditures incurred after the commencement of commercial production in the operation of the productive capacity of the area covered by the contract and the activities related thereto for operations under the contract, in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles, including, inter alia, the annual fixed fee or the production charge, whichever is greater, expenditures for wages, salaries, employee benefits, materials, services, transporting, processing and marketing costs, interest, utilities, preservation of the marine environment, overhead and administrative costs specifically related to operations under the contract, and any net operating losses carried forward or backward as specified herein. Net operating losses may be carried forward for two consecutive years except in the last two years of the contract in which case they may be carried backward to the two preceding years.

(l) If the contractor engages in mining, transporting of polymetallic nodules, and production of processed and semi-processed metals, “development costs of the mining sector” means the portion of the contractoržs development costs which is directly related to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract, in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles, and the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, including, inter alia, application fee, annual fixed fee and, where applicable, costs of prospecting and exploration of the area covered by the contract, and a portion of research and development costs.

(m) “Return on investment” in any accounting year means the ratio of attributable net proceeds in that year to the development costs of the mining sector. For the purpose of computing this ratio the development costs of the mining sector shall include expenditures on new or replacement equipment in the mining sector less the original cost of the equipment replaced.

(n) If the contractor engages in mining only:

(i) “attributable net proceeds” means the whole of the contractoržs net proceeds;

(ii) “contractoržs net proceeds” shall be as defined in subparagraph (f);

(iii) “contractoržs gross proceeds” means the gross revenues from the sale of the polymetallic nodules, and any other monies deemed reasonably attributable to operations under the contract in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(iv) “contractoržs development costs” means all expenditures incurred prior to the commencement of commercial production as set forth in subparagraph (h) (i), and all expenditures incurred subsequent to the commencement of commercial production as set forth in subparagraph (h) (ii), which are directly related to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract, in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles;

(v) “contractoržs operating costs” means the contractoržs operating costs as in subparagraph (k) which are directly related to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles;

(vi) “return on investment” in any accounting year means the ratio of the contractoržs net proceeds in that year to the contractoržs development costs. For the purpose of computing this ratio, the contractoržs development costs shall include expenditures on new or replacement equipment less the original cost of the equipment replaced.

(o) The costs referred to in subparagraphs (h), (k), (l) and (n) in respect of interest paid by the contractor shall be allowed to the extent that, in all the circumstances, the Authority approves, pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 1, of this Annex, the debt-equity ratio and the rates of interest as reasonable, having regard to existing commercial practice.

(p) The costs referred to in this paragraph shall not be interpreted as including payments of corporate income taxes or similar charges levied by States in respect of the operations of the contractor.

7. (a) “Processed metals”, referred to in paragraphs 5 and 6, means the metals in the most basic form in which they are customarily traded on international terminal markets. For this purpose, the Authority shall specify, in its financial rules, regulations and procedures, the relevant international terminal market. For the metals which are not traded on such markets, “processed metals” means the metals in the most basic form in which they are customarily traded in representative armžs length transactions.

(b) If the Authority cannot otherwise determine the quantity of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract referred to in paragraphs 5 (b) and 6 (b), the quantity shall be determined on the basis of the metal content of the nodules, processing recovery efficiency and other relevant factors, in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority and in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles.

8. If an international terminal market provides a representative pricing mechanism for processed metals, polymetallic nodules and semi-processed metals from the nodules, the average price on that market shall be used. In all other cases, the Authority shall, after consulting the contractor, determine a fair price for the said products in accordance with paragraph 9.

9. (a) All costs, expenditures, proceeds and revenues and all determinations of price and value referred to in this Article shall be the result of free market or armžs length transactions. In the absence thereof, they shall be determined by the Authority, after consulting the contractor, as though they were the result of free market or armžs length transactions, taking into account relevant transactions in other markets.

(b) In order to ensure compliance with and enforcement of the provisions of this paragraph, the Authority shall be guided by the principles adopted for, and the interpretation given to, armžs length transactions by the Commission on Transnational Corporations of the United Nations, the Group of Experts on Tax Treaties between Developing and Developed Countries and other international organizations, and shall, in its rules, regulations and procedures, specify uniform and internationally acceptable accounting rules and procedures, and the means of selection by the contractor of certified independent accountants acceptable to the Authority for the purpose of carrying out auditing in compliance with those rules, regulations and procedures.

10. The contractor shall make available to the accountants, in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, such financial data as are required to determine compliance with this article.

11. All costs, expenditures, proceeds and revenues, and all prices and values referred to in this article, shall be determined in accordance with generally recognized accounting principles and the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

12. Payments to the Authority under paragraphs 5 and 6 shall be made in freely usable currencies or currencies which are freely available and effectively usable on the major foreign exchange markets or, at the contractoržs option, in the equivalents of processed metals at market value. The market value shall be determined in accordance with paragraph 5(b). The freely usable currencies and currencies which are freely available and effectively usable on the major foreign exchange markets shall be defined in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority in accordance with prevailing international monetary practice.

13. All financial obligations of the contractor to the Authority, as well as all his fees, costs, expenditures, proceeds and revenues referred to in this article, shall be adjusted by expressing them in constant terms relative to a base year.

14. The Authority may, taking into account any recommendations of the Economic Planning Commission and the Legal and Technical Commission, adopt rules, regulations and procedures that provide for incentives, on a uniform and non-discriminatory basis, to contractors to further the objectives set out in paragraph 1.

15. In the event of a dispute between the Authority and a contractor over the interpretation or application of the financial terms of a contract, either party may submit the dispute to binding commercial arbitration, unless both parties agree to settle the dispute by other means, in accordance with Article 188, paragraph 2.

Article 14

Transfer of data

1. The operator shall transfer to the Authority, in accordance with its rules, regulations and procedures and the terms and conditions of the plan of work, at time intervals determined by the Authority all data which are both necessary for and relevant to the effective exercise of the powers and functions of the principal organs of the Authority in respect of the area covered by the plan of work.

2. Transferred data in respect of the area covered by the plan of work, deemed proprietary, may only be used for the purposes set forth in this article. Data necessary for the formulation by the Authority of rules, regulations and procedures concerning protection of the marine environment and safety, other than equipment design data, shall not be deemed proprietary.

3. Data transferred to the Authority by prospectors, applicants for contracts or contractors, deemed proprietary, shall not be disclosed by the Authority to the Enterprise or to anyone external to the Authority, but data on the reserved areas may be disclosed to the Enterprise. Such data transferred by such persons to the Enterprise shall not be disclosed by the Enterprise to the Authority or to anyone external to the Authority.

Article 15

Training programmes

The contractor shall draw up practical programmes for the training of personnel of the Authority and developing States, including the participation of such personnel in all activities in the Area which are covered by the contract, in accordance with Article 144, paragraph 2.

Article 16

Exclusive right to explore and exploit

The Authority shall, pursuant to Part XI and its rules, regulations and procedures, accord the operator the exclusive right to explore and exploit the area covered by the plan of work in respect of a specified category of resources and shall ensure that no other entity operates in the same area for a different category of resources in a manner which might interfere with the operations of the operator. The operator shall have security of tenure in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 6.

Article 17

Rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority

1. The Authority shall adopt and uniformly apply rules, regulations and procedures in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(f)(ii), and Article 162, paragraph 2(o)(ii), for the exercise of its functions as set forth in Part XI on, inter alia, the following matters:

(a) administrative procedures relating to prospecting, exploration and exploitation in the Area;

(b) operations:

(i) size of area;

(ii) duration of operations;

(iii) performance requirements including assurances pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 6(c), of this Annex;

(iv) categories of resources;

(v) renunciation of areas;

(vi) progress reports;

(vii) submission of data;

(viii) inspection and supervision of operations;

(ix) prevention of interference with other activities in the marine environment;

(x) transfer of rights and obligations by a contractor;

(xi) procedures for transfer of technology to developing States in accordance with Article 144 and for their direct participation;

(xii) mining standards and practices, including those relating to operational safety, conservation of the resources and the protection of the marine environment;

(xiii) definition of commercial production;

(xiv) qualification standards for applicants;

(c) financial matters:

(i) establishment of uniform and non-discriminatory costing and accounting rules and the method of selection of auditors;

(ii) apportionment of proceeds of operations;

(iii) the incentives referred to in Article 13 of this Annex;

(d) implementation of decisions taken pursuant to Article 151, paragraph 10, and Article 164, paragraph 2(d).

2. Rules, regulations and procedures on the following items shall fully reflect the objective criteria set out below:

(a) Size of areas:

The Authority shall determine the appropriate size of areas for exploration which may be up to twice as large as those for exploitation in order to permit intensive exploration operations. The size of area shall be calculated to satisfy the requirements of Article 8 of this Annex on reservation of areas as well as stated production requirements consistent with Article 151 in accordance with the terms of the contract taking into account the state of the art of technology then available for sea-bed mining and the relevant physical characteristics of the areas. Areas shall be neither smaller nor larger than are necessary to satisfy this objective.

(b) Duration of operations:

(i) Prospecting shall be without time-limit;

(ii) Exploration should be of sufficient duration to permit a thorough survey of the specific area, the design and construction of mining equipment for the area and the design and construction of small and medium-size processing plants for the purpose of testing mining and processing systems;

(iii) The duration of exploitation should be related to the economic life of the mining project, taking into consideration such factors as the depletion of the ore, the useful life of mining equipment and processing facilities and commercial viability. Exploitation should be of sufficient duration to permit commercial extraction of minerals of the area and should include a reasonable time period for construction of commercial-scale mining and processing systems, during which period commercial production should not be required. The total duration of exploitation, however, should also be short enough to give the Authority an opportunity to amend the terms and conditions of the plan of work at the time it considers renewal in accordance with rules, regulations and procedures which it has adopted subsequent to approving the plan of work.

(c) Performance requirements:

The Authority shall require that during the exploration stage periodic expenditures be made by the operator which are reasonably related to the size of the area covered by the plan of work and the expenditures which would be expected of a bona fide operator who intended to bring the area into commercial production within the time-limits established by the Authority. The required expenditures should not be established at a level which would discourage prospective operators with less costly technology than is prevalently in use. The Authority shall establish a maximum time interval, after the exploration stage is completed and the exploitation stage begins, to achieve commercial production. To determine this interval, the Authority should take into consideration that construction of large-scale mining and processing systems cannot be initiated until after the termination of the exploration stage and the commencement of the exploitation stage. Accordingly, the interval to bring an area into commercial production should take into account the time necessary for this construction after the completion of the exploration stage and reasonable allowance should be made for unavoidable delays in the construction schedule. Once commercial production is achieved, the Authority shall within reasonable limits and taking into consideration all relevant factors require the operator to maintain commercial production throughout the period of the plan of work.

(d) Categories of resources:

In determining the category of resources in respect of which a plan of work may be approved, the Authority shall give emphasis inter alia to the following characteristics:

(i) that certain resources require the use of similar mining methods; and

(ii) that some resources can be developed simultaneously without undue interference between operators developing different resources in the same area.

Nothing in this subparagraph shall preclude the Authority from approving a plan of work with respect to more than one category of resources in the same area to the same applicant.

(e) Renunciation of areas:

The operator shall have the right at any time to renounce without penalty the whole or part of his rights in the area covered by a plan of work.

(f) Protection of the marine environment:

Rules, regulations and procedures shall be drawn up in order to secure effective protection of the marine environment from harmful effects directly resulting from activities in the Area or from shipboard processing immediately above a mine site of minerals derived from that mine site, taking into account the extent to which such harmful effects may directly result from drilling, dredging, coring and excavation and from disposal, dumping and discharge into the marine environment of sediment, wastes or other effluents.

(g) Commercial production:

Commercial production shall be deemed to have begun if an operator engages in sustained large-scale recovery operations which yield a quantity of materials sufficient to indicate clearly that the principal purpose is large-scale production rather than production intended for information gathering, analysis or the testing of equipment or plant.

Article 18

Penalties

1. A contractoržs rights under the contract may be suspended or terminated only in the following cases:

(a) if, in spite of warnings by the Authority, the contractor has conducted his activities in such a way as to result in serious, persistent and wilful violations of the fundamental terms of the contract, Part XI and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority; or

(b) if the contractor has failed to comply with a final binding decision of the dispute settlement body applicable to him.

2. In the case of any violation of the contract not covered by paragraph 1 (a) or in lieu of suspension or termination under paragraph l(a), the Authority may impose upon the contractor monetary penalties proportionate to the seriousness of the violation.

3. Except for emergency orders under Article 162, paragraph 2(w), the Authority may not execute a decision involving monetary penalties, suspension or termination until the contractor has been accorded a reasonable opportunity to exhaust the judicial remedies available to him pursuant to Part XI, section 5.

Article 19

Revision of contract

1. When circumstances have arisen or are likely to arise which, in the opinion of either party, would render the contract inequitable or make it impracticable or impossible to achieve the objectives set out in the contract or in Part XI, the parties shall enter into negotiations to revise it accordingly.

2. Any contract entered into in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, may be revised only with the consent of the parties.

Article 20

Transfer of rights and obligations

The rights and obligations arising under a contract may be transferred only with the consent of the Authority, and in accordance with its rules, regulations and procedures. The Authority shall not unreasonably withhold consent to the transfer if the proposed transferee is in all respects a qualified applicant and assumes all of the obligations of the transferor and if the transfer does not confer to the transferee a plan of work, the approval of which would be forbidden by Article 6, paragraph 3(c), of this Annex.

Article 21

Applicable law

1. The contract shall be governed by the terms of the contract, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, Part XI and other rules of international law not incompatible with this Convention.

2. Any final decision rendered by a court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this Convention relating to the rights and obligations of the Authority and of the contractor shall be enforceable in the territory of each State Party.

3. No State Party may impose conditions on a contractor that are inconsistent with Part XI. However, the application by a State Party to contractors sponsored by it, or to ships flying its flag, of environmental or other laws and regulations more stringent than those in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority adopted pursuant to Article 17, paragraph 2(f), of this Annex shall not be deemed inconsistent with Part XI.

Article 22

Responsibility

The contractor shall have responsibility or liability for any damage arising out of wrongful acts in the conduct of its operations, account being taken of contributory acts or omissions by the Authority. Similarly, the Authority shall have responsibility or liability for any damage arising out of wrongful acts in the exercise of its powers and functions, including violations under Article 168, paragraph 2, account being taken of contributory acts or omissions by the contractor. Liability in every case shall be for the actual amount of damage.

***

ANNEX IV. STATUTE OF THE ENTERPRISE

Article 1

Purposes

1. The Enterprise is the organ of the Authority which shall carry out activities in the Area directly, pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2 (a), as well as the transporting, processing and marketing of minerals recovered from the Area.

2. In carrying out its purposes and in the exercise of its functions, the Enterprise shall act in accordance with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

3. In developing the resources of the Area pursuant to paragraph 1, the Enterprise shall, subject to this Convention, operate in accordance with sound commercial principles.

Article 2

Relationship to the Authority

1. Pursuant to Article 170, the Enterprise shall act in accordance with the general policies of the Assembly and the directives of the Council.

2. Subject to paragraph 1, the Enterprise shall enjoy autonomy in the conduct of its operations.

3. Nothing in this Convention shall make the Enterprise liable for the acts or obligations of the Authority, or make the Authority liable for the acts or obligations of the Enterprise.

Article 3

Limitation of liability

Without prejudice to Article 11, paragraph 3, of this Annex, no member of the Authority shall be liable by reason only of its membership for the acts or obligations of the Enterprise.

Article 4

Structure

The Enterprise shall have a Governing Board, a Director-General and the staff necessary for the exercise of its functions.

Article 5

Governing Board

1. The Governing Board shall be composed of 15 members elected by the Assembly in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(c). In the election of the members of the Board, due regard shall be paid to the principle of equitable geographical distribution. In submitting nominations of candidates for election to the Board, members of the Authority shall bear in mind the need to nominate candidates of the highest standard of competence, with qualifications in relevant fields, so as to ensure the viability and success of the Enterprise.

2. Members of the Board shall be elected for four years and may be reelected; and due regard shall be paid to the principle of rotation of membership.

3. Members of the Board shall continue in office until their successors are elected. If the office of a member of the Board becomes vacant, the Assembly shall, in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(c), elect a new member for the remainder of his predecessoržs term.

4. Members of the Board shall act in their personal capacity. In the performance of their duties they shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other source. Each member of the Authority shall respect the independent character of the members of the Board and shall refrain from all attempts to influence any of them in the discharge of their duties.

5. Each member of the Board shall receive remuneration to be paid out of the funds of the Enterprise. The amount of remuneration shall be fixed by the Assembly, upon the recommendation of the Council.

6. The Board shall normally function at the principal office of the Enterprise and shall meet as often as the business of the Enterprise may require.

7. Two thirds of the members of the Board shall constitute a quorum.

8. Each member of the Board shall have one vote. All matters before the Board shall be decided by a majority of its members. If a member has a conflict of interest on a matter before the Board he shall refrain from voting on that matter.

9. Any member of the Authority may ask the Board for information in respect of its operations which particularly affect that member. The Board shall endeavour to provide such information.

Article 6

Powers and functions of the Governing Board

The Governing Board shall direct the operations of the Enterprise. Subject to this Convention, the Governing Board shall exercise the powers necessary to fulfil the purposes of the Enterprise, including powers:

(a) to elect a Chairman from among its members;

(b) to adopt its rules of procedure;

(c) to draw up and submit formal written plans of work to the Council in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, and Article 162, paragraph 2(j);

(d) to develop plans of work and programmes for carrying out the activities specified in Article 170;

(e) to prepare and submit to the Council applications for production authorizations in accordance with Article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7;

(f) to authorize negotiations concerning the acquisition of technology including those provided for in Annex III, Article 5, paragraph 3 (a), (c) and (d), and to approve the results of those negotiations;

(g) to establish terms and conditions, and to authorize negotiations, concerning joint ventures and other forms of joint arrangements referred to in Annex III, articles 9 and 11, and to approve the results of such negotiations;

(h) to recommend to the Assembly what portion of the net income of the Enterprise should be retained as its reserves in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2 (f), and Article 10 of this Annex;

(i) to approve the annual budget of the Enterprise;

(j) to authorize the procurement of goods and services in accordance with Article 12, paragraph 3, of this Annex;

(k) to submit an annual report to the Council in accordance with Article 9 of this Annex;

(l) to submit to the Council for the approval of the Assembly draft rules in respect of the organization, management, appointment and dismissal of the staff of the Enterprise and to adopt regulations to give effect to such rules;

(m) to borrow funds and to furnish such collateral or other security as it may determine in accordance with Article 11, paragraph 2, of this Annex;

(n) to enter into any legal proceedings, agreements and transactions and to take any other actions in accordance with Article 13 of this Annex;

(o) to delegate, subject to the approval of the Council, any non-discretionary powers to the Director-General and to its committees.

Article 7

Director-General and staff of the Enterprise

1. The Assembly shall, upon the recommendation of the Council and the nomination of the Governing Board, elect the Director-General of the Enterprise who shall not be a member of the Board. The Director-General shall hold office for a fixed term, not exceeding five years, and may be re-elected for further terms.

2. The Director-General shall be the legal representative and chief executive of the Enterprise and shall be directly responsible to the Board for the conduct of the operations of the Enterprise. He shall be responsible for the organization, management, appointment and dismissal of the staff of the Enterprise in accordance with the rules and regulations referred to in Article 6, subparagraph (l), of this Annex. He shall participate, without the right to vote, in the meetings of the Board and may participate, without the right to vote, in the meetings of the Assembly and the Council when these organs are dealing with matters concerning the Enterprise.

3. The paramount consideration in the recruitment and employment of the staff and in the determination of their conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency and of technical competence. Subject to this consideration, due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on an equitable geographical basis.

4. In the performance of their duties the Director-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other source external to the Enterprise. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials of the Enterprise responsible only to the Enterprise. Each State Party undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Director-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.

5. The responsibilities set forth in Article 168, paragraph 2, are equally applicable to the staff of the Enterprise.

Article 8

Location

The Enterprise shall have its principal office at the seat of the Authority. The Enterprise may establish other offices and facilities in the territory of any State Party with the consent of that State Party.

Article 9

Reports and financial statements

1. The Enterprise shall, not later than three months after the end of each financial year, submit to the Council for its consideration an annual report containing an audited statement of its accounts and shall transmit to the Council at appropriate intervals a summary statement of its financial position and a profit and loss statement showing the results of its operations.

2. The Enterprise shall publish its annual report and such other reports as it finds appropriate.

3. All reports and financial statements referred to in this Article shall be distributed to the members of the Authority.

Article 10

Allocation of net income

1. Subject to paragraph 3, the Enterprise shall make payments to the Authority under Annex III, Article 13, or their equivalent.

2. The Assembly shall, upon the recommendation of the Governing Board, determine what portion of the net income of the Enterprise shall be retained as reserves of the Enterprise. The remainder shall be transferred to the Authority.

3. During an initial period required for the Enterprise to become self- supporting, which shall not exceed 10 years from the commencement of commercial production by it, the Assembly shall exempt the Enterprise from the payments referred to in paragraph 1, and shall leave all of the net income of the Enterprise in its reserves.

Article 11

Finances

1. The funds of the Enterprise shall include:

(a) amounts received from the Authority in accordance with Article 173, paragraph 2(b);

(b) voluntary contributions made by States Parties for the purpose of financing activities of the Enterprise;

(c) amounts borrowed by the Enterprise in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3;

(d) income of the Enterprise from its operations;

(e) other funds made available to the Enterprise to enable it to commence operations as soon as possible and to carry out its functions.

2. (a) The Enterprise shall have the power to borrow funds and to furnish such collateral or other security as it may determine. Before making a public sale of its obligations in the financial markets or currency of a State Party, the Enterprise shall obtain the approval of that State Party. The total amount of borrowings shall be approved by the Council upon the recommendation of the Governing Board.

(b) States Parties shall make every reasonable effort to support applications by the Enterprise for loans on capital markets and from international financial institutions.

3. (a) The Enterprise shall be provided with the funds necessary to explore and exploit one mine site, and to transport, process and market the minerals recovered therefrom and the nickel, copper, cobalt and manganese obtained, and to meet its initial administrative expenses. The amount of the said funds, and the criteria and factors for its adjustment, shall be included by the Preparatory Commission in the draft rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

(b) All States Parties shall make available to the Enterprise an amount equivalent to one half of the funds referred to in subparagraph (a) by way of long-term interest-free loans in accordance with the scale of assessments for the United Nations regular budget in force at the time when the assessments are made, adjusted to take into account the States which are not members of the United Nations. Debts incurred by the Enterprise in raising the other half of the funds shall be guaranteed by all States Parties in accordance with the same scale.

(c) If the sum of the financial contributions of States Parties is less than the funds to be provided to the Enterprise under subparagraph (a), the Assembly shall, at its first session, consider the extent of the shortfall and adopt by consensus measures for dealing with this shortfall, taking into account the obligation of States Parties under subparagraphs (a) and (b) and any recommendations of the Preparatory Commission.

(d) (i) Each State Party shall, within 60 days after the entry into force of this Convention, or within 30 days after the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession, whichever is later, deposit with the Enterprise irrevocable, non-negotiable, non-interest-bearing promissory notes in the amount of the share of such State Party of interest-free loans pursuant to subparagraph (b).

(ii) The Board shall prepare, at the earliest practicable date after this Convention enters into force, and thereafter at annual or other appropriate intervals, a schedule of the magnitude and timing of its requirements for the funding of its administrative expenses and for activities carried out by the Enterprise in accordance with Article 170 and Article 12 of this Annex.

(iii) The States Parties shall, thereupon, be notified by the Enterprise, through the Authority, of their respective shares of the funds in accordance with subparagraph (b), required for such expenses. The Enterprise shall encash such amounts of the promissory notes as may be required to meet the expenditure referred to in the schedule with respect to interest-free loans.

(iv) States Parties shall, upon receipt of the notification, make available their respective shares of debt guarantees for the Enterprise in accordance with subparagraph (b).

(e) (i) If the Enterprise so requests, State Parties may provide debt guarantees in addition to those provided in accordance with the scale referred to in subparagraph (b).

(ii) In lieu of debt guarantees, a State Party may make a voluntary contribution to the Enterprise in an amount equivalent to that portion of the debts which it would otherwise be liable to guarantee.

(f) Repayment of the interest-bearing loans shall have priority over the repayment of the interest-free loans. Repayment of interest-free loans shall be in accordance with a schedule adopted by the Assembly, upon the recommendation of the Council and the advice of the Board. In the exercise of this function the Board shall be guided by the relevant provisions of the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, which shall take into account the paramount importance of ensuring the effective functioning of the Enterprise and, in particular, ensuring its financial independence.

(g) Funds made available to the Enterprise shall be in freely usable currencies or currencies which are freely available and effectively usable in the major foreign exchange markets. These currencies shall be defined in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority in accordance with prevailing international monetary practice. Except as provided in paragraph 2, no State Party shall maintain or impose restrictions on the holding, use or exchange by the Enterprise of these funds.

(h) “Debt guarantee” means a promise of a State Party to creditors of the Enterprise to pay, pro rata in accordance with the appropriate scale, the financial obligations of the Enterprise covered by the guarantee following notice by the creditors to the State Party of a default by the Enterprise. Procedures for the payment of those obligations shall be in conformity with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

4. The funds, assets and expenses of the Enterprise shall be kept separate from those of the Authority. This Article shall not prevent the Enterprise from making arrangements with the Authority regarding facilities, personnel and services and arrangements for reimbursement of administrative expenses paid by either on behalf of the other.

5. The records, books and accounts of the Enterprise, including its annual financial statements, shall be audited annually by an independent auditor appointed by the Council.

Article 12

Operations

1. The Enterprise shall propose to the Council projects for carrying out activities in accordance with Article 170. Such proposals shall include a formal written plan of work for activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, and all such other information and data as may be required from time to time for its appraisal by the Legal and Technical Commission and approval by the Council.

2. Upon approval by the Council, the Enterprise shall execute the project on the basis of the formal written plan of work referred to in paragraph 1.

3. (a) If the Enterprise does not possess the goods and services required for its operations it may procure them. For that purpose, it shall issue invitations to tender and award contracts to bidders offering the best combination of quality, price and delivery time.

(b) If there is more than one bid offering such a combination, the contract shall be awarded in accordance with:

(i) the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of political or other considerations not relevant to the carrying out of operations with due diligence and efficiency; and

(ii) guidelines approved by the Council with regard to the preferences to be accorded to goods and services originating in developing States, including the land-locked and geographically disadvantaged among them.

(c) The Governing Board may adopt rules determining the special circumstances in which the requirement of invitations to bid may, in the best interests of the Enterprise, be dispensed with.

4. The Enterprise shall have title to all minerals and processed substances produced by it.

5. The Enterprise shall sell its products on a non-discriminatory basis. It shall not give non-commercial discounts.

6. Without prejudice to any general or special power conferred on the Enterprise under any other provision of this Convention, the Enterprise shall exercise such powers incidental to its business as shall be necessary.

7. The Enterprise shall not interfere in the political affairs of any State Party; nor shall it be influenced in its decisions by the political character of the State Party concerned. Only commercial considerations shall be relevant to its decisions, and these considerations shall be weighed impartially in order to carry out the purposes specified in Article 1 of this Annex.

Article 13

Legal status, privileges and immunities

1. To enable the Enterprise to exercise its functions, the status, privileges and immunities set forth in this Article shall be accorded to the Enterprise in the territories of States Parties. To give effect to this principle the Enterprise and States Parties may, where necessary, enter into special agreements.

2. The Enterprise shall have such legal capacity as is necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes and, in particular, the capacity:

(a) to enter into contracts, joint arrangements or other arrangements, including agreements with States and international organizations;

(b) to acquire, lease, hold and dispose of immovable and movable property;

(c) to be a party to legal proceedings.

3. (a) Actions may be brought against the Enterprise only in a court of competent jurisdiction in the territory of a State Party in which the Enterprise:

(i) has an office or facility;

(ii) has appointed an agent for the purpose of accepting service or notice of process;

(iii) has entered into a contract for goods or services;

(iv) has issued securities; or

(v) is otherwise engaged in commercial activity.

(b) The property and assets of the Enterprise, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from all forms of seizure, attachment or execution before the delivery of final judgment against the Enterprise.

4. (a) The property and assets of the Enterprise, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from requisition, confiscation, expropriation or any other form of seizure by executive or legislative action.

(b) The property and assets of the Enterprise, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be free from discriminatory restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria of any nature.

(c) The Enterprise and its employees shall respect local laws and regulations in any State or territory in which the Enterprise or its employees may do business or otherwise act.

(d) States Parties shall ensure that the Enterprise enjoys all rights, privileges and immunities accorded by them to entities conducting commercial activities in their territories. These rights, privileges and immunities shall be accorded to the Enterprise on no less favourable a basis than that on which they are accorded to entities engaged in similar commercial activities. If special privileges are provided by States Parties for developing States or their commercial entities, the Enterprise shall enjoy those privileges on a similarly preferential basis.

(e) States Parties may provide special incentives, rights, privileges and immunities to the Enterprise without the obligation to provide such incentives, rights, privileges and immunities to other commercial entities.

5. The Enterprise shall negotiate with the host countries in which its offices and facilities are located for exemption from direct and indirect taxation.

6. Each State Party shall take such action as is necessary for giving effect in terms of its own law to the principles set forth in this Annex and shall inform the Enterprise of the specific action which it has taken.

7. The Enterprise may waive any of the privileges and immunities conferred under this Article or in the special agreements referred to in paragraph 1 to such extent and upon such conditions as it may determine.

***

ANNEX V. CONCILIATION

Section 1. CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 1 OF PART XV

Article 1

Institution of proceedings

If the parties to a dispute have agreed, in accordance with Article 284, to submit it to conciliation under this section, any such party may institute the proceedings by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute.

Article 2

List of conciliators

A list of conciliators shall be drawn up and maintained by the Secretary- General of the United Nations. Every State Party shall be entitled to nominate four conciliators, each of whom shall be a person enjoying the highest reputation for fairness, competence and integrity. The names of the persons so nominated shall constitute the list. If at any time the conciliators nominated by a State Party in the list so constituted shall be fewer than four, that State Party shall be entitled to make further nominations as necessary. The name of a conciliator shall remain on the list until withdrawn by the State Party which made the nomination, provided that such conciliator shall continue to serve on any conciliation commission to which that conciliator has been appointed until the completion of the proceedings before that commission.

Article 3

Constitution of conciliation commission

The conciliation commission shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, be constituted as follows:

(a) Subject to subparagraph (g), the conciliation commission shall consist of five members.

(b) The party instituting the proceedings shall appoint two conciliators to be chosen preferably from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex, one of whom may be its national, unless the parties otherwise agree. Such appointments shall be included in the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex.

(c) The other party to the dispute shall appoint two conciliators in the manner set forth in subparagraph (b) within 21 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex. If the appointments are not made within that period, the party instituting the proceedings may, within one week of the expiration of that period, either terminate the proceedings by notification addressed to the other party or request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to make the appointments in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(d) Within 30 days after all four conciliators have been appointed, they shall appoint a fifth conciliator chosen from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex, who shall be chairman. If the appointment is not made within that period, either party may, within one week of the expiration of that period, request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to make the appointment in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(e) Within 30 days of the receipt of a request under subparagraph (c) or (d), the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall make the necessary appointments from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex in consultation with the parties to the dispute.

(f) Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

(g) Two or more parties which determine by agreement that they are in the same interest shall appoint two conciliators jointly. Where two or more parties have separate interests or there is a disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, they shall appoint conciliators separately.

(h) In disputes involving more than two parties having separate interests, or where there is disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, the parties shall apply subparagraphs (a) to (f) in so far as possible.

Article 4

Procedure

The conciliation commission shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, determine its own procedure. The commission may, with the consent of the parties to the dispute, invite any State Party to submit to it its views orally or in writing. Decisions of the commission regarding procedural matters, the report and recommendations shall be made by a majority vote of its members.

Article 5

Amicable settlement

The commission may draw the attention of the parties to any measures which might facilitate an amicable settlement of the dispute.

Article 6

Functions of the commission

The commission shall hear the parties, examine their claims and objections, and make proposals to the parties with a view to reaching an amicable settlement.

Article 7

Report

1. The commission shall report within 12 months of its constitution. Its report shall record any agreements reached and, failing agreement, its conclusions on all questions of fact or law relevant to the matter in dispute and such recommendations as the commission may deem appropriate for an amicable settlement. The report shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and shall immediately be transmitted by him to the parties to the dispute.

2. The report of the commission, including its conclusions or recommendations, shall not be binding upon the parties.

Article 8

Termination

The conciliation proceedings are terminated when a settlement has been reached, when the parties have accepted or one party has rejected the recommendations of the report by written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, or when a period of three months has expired from the date of transmission of the report to the parties.

Article 9

Fees and expenses

The fees and expenses of the commission shall be borne by the parties to the dispute.

Article 10

Right of parties to modify procedure

The parties to the dispute may by agreement applicable solely to that dispute modify any provision of this Annex.

Section 2. COMPULSORY SUBMISSION TO CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 3 OF PART XV

Article 11

Institution of proceedings

1. Any party to a dispute which, in accordance with Part XV, section 3, may be submitted to conciliation under this section, may institute the proceedings by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute.

2. Any party to the dispute, notified under paragraph 1, shall be obliged to submit to such proceedings.

Article 12

Failure to reply or to submit to conciliation

The failure of a party or parties to the dispute to reply to notification of institution of proceedings or to submit to such proceedings shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings.

Article 13

Competence

A disagreement as to whether a conciliation commission acting under this section has competence shall be decided by the commission.

Article 14

Application of section 1

Articles 2 to 10 of section 1 of this Annex apply subject to this section.

ANNEX VI. STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA

Article 1

General provisions

1. The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is constituted and shall function in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and this Statute.

2. The seat of the Tribunal shall be in the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

3. The Tribunal may sit and exercise its functions elsewhere whenever it considers this desirable.

4. A reference of a dispute to the Tribunal shall be governed by the provisions of Parts XI and XV.

Section 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE TRIBUNAL

Article 2

Composition

1. The Tribunal shall be composed of a body of 21 independent members, elected from among persons enjoying the highest reputation for fairness and integrity and of recognized competence in the field of the law of the sea.

2. In the Tribunal as a whole the representation of the principal legal systems of the world and equitable geographical distribution shall be assured.

Article 3

Membership

1. No two members of the Tribunal may be nationals of the same State. A person who for the purposes of membership in the Tribunal could be regarded as a national of more than one State shall be deemed to be a national of the one in which he ordinarily exercises civil and political rights.

2. There shall be no fewer than three members from each geographical group as established by the General Assembly of the United Nations.

Article 4

Nominations and elections

1. Each State Party may nominate not more than two persons having the qualifications prescribed in Article 2 of this Annex. The members of the Tribunal shall be elected from the list of persons thus nominated.

2. At least three months before the date of the election, the Secretary- General of the United Nations in the case of the first election and the Registrar of the Tribunal in the case of subsequent elections shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to submit their nominations for members of the Tribunal within two months. He shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties before the seventh day of the last month before the date of each election.

3. The first election shall be held within six months of the date of entry into force of this Convention.

4. The members of the Tribunal shall be elected by secret ballot. Elections shall be held at a meeting of the States Parties convened by the Secretary- General of the United Nations in the case of the first election and by a procedure agreed to by the States Parties in the case of subsequent elections. Two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum at that meeting. The persons elected to the Tribunal shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and a two-thirds majority of the States Parties present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the States Parties.

Article 5

Term of office

1. The members of the Tribunal shall be elected for nine years and may be re-elected; provided, however, that of the members elected at the first election, the terms of seven members shall expire at the end of three years and the terms of seven more members shall expire at the end of six years.

2. The members of the Tribunal whose terms are to expire at the end of the above-mentioned initial periods of three and six years shall be chosen by lot to be drawn by the Secretary-General of the United Nations immediately after the first election.

3. The members of the Tribunal shall continue to discharge their duties until their places have been filled. Though replaced, they shall finish any proceedings which they may have begun before the date of their replacement.

4. In the case of the resignation of a member of the Tribunal, the letter of resignation shall be addressed to the President of the Tribunal. The place becomes vacant on the receipt of that letter.

Article 6

Vacancies

1. Vacancies shall be filled by the same method as that laid down for the first election, subject to the following provision: the Registrar shall, within one month of the occurrence of the vacancy, proceed to issue the invitations provided for in Article 4 of this Annex, and the date of the election shall be fixed by the President of the Tribunal after consultation with the States Parties.

2. A member of the Tribunal elected to replace a member whose term of office has not expired shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessoržs term.

Article 7

Incompatible activities

1. No member of the Tribunal may exercise any political or administrative function, or associate actively with or be financially interested in any of the operations of any enterprise concerned with the exploration for or exploitation of the resources of the sea or the sea-bed or other commercial use of the sea or the sea-bed.

2. No member of the Tribunal may act as agent, counsel or advocate in any case.

3. Any doubt on these points shall be resolved by decision of the majority of the other members of the Tribunal present.

Article 8

Conditions relating to participation of members in a particular case

1. No member of the Tribunal may participate in the decision of any case in which he has previously taken part as agent, counsel or advocate for one of the parties, or as a member of a national or international court or tribunal, or in any other capacity.

2. If, for some special reason, a member of the Tribunal considers that he should not take part in the decision of a particular case, he shall so inform the President of the Tribunal.

3. If the President considers that for some special reason one of the members of the Tribunal should not sit in a particular case, he shall give him notice accordingly.

4. Any doubt on these points shall be resolved by decision of the majority of the other members of the Tribunal present.

Article 9

Consequence of ceasing to fulfil required conditions

If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members of the Tribunal, a member has ceased to fulfil the required conditions, the President of the Tribunal shall declare the seat vacant.

Article 10

Privileges and immunities

The members of the Tribunal, when engaged on the business of the Tribunal, shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities.

Article 11

Solemn declaration by members

Every member of the Tribunal shall, before taking up his duties, make a solemn declaration in open session that he will exercise his powers impartially and conscientiously.

Article 12

President, Vice-President and Registrar

1. The Tribunal shall elect its President and Vice-President for three years; they may be re-elected.

2. The Tribunal shall appoint its Registrar and may provide for the appointment of such other officers as may be necessary.

3. The President and the Registrar shall reside at the seat of the Tribunal.

Article 13

Quorum

1. All available members of the Tribunal shall sit; a quorum of 11 elected members shall be required to constitute the Tribunal.

2. Subject to Article 17 of this Annex, the Tribunal shall determine which members are available to constitute the Tribunal for the consideration of a particular dispute, having regard to the effective functioning of the chambers as provided for in articles 14 and 15 of this Annex.

3. All disputes and applications submitted to the Tribunal shall be heard and determined by the Tribunal, unless Article 14 of this Annex applies, or the parties request that it shall be dealt with in accordance with Article 15 of this Annex.

Article 14

Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber

A Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall be established in accordance with the provisions of section 4 of this Annex. Its jurisdiction, powers and functions shall be as provided for in Part XI, section 5.

Article 15

Special chambers

1. The Tribunal may form such chambers, composed of three or more of its elected members, as it considers necessary for dealing with particular categories of disputes.

2. The Tribunal shall form a chamber for dealing with a particular dispute submitted to it if the parties so request. The composition of such a chamber shall be determined by the Tribunal with the approval of the parties.

3. With a view to the speedy dispatch of business, the Tribunal shall form annually a chamber composed of five of its elected members which may hear and determine disputes by summary procedure. Two alternative members shall be selected for the purpose of replacing members who are unable to participate in a particular proceeding.

4. Disputes shall be heard and determined by the chambers provided for in this Article if the parties so request.

5. A judgment given by any of the chambers provided for in this Article and in Article 14 of this Annex shall be considered as rendered by the Tribunal.

Article 16

Rules of the Tribunal

The Tribunal shall frame rules for carrying out its functions. In particular it shall lay down rules of procedure.

Article 17

Nationality of members

1. Members of the Tribunal of the nationality of any of the parties to a dispute shall retain their right to participate as members of the Tribunal.

2. If the Tribunal, when hearing a dispute, includes upon the bench a member of the nationality of one of the parties, any other party may choose a person to participate as a member of the Tribunal.

3. If the Tribunal, when hearing a dispute, does not include upon the bench a member of the nationality of the parties, each of those parties may choose a person to participate as a member of the Tribunal.

4. This Article applies to the chambers referred to in articles 14 and 15 of this Annex. In such cases, the President, in consultation with the parties, shall request specified members of the Tribunal forming the chamber, as many as necessary, to give place to the members of the Tribunal of the nationality of the parties concerned, and, failing such, or if they are unable to be present, to the members specially chosen by the parties.

5. Should there be several parties in the same interest, they shall, for the purpose of the preceding provisions, be considered as one party only. Any doubt on this point shall be settled by the decision of the Tribunal.

6. Members chosen in accordance with paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 shall fulfil the conditions required by articles 2, 8 and 11 of this Annex. They shall participate in the decision on terms of complete equality with their colleagues.

Article 18

Remuneration of members

1. Each elected member of the Tribunal shall receive an annual allowance and, for each day on which he exercises his functions, a special allowance, provided that in any year the total sum payable to any member as special allowance shall not exceed the amount of the annual allowance.

2. The President shall receive a special annual allowance.

3. The Vice-President shall receive a special allowance for each day on which he acts as President.

4. The members chosen under Article 17 of this Annex, other than elected members of the Tribunal, shall receive compensation for each day on which they exercise their functions.

5. The salaries, allowances and compensation shall be determined from time to time at meetings of the States Parties, taking into account the work load of the Tribunal. They may not be decreased during the term of office.

6. The salary of the Registrar shall be determined at meetings of the States Parties, on the proposal of the Tribunal.

7. Regulations adopted at meetings of the States Parties shall determine the conditions under which retirement pensions may be given to members of the Tribunal and to the Registrar, and the conditions under which members of the Tribunal and Registrar shall have their travelling expenses refunded.

8. The salaries, allowances, and compensation shall be free of all taxation.

Article 19

Expenses of the Tribunal

1. The expenses of the Tribunal shall be borne by the States Parties and by the Authority on such terms and in such a manner as shall be decided at meetings of the States Parties.

2. When an entity other than a State Party or the Authority is a party to a case submitted to it, the Tribunal shall fix the amount which that party is to contribute towards the expenses of the Tribunal.

Section 2. COMPETENCE

Article 20

Access to the Tribunal

1. The Tribunal shall be open to States Parties.

2. The Tribunal shall be open to entities other than States Parties in any case expressly provided for in Part XI or in any case submitted pursuant to any other agreement conferring jurisdiction on the Tribunal which is accepted by all the parties to that case.

Article 21

Jurisdiction

The jurisdiction of the Tribunal comprises all disputes and all applications submitted to it in accordance with this Convention and all matters specifically provided for in any other agreement which confers jurisdiction on the Tribunal.

Article 22

Reference of disputes subject to other agreements

If all the parties to a treaty or convention already in force and concerning the subject-matter covered by this Convention so agree, any disputes concerning the interpretation or application of such treaty or convention may, in accordance with such agreement, be submitted to the Tribunal.

Article 23

Applicable law

The Tribunal shall decide all disputes and applications in accordance with Article 293.

Section 3. PROCEDURE

Article 24

Institution of proceedings

1. Disputes are submitted to the Tribunal, as the case may be, either by notification of a special agreement or by written application, addressed to the Registrar. In either case, the subject of the dispute and the parties shall be indicated.

2. The Registrar shall forthwith notify the special agreement or the application to all concerned.

3. The Registrar shall also notify all States Parties.

Article 25

Provisional measures

1. In accordance with Article 290, the Tribunal and its Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall have the power to prescribe provisional measures.

2. If the Tribunal is not in session or a sufficient number of members is not available to constitute a quorum, the provisional measures shall be prescribed by the chamber of summary procedure formed under Article 15, paragraph 3, of this Annex. Notwithstanding Article 15, paragraph 4, of this Annex, such provisional measures may be adopted at the request of any party to the dispute. They shall be subject to review and revision by the Tribunal.

Article 26

Hearing

1. The hearing shall be under the control of the President or, if he is unable to preside, of the Vice-President. If neither is able to preside, the senior judge present of the Tribunal shall preside.

2. The hearing shall be public, unless the Tribunal decides otherwise or unless the parties demand that the public be not admitted.

Article 27

Conduct of case

The Tribunal shall make orders for the conduct of the case, decide the form and time in which each party must conclude its arguments, and make all arrangements connected with the taking of evidence.

Article 28

Default

When one of the parties does not appear before the Tribunal or fails to defend its case, the other party may request the Tribunal to continue the proceedings and make its decision. Absence of a party or failure of a party to defend its case shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings. Before making its decision, the Tribunal must satisfy itself not only that it has jurisdiction over the dispute, but also that the claim is well founded in fact and law.

Article 29

Majority for decision

1. All questions shall be decided by a majority of the members of the Tribunal who are present.

2. In the event of an equality of votes, the President or the member of the Tribunal who acts in his place shall have a casting vote.

Article 30

Judgment

1. The judgment shall state the reasons on which it is based.

2. It shall contain the names of the members of the Tribunal who have taken part in the decision.

3. If the judgment does not represent in whole or in part the unanimous opinion of the members of the Tribunal, any member shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.

4. The judgment shall be signed by the President and by the Registrar. It shall be read in open court, due notice having been given to the parties to the dispute.

Article 31

Request to intervene

1. Should a State Party consider that it has an interest of a legal nature which may be affected by the decision in any dispute, it may submit a request to the Tribunal to be permitted to intervene.

2. It shall be for the Tribunal to decide upon this request.

3. If a request to intervene is granted, the decision of the Tribunal in respect of the dispute shall be binding upon the intervening State Party in so far as it relates to matters in respect of which that State Party intervened.

Article 32

Right to intervene in cases of interpretation or
application

1. Whenever the interpretation or application of this Convention is in question, the Registrar shall notify all States Parties forthwith.

2. Whenever pursuant to Article 21 or 22 of this Annex the interpretation or application of an international agreement is in question, the Registrar shall notify all the parties to the agreement.

3. Every party referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 has the right to intervene in the proceedings; if it uses this right, the interpretation given by the judgment will be equally binding upon it.

Article 33

Finality and binding force of decisions

1. The decision of the Tribunal is final and shall be complied with by all the parties to the dispute.

2. The decision shall have no binding force except between the parties in respect of that particular dispute.

3. In the event of dispute as to the meaning or scope of the decision, the Tribunal shall construe it upon the request of any party.

Article 34

Costs

Unless otherwise decided by the Tribunal, each party shall bear its own costs.

Section 4. SEA-BED DISPUTES CHAMBER

Article 35

Composition

1. The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber referred to in Article 14 of this Annex shall be composed of 11 members, selected by a majority of the elected members of the Tribunal from among them.

2. In the selection of the members of the Chamber, the representation of the principal legal systems of the world and equitable geographical distribution shall be assured. The Assembly of the Authority may adopt recommendations of a general nature relating to such representation and distribution.

3. The members of the Chamber shall be selected every three years and may be selected for a second term.

4. The Chamber shall elect its President from among its members, who shall serve for the term for which the Chamber has been selected.

5. If any proceedings are still pending at the end of any three-year period for which the Chamber has been selected, the Chamber shall complete the proceedings in its original composition.

6. If a vacancy occurs in the Chamber, the Tribunal shall select a successor from among its elected members, who shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessoržs term.

7. A quorum of seven of the members selected by the Tribunal shall be required to constitute the Chamber.

Article 36

Ad hoc chambers

1. The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall form an ad hoc chamber, composed of three of its members, for dealing with a particular dispute submitted to it in accordance with Article 188, paragraph 1 (b). The composition of such a chamber shall be determined by the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber with the approval of the parties.

2. If the parties do not agree on the composition of an ad hoc chamber, each party to the dispute shall appoint one member, and the third member shall be appointed by them in agreement. If they disagree, or if any party fails to make an appointment, the President of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall promptly make the appointment or appointments from among its members, after consultation with the parties.

3. Members of the ad hoc chamber must not be in the service of, or nationals of, any of the parties to the dispute.

Article 37

Access

The Chamber shall be open to the States Parties, the Authority and the other entities referred to in Part XI, section 5.

Article 38

Applicable law

In addition to the provisions of Article 293, the Chamber shall apply:

(a) the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority adopted in accordance with this Convention; and

(b) the terms of contracts concerning activities in the Area in matters relating to those contracts.

Article 39

Enforcement of decisions of the Chamber

The decisions of the Chamber shall be enforceable in the territories of the States Parties in the same manner as judgments or orders of the highest court of the State Party in whose territory the enforcement is sought.

Article 40

Applicability of other sections of this Annex

1. The other sections of this Annex which are not incompatible with this section apply to the Chamber.

2. In the exercise of its functions relating to advisory opinions, the Chamber shall be guided by the provisions of this Annex relating to procedure before the Tribunal to the extent to which it recognizes them to be applicable.

Section 5. AMENDMENTS

Article 41

Amendments

1. Amendments to this Annex, other than amendments to section 4, may be adopted only in accordance with Article 313 or by consensus at a conference convened in accordance with this Convention.

2. Amendments to section 4 may be adopted only in accordance with Article 314.

3. The Tribunal may propose such amendments to this Statute as it may consider necessary, by written communications to the States Parties for their consideration in conformity with paragraphs 1 and 2.

***

ANNEX VII. ARBITRATION

Article 1

Institution of proceedings

Subject to the provisions of Part XV, any party to a dispute may submit the dispute to the arbitral procedure provided for in this Annex by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute. The notification shall be accompanied by a statement of the claim and the grounds on which it is based.

Article 2

List of arbitrators

1. A list of arbitrators shall be drawn up and maintained by the Secretary- General of the United Nations. Every State Party shall be entitled to nominate four arbitrators, each of whom shall be a person experienced in maritime affairs and enjoying the highest reputation for fairness, competence and integrity. The names of the persons so nominated shall constitute the list.

2. If at any time the arbitrators nominated by a State Party in the list so constituted shall be fewer than four, that State Party shall be entitled to make further nominations as necessary.

3. The name of an arbitrator shall remain on the list until withdrawn by the State Party which made the nomination, provided that such arbitrator shall continue to serve on any arbitral tribunal to which that arbitrator has been appointed until the completion of the proceedings before that arbitral tribunal.

Article 3

Constitution of arbitral tribunal

For the purpose of proceedings under this Annex, the arbitral tribunal shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, be constituted as follows:

(a) Subject to subparagraph (g), the arbitral tribunal shall consist of five members.

(b) The party instituting the proceedings shall appoint one member to be chosen preferably from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex, who may be its national. The appointment shall be included in the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex.

(c) The other party to the dispute shall, within 30 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex, appoint one member to be chosen preferably from the list, who may be its national. If the appointment is not made within that period, the party instituting the proceedings may, within two weeks of the expiration of that period, request that the appointment be made in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(d) The other three members shall be appointed by agreement between the parties. They shall be chosen preferably from the list and shall be nationals of third States unless the parties otherwise agree. The parties to the dispute shall appoint the President of the arbitral tribunal from among those three members. If, within 60 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex, the parties are unable to reach agreement on the appointment of one or more of the members of the tribunal to be appointed by agreement, or on the appointment of the President, the remaining appointment or appointments shall be made in accordance with subparagraph (e), at the request of a party to the dispute. Such request shall be made within two weeks of the expiration of the aforementioned 60-day period.

(e) Unless the parties agree that any appointment under subparagraphs (c) and (d) be made by a person or a third State chosen by the parties, the President of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea shall make the necessary appointments. If the President is unable to act under this subparagraph or is a national of one of the parties to the dispute, the appointment shall be made by the next senior member of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea who is available and is not a national of one of the parties. The appointments referred to in this subparagraph shall be made from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex within a period of 30 days of the receipt of the request and in consultation with the parties. The members so appointed shall be of different nationalities and may not be in the service of, ordinarily resident in the territory of, or nationals of, any of the parties to the dispute.

(f) Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

(g) Parties in the same interest shall appoint one member of the tribunal jointly by agreement. Where there are several parties having separate interests or where there is disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, each of them shall appoint one member of the tribunal. The number of members of the tribunal appointed separately by the parties shall always be smaller by one than the number of members of the tribunal to be appointed jointly by the parties.

(h) In disputes involving more than two parties, the provisions of subparagraphs (a) to (f) shall apply to the maximum extent possible.

Article 4

Functions of arbitral tribunal

An arbitral tribunal constituted under Article 3 of this Annex shall function in accordance with this Annex and the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 5

Procedure

Unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree, the arbitral tribunal shall determine its own procedure, assuring to each party a full opportunity to be heard and to present its case.

Article 6

Duties of parties to a dispute

The parties to the dispute shall facilitate the work of the arbitral tribunal and, in particular, in accordance with their law and using all means at their disposal, shall:

(a) provide it with all relevant documents, facilities and information; and

(b) enable it when necessary to call witnesses or experts and receive their evidence and to visit the localities to which the case relates.

Article 7

Expenses

Unless the arbitral tribunal decides otherwise because of the particular circumstances of the case, the expenses of the tribunal, including the remuneration of its members, shall be borne by the parties to the dispute in equal shares.

Article 8

Required majority for decisions

Decisions of the arbitral tribunal shall be taken by a majority vote of its members. The absence or abstention of less than half of the members shall not constitute a bar to the tribunal reaching a decision. In the event of an equality of votes, the President shall have a casting vote.

Article 9

Default of appearance

If one of the parties to the dispute does not appear before the arbitral tribunal or fails to defend its case, the other party may request the tribunal to continue the proceedings and to make its award. Absence of a party or failure of a party to defend its case shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings. Before making its award, the arbitral tribunal must satisfy itself not only that it has jurisdiction over the dispute but also that the claim is well founded in fact and law.

Article 10

Award

The award of the arbitral tribunal shall be confined to the subject-matter of the dispute and state the reasons on which it is based. It shall contain the names of the members who have participated and the date of the award. Any member of the tribunal may attach a separate or dissenting opinion to the award.

Article 11

Finality of award

The award shall be final and without appeal, unless the parties to the dispute have agreed in advance to an appellate procedure. It shall be complied with by the parties to the dispute.

Article 12

Interpretation or implementation of award

1. Any controversy which may arise between the parties to the dispute as regards the interpretation or manner of implementation of the award may be submitted by either party for decision to the arbitral tribunal which made the award. For this purpose, any vacancy in the tribunal shall be filled in the manner provided for in the original appointments of the members of the tribunal.

2. Any such controversy may be submitted to another court or tribunal under Article 287 by agreement of all the parties to the dispute.

Article 13

Application to entities other than States Parties

The provisions of this Annex shall apply mutatis mutandis to any dispute involving entities other than States Parties.

ANNEX VIII. SPECIAL ARBITRATION

Article 1

Institution of proceedings

Subject to Part XV, any party to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the articles of this Convention relating to (1) fisheries, (2) protection and preservation of the marine environment, (3) marine scientific research, or (4) navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping may submit the dispute to the special arbitral procedure provided for in this Annex by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute. The notification shall be accompanied by a statement of the claim and the grounds on which it is based.

Article 2

Lists of experts

1. A list of experts shall be established and maintained in respect of each of the fields of (1) fisheries, (2) protection and preservation of the marine environment, (3) marine scientific research, and (4) navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping.

2. The lists of experts shall be drawn up and maintained, in the field of fisheries by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in the field of protection and preservation of the marine environment by the United Nations Environment Programme, in the field of marine scientific research by the Inter-Governmental Oceanographic Commission, in the field of navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping, by the International Maritime Organization, or in each case by the appropriate subsidiary body concerned to which such organization, programme or commission has delegated this function.

3. Every State Party shall be entitled to nominate two experts in each field whose competence in the legal, scientific or technical aspects of such field is established and generally recognized and who enjoy the highest reputation for fairness and integrity. The names of the persons so nominated in each field shall constitute the appropriate list.

4. If at any time the experts nominated by a State Party in the list so constituted shall be fewer than two, that State Party shall be entitled to make further nominations as necessary.

5. The name of an expert shall remain on the list until withdrawn by the State Party which made the nomination, provided that such expert shall continue to serve on any special arbitral tribunal to which that expert has been appointed until the completion of the proceedings before that special arbitral tribunal.

Article 3

Constitution of special arbitral tribunal

For the purpose of proceedings under this Annex, the special arbitral tribunal shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, be constituted as follows:

(a) Subject to subparagraph (g), the special arbitral tribunal shall consist of five members.

(b) The party instituting the proceedings shall appoint two members to be chosen preferably from the appropriate list or lists referred to in Article 2 of this Annex relating to the matters in dispute, one of whom may be its national. The appointments shall be included in the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex.

(c) The other party to the dispute shall, within 30 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex, appoint two members to be chosen preferably from the appropriate list or lists relating to the matters in dispute, one of whom may be its national. If the appointments are not made within that period, the party instituting the proceedings may, within two weeks of the expiration of that period, request that the appointments be made in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(d) The parties to the dispute shall by agreement appoint the President of the special arbitral tribunal, chosen preferably from the appropriate list, who shall be a national of a third State, unless the parties otherwise agree. If, within 30 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex, the parties are unable to reach agreement on the appointment of the President, the appointment shall be made in accordance with subparagraph (e), at the request of a party to the dispute. Such request shall be made within two weeks of the expiration of the aforementioned 30-day period.

(e) Unless the parties agree that the appointment be made by a person or a third State chosen by the parties, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall make the necessary appointments within 30 days of receipt of a request under subparagraphs (c) and (d). The appointments referred to in this subparagraph shall be made from the appropriate list or lists of experts referred to in Article 2 of this Annex and in consultation with the parties to the dispute and the appropriate international organization. The members so appointed shall be of different nationalities and may not be in the service of, ordinarily resident in the territory of, or nationals of, any of the parties to the dispute.

(f) Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

(g) Parties in the same interest shall appoint two members of the tribunal jointly by agreement. Where there are several parties having separate interests or where there is disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, each of them shall appoint one member of the tribunal.

(h) In disputes involving more than two parties, the provisions of subparagraphs (a) to (f) shall apply to the maximum extent possible.

Article 4

General provisions

Annex VII, articles 4 to 13, apply mutatis mutandis to the special arbitration proceedings in accordance with this Annex.

Article 5

Fact finding

1. The parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention relating to (1) fisheries, (2) protection and preservation of the marine environment, (3) marine scientific research, or (4) navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping, may at any time agree to request a special arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Article 3 of this Annex to carry out an inquiry and establish the facts giving rise to the dispute.

2. Unless the parties otherwise agree, the findings of fact of the special arbitral tribunal acting in accordance with paragraph 1, shall be considered as conclusive as between the parties.

3. If all the parties to the dispute so request, the special arbitral tribunal may formulate recommendations which, without having the force of a decision, shall only constitute the basis for a review by the parties of the questions giving rise to the dispute.

4. Subject to paragraph 2, the special arbitral tribunal shall act in accordance with the provisions of this Annex, unless the parties otherwise agree.

***

ANNEX IX. PARTICIPATION BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Article 1

Use of terms

For the purposes of Article 305 and of this Annex, “international organization” means an intergovernmental organization constituted by States to which its member States have transferred competence over matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters.

Article 2

Signature

An international organization may sign this Convention if a majority of its member States are signatories of this Convention. At the time of signature an international organization shall make a declaration specifying the matters governed by this Convention in respect of which competence has been transferred to that organization by its member States which are signatories, and the nature and extent of that competence.

Article 3

Formal confirmation and accession

1. An international organization may deposit its instrument of formal confirmation or of accession if a majority of its member States deposit or have deposited their instruments of ratification or accession.

2. The instruments deposited by the international organization shall contain the undertakings and declarations required by articles 4 and 5 of this Annex.

Article 4

Extent of participation and rights and obligations

1. The instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization shall contain an undertaking to accept the rights and obligations of States under this Convention in respect of matters relating to which competence has been transferred to it by its member States which are Parties to this Convention .

2. An international organization shall be a Party to this Convention to the extent that it has competence in accordance with the declarations, communications of information or notifications referred to in Article 5 of this Annex.

3. Such an international organization shall exercise the rights and perform the obligations which its member States which are Parties would otherwise have under this Convention, on matters relating to which competence has been transferred to it by those member States. The member States of that international organization shall not exercise competence which they have transferred to it.

4. Participation of such an international organization shall in no case entail an increase of the representation to which its member States which are States Parties would otherwise be entitled, including rights in decision-making.

5. Participation of such an international organization shall in no case confer any rights under this Convention on member States of the organization which are not States Parties to this Convention.

6. In the event of a conflict between the obligations of an international organization under this Convention and its obligations under the agreement establishing the organization or any acts relating to it, the obligations under this Convention shall prevail.

Article 5

Declarations, notifications and communications

1. The instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization shall contain a declaration specifying the matters governed by this Convention in respect of which competence has been transferred to the organization by its member States which are Parties to this Convention.

2. A member State of an international organization shall, at the time it ratifies or accedes to this Convention or at the time when the organization deposits its instrument of formal confirmation or of accession, whichever is later, make a declaration specifying the matters governed by this Convention in respect of which it has transferred competence to the organization.

3. States Parties which are member States of an international organization which is a Party to this Convention shall be presumed to have competence over all matters governed by this Convention in respect of which transfers of competence to the organization have not been specifically declared, notified or communicated by those States under this article.

4. The international organization and its member States which are States Parties shall promptly notify the depositary of this Convention of any changes to the distribution of competence, including new transfers of competence, specified in the declarations under paragraphs 1 and 2.

5. Any State Party may request an international organization and its member States which are States Parties to provide information as to which, as between the organization and its member States, has competence in respect of any specific question which has arisen. The organization and the member States concerned shall provide this information within a reasonable time. The international organization and the member States may also, on their own initiative, provide this information.

6. Declarations, notifications and communications of information under this Article shall specify the nature and extent of the competence transferred.

Article 6

Responsibility and liability

1. Parties which have competence under Article 5 of this Annex shall have responsibility for failure to comply with obligations or for any other violation of this Convention.

2. Any State Party may request an international organization or its member States which are States Parties for information as to who has responsibility in respect of any specific matter. The organization and the member States concerned shall provide this information. Failure to provide this information within a reasonable time or the provision of contradictory information shall result in joint and several liability.

Article 7

Settlement of disputes

1. At the time of deposit of its instrument of formal confirmation or of accession, or at any time thereafter, an international organization shall be free to choose, by means of a written declaration, one or more of the means for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, referred to in Article 287, paragraph 1 (a), (c) or (d).

2. Part XV applies mutatis mutandis to any dispute between Parties to this Convention, one or more of which are international organizations.

3. When an international organization and one or more of its member States are joint parties to a dispute, or parties in the same interest, the organization shall be deemed to have accepted the same procedures for the settlement of disputes as the member States; when, however, a member State has chosen only the International Court of Justice under Article 287, the organization and the member State concerned shall be deemed to have accepted arbitration in accordance with Annex VII, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

Article 8

Applicability of Part XVII

Part XVII applies mutatis mutandis to an international organization, except in respect of the following:

(a) the instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization shall not be taken into account in the application of Article 308, paragraph 1;

(b) (i) an international organization shall have exclusive capacity with respect to the application of articles 312 to 315, to the extent that it has competence under Article 5 of this Annex over the entire subject matter of the amendment;

(ii) the instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization to an amendment, the entire subject-matter over which the international organization has competence under Article 5 of this Annex, shall be considered to be the instrument of ratification or accession of each of the member States which are States Parties, for the purposes of applying Article 316, paragraphs 1, 2 and 3;

(iii) the instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of the international organization shall not be taken into account in the application of Article 316, paragraphs 1 and 2, with regard to all other amendments;

(c) (i) an international organization may not denounce this Convention in accordance with Article 317 if any of its member States is a State Party and if it continues to fulfil the qualifications specified in Article 1 of this Annex;

(ii) an international organization shall denounce this Convention when none of its member States is a State Party or if the international organization no longer fulfils the qualifications specified in Article 1 of this Annex. Such denunciation shall take effect immediately.

FINAL ACT OF THE THIRD UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE LAW OF THE SEA

INTRODUCTION

1. The General Assembly of the United Nations on 17 December 1970 adopted resolution 2749 (XXV) containing the Declaration of Principles Governing the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor, and the Subsoil Thereof, beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction and resolution 2750 C (XXV) on the same date, where in it decided to convene, in 1973, a Conference on the Law of the Sea, which would deal with the establishment ofan equitable international régime – including an international machinery – for the area and the resources of the sea-bed and ocean floor, and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, with a precise definition of that area and with a broad range of related issues including those concerning the régimes of the high seas, the continental shelf, the territorial sea (including the question of its breadth and the question of international straits) and contiguous zone, fishing and conservation of the living resources of the high seas (including the question of the preferential rights of coastal States), the preservation of the marine environment (including, inter alia, the prevention of pollution) and scientific research.

2. Prior to the adoption of these resolutions, the General Assembly had considered the item introduced in 1967 on the initiative of the Government of Malta1 and had subsequently adopted the following resolutions on the question of the reservation exclusively for peaceful purposes of the sea bed and the ocean floor, and the subsoil thereof, underlying the high seas beyond the limits of present nacional jurisdiction, and the use of their resources in the interests of mankind:

Resolution 2340 (XXII) on 18 December 1967,

Resolution 2467 (XXIII) on 21 December 1968, and

Resolution 2574 (XXIV) on 15 December 1969.

3. The General Assembly, by resolution 2340 (XXII), established an Ad Hoc Committee to Study the Peaceful Uses of the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction and, having considered its report,2 established by resolution 2467 A (XXIII) the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction. The General Assembly, by resolution 2750 C (XXV), enlarged that Committee and requested in to prepare draft treaty articles and a comprehensive list of items and matters for the Conference on the Law of the Sea. The Committe as thus constituted held six sessions, and a number of additional meetings, between 1971 and 1973 at United Nations Headquarters in New York and at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva. Having considered its report,3 the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General by resolution 2574 A (XXIV) to ascertain the views of Member States on the desirability of convening, at an early date, a Conference on the Law of the Sea.

4. Subsequent to the adoption of resolutions 2749 (XXV) and 2750 (XXV), the General Assembly, having considered the relevant reports of the Commitee,4 adopted the following resolutions on the same question:

Resolution 2881 (XXVI) on 21 December 1971,

Resolution 3029 (XXVII) on 18 December 1972, and

Resolution 3067 (XXVIII) on 16 November 1973.

5. By resolution 3029 A (XXVII) the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to convene the first and second sessions of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. The Secretary-General was authorized, in consultation with the Chairman of the Committee, to make such arrangements as might be necessary for the efficient organization and administration of the Conference and the Committee, and to provide the assistance that might be required in le­gal, economic, technical and scientific matters. The specialized agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other intergovernmental organizations were invited to co-operate fully with the Secretary-General in the preparations for the Conference and to send observers to the Conference.5 The Secretary-General was requested, subject to approval by the Conference, to invite interested non-governmental organizations having consultative status with the Economic and Social Council to send observers to the Conference.

6. By resolution 3067 (XXVIII) the General Assembly decided that the mandate of the Conference was the adoption of a Convention dealing with all matters relating to the Law of the Sea, taking into account the subject matter listed in paragraph 2 of General Assembly resolution 2750 C (XXV) and the list of subjects and issues relating to the Law of the Sea formally approved by the Committee, and bearing in mind that the problems of ocean space were closely interrelated and needed to be considered as a whole. By the same resolution, the General Assembly also decided to convene the first session of the Conference in New York from 3 to 14 December 1973 for the purpose of dealing with organizational matters, including the election of officers, the adoption of the agenda and rules of procedure of the Conference, the establishment of subsidiary organs and the allocation of work to these organs, and any other purpose within its mandate. The second session was to be held in Caracas, at the invitation of the Government of Venezuela, from 20 June to 29 August 1974 to deal with the substantive work of the Conference and, if necessary, and subsequent session, or sessions, were to be convened as might be decided upon by the Conference and approved by the Assembly.

I. SESSIONS

7. In accordance with that decision and subsequently either on the recommendation of the Conference as approved by the General Assembly, or in accordance with decisions of the Conferences, the sessions of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea were held as follows:

– First session held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 3 to 15 December 1973;

– Second session held at Parque Central, Caracas, 20 June to 29 August 1974;

– Third session held at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva, 17 March to 9 May 1976;6

– Fourth session held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 15 March to 7 May 1976;7

– Fifth session held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 2 August to 17 September 1976;8

– Sixth session held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 23 May to 15 July 1977;9

– Seventh session held at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva, 28 March to 19 May 1978;10

– Resumed seventh session held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 21 August to 15 September 1978;11

– Eighth session held at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva, 19 March to 27 April 1979;12

– Resumed eighth session held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 19 July to 24 August 1979;13

– Ninth session held at United Nation Headquarters in New York, 3 March to 4 April 1980;14

– Resumed ninth session held at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva, 28 July to 29 August 1980;15

– Tenth session, held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 9 March to 24 April 1981;16

– Resumed tenth session held at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva, 3 to 28 August 1981;17

– Eleventh session held at United Nations Headquarters in New York, 8 March to 30 April 1982;18

– Resumed eleventh session held at United Nations Head­quarters in New York, 22 to 24 September 1982.19,19bis

II. PARTICIPATION IN THE CONFERENCE

8. Having re­gard to the desirability of achieving universality of participation in the Conference, the General Assembly decided by resolution 3067 (XXVIII) to request the Secretary-General to invite States Members of the United Nations or members of the specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency and States parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, as well as the following States, to participate in the Conference: the Republic of Guinea-Bissau and the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam.

Participating at the sessions of the Conference were the dele­gations of: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Democratic Kampuchea, Democratic Peopležs Republic of Korea, Democratic Yemen, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, German Democratic Republic, Germany, Federal Republic of, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao Peopležs Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Sene­gal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Togo, Tonga Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Cameroon, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Upper Volta, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia and Zimbabwe.20

9. The Secretary-General was also requested by resolution 3067 (XXVIII) to invite interested inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as the United Nations Council for Namibia, to participate in the Conference as observers.

The specialized agencies and inter-governmental organizations participating as observers at the several sessions of the Conference are listed in the appendix hereto.

10. On the recommendation of the Conference, by resolution 3334 (XXIX), adopted on 17 December 1974, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to invite Papua New Guinea, the Cook Islands, the Netherlands Antilles, Niue, Suriname, the West Indies Associated States and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to attend future sessions of the Conference as observers or, if any of them became independent, to attend as a participating State.

The States and Territories participating as observers at the several sessions of the Conference are also listed in the appendix hereto.

11. The Conference decided on 11 July 1974 to extend invitations to national liberation movements, recognized by the Organization of African Unity and the League of Arab States in their respective re­gions, to participate in its proceedings as observers.21

The national liberation movements participating as observers at the several sessions of the Conference are also listed in the appendix hereto.

12. Consequent upon General Assembly resolution 34/92, the Conference decided on 6 March 198022 that Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for Namibia, should participate in the Conference in accordance with the relevant decisions of the General Assembly.

III. OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES

13. The Conference elected Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe (Sri Lanka) as its President. Subsequently, at its seventh session, the Conference confirmed that he was, and continued to be the President of the Conference although he was no longer a member of his national dele­gation.23 On the death of Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe on 4 December 1980, the Conference paid tribute to his memory at special commemorative meeting on 17 March 1981 at its tenth session (A/CONF.62/SR.144).24

14. The Secretary-General of the United Nations opened the tenth session as temporary President. The Conference elected Tommy T. B. Koh (Singapore) as President on 13 March 1981.25

15. The Conference decided that the Chairmen and Rapporteurs of the three Main Committees, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, and the Rapporteur-General of the Conference would be elected in a personal capacity and that the Vice-Presidents, the Vice-Chairmen of the Main Committees and the members of the Drafting Committee should be elected by country.26

16. The Conference elected as Vice-Presidents, the representatives of the following States: Algeria; Belgium, replaced by Ireland during alternate sessions (by agreement of the re­gional group concerned); Bolivia; Chile; China; Dominican Republic; Egypt; France; Iceland; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Kuwait; Liberia; Madagascar; Nepal; Nigeria; Norway; Pakistan; Peru; Poland; SIngapore, replaced by Sri Lanka at the tenth session (by agreement of the re­gional group concerned); Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Uganda; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; United States of America; Yugoslavia; Zaire and Zambia.

17. The following Committees were set up by the Conference; the General Committee; the three Main Committees; the Drafting Committee and the Credentials Committee. The assignment of subject to the plenary and each of the Main Committees was set out in section III of document A/CONF.62/29.

The General Committee consisted of the President of the Conference as its Chairman, the Vice-Presidents, the officers of the Main Committees, and the Rapporteur-General. The Chairman of the Drafting Committee had the right to participate in the meeting of the General Committee without the right to vote.27

The Conference elected the following officers for the three Main Committees which were constituted by all States represented at the Conference:

First Committee

Chairman Paul Bamela Engo (United Republic of Cameroon)

Vice-Chairmen The representatives of Brazil, the German Democratic Republic and Japan

Rapporteur

First and second sessions H. C. Mott (Australia)

Third to tenth sessions John Bailey (Australia)

Eleventh session Keith Brennan (Australia)

Second Committee

Chairman

First and second sessions Andrés Aguilar (Venezuela)

Third session Reynaldo Galindo Pohl (El Salvador) (by agreement of the re­gional group concerned)

Fourth to eleventh sessions Andrés Aguilar (Venezuela)

Vice-Chairmen The representatives of Czechoslovakia, Kenya and Turkey

Rapporteur Satya Nandan (Fiji)

Third Committee

Chairman Alexander Yankov (Bulgaria)

Vice-Chairmen The representatives of Colombia, Cyprus and the Federal Republic of Germany

Rapporteur

First and second sessions Abdel Magied A. Hassan (Sudan)

Third session Manyang džAwol (Sudan)

Fourth and fifth sessions Abdel Magied A. Hassan (Sudan)

Fifth to eleventh sessions Manyang džAwol (Sudan)

The Conference elected the following officer and members of the Drafting Committee:

Drafting Committee

Chairman J. Alan Beesley (Canada)

Members The representatives of: Afghanistan; Argentina; Bangladesh (alternating with Thailand every year); Ecuador; El Salvador (replaced by Venezuela for the duration of the third session by agreement of the re­gional group concerned); Ghana; India; Italy; Lesotho; Malaysia; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Netherlands (alternating with Austria every session); Philippines; Romania; Sierra Leone; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; United Republic of Tanzania and United States of America.

The Conference elected the following officers and members of the Credentials Committee:

Credentials Committee

Chairman

First session Heinrich Gleissner (Austria)

Second and third sessions Franz Weidinger (Austria)

Fourth to eleventh sessions Karl Wolf (Austria)

Members The representatives of: Austria; Chad; China; Costa Rica; Hungary; Ireland; Ivory Coast; Japan and Uruguay.

Kenneth Rattray (Jamaica) was elected Rapporteur-General of the Conference.

18. The Secretary-General of the United Nations as Secretary-General of the Conference was represented by Constantin Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary-General, at the first and second sessions. Thereafter Bernardo Zuleta, Under-Secretary-General, represented the Secretary-General. David L. D. Hall was Executive Secretary of the Conference.

19. The General Assembly, by its resolution 3067 (XXVIII) convening the Conference, referred to it the reports and documents of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction and the relevant documentation of the General Assembly. At the commencement of the Conference the following documentation was also before it:

(a) The provisional agenda of the first session of the Conference (A/CONF.62/1);

(b) The draft rules of procedure prepared by the Secretary-General (A/CONF.62/2 and Add. 1-3), containing an appendix which embodied the »Gentlemanžs Agreement«, approved by the General Assembly at its twenty-eighth session on 16 November 1973.

Subsequently, the Conference also had before it the following documentation:

(i) The proposals submitted by the dele­gations participating in the Conference, as shown in the Official Records of the Conference;

(ii) The reports and studies prepared by the Secretary-General;28

(iii) The informal ne­gotiating texts and the draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and related draft resolutions and decision drawn up by the Conference as hereafter set out.

IV. DRAFTING COMMITTEE

20. The Drafting Committee commenced its work at the seventh session of the Conference with the informal examination of ne­gotiating texts, for the purposes of refining drafts, harmonizing recurring words and expressions and achieving, through textual review, concordance of the text of the Convention in the six languages. The Committee was assisted in its informal work by six language groups comprising both members and non-members of the Drafting Committee, representing the six official languages of the Conference each group being chaired by a co-ordinator29 and assisted by Secretariat linguistic experts. The co-ordinators, under the direction of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, performed the major task of harmonizing the views of the language groups and of preparing proposals of the Drafting Committee, through meetings open to both members and non-members of the Drafting Committee. In addition to the meetings held during the re­gular sessions of the Conference, the Committee held inter-sessional meetings as follows:

– At United Nations Headquarters in New York, from 9 to 27 June 1980;

– At United Nations Headquarters in New York, from 12 January to 27 February 1981;

– At the Office of the United Nations in Geneva, from 29 June to 31 July 1981;

– At United Nations Headquarters in New York, from 18 January to 26 February 1982;

– At the Office of the United Nations in Geneva, from 12 July to 25 August 1982.

The Drafting Committee presented a first series of reports concerning the harmonization of recurring words and expressions.30 The Committee presented a second series of reports containing recommendations arising out of the textual review of the Convention.31

V. RULES OF PROCEDURE AND CONDUCT OF NEGOTIATIONS

21. The Conference adopted its rules of procedure (A/CONF.62/30) at its second session.32 The declaration incorporating the »Gentlemanžs Agreement« approved by the General Assembly,33 made by the President and endorsed by the Conference,34 was appended to the rules of procedure. The declaration provided that:

»Bearing in mind that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole and the desirability of adopting a Convention on the Law of the Sea which will secure the widest possible acceptance,

»The Conference should make every effort to reach agreement on substantive matters by way of consensus and there should be no voting on such matters until all efforts at consensus have been exhausted.«

22. The rules of procedure were subsequently amended by the Conference on 12 July 1974,35 on 17 March 197536 and on 6 March 1980.37

23. At its second session,38 the Conference determined the competence of the three Main Committees by allocating to the plenary or the Committees the subjects and issues on the list prepared in accordance with General Assembly resolution 2750 C (XXV) (A/CONF.62/29). The Main Committees established informal working groups or other subsidiary bodies which assisted the Committees in their work.39

24. At the third session, at the request of the Conference, the Chairmen of the three Main Committees each prepared a single ne­gotiating text covering the subjects entrusted to the respective Committee which together constituted the Informal Single Ne­gotiating Text (A/CONF.62/WP.8, Parts I, II and III), the nature of which is described in the introductory note by the President. Subsequently, the President of the Conference, taking into consideration the allocation of subjects and issues to the plenary and the Main Committees submitted a single ne­gotiating text on the subject of settlement of disputes (A/CONF.62/WP.9).

25. At the fourth session of the Conference, following a general debate in the plenary on the subject, as recorded in A/CONF.62/SR.58 to SR.65, at the request of the Conference40 the President prepared a revised text on the settlement of disputes (A/CONF.62/WP.9/Rev.1) which constituted Part IV of the Informal Single Ne­gotiating Text in document A/CONF.62/WP.8. At the same session, the Chairmen of the Main Committes each prepared a revised Single Ne­gotiating Text (A/CONF.62/WP.8/Rev.1, Parts I to III) and the note by the President which is attached to the text describes its nature.

26. During the fifth session, at the requerst of the Conference41 the President prepared a revised single ne­gotiating text on the settlement of disputes (A/CONF.62/WP.9/Rev.2), which constituted the fourth part of the Revised Single Ne­gotiating Text (A/CONF.62/WP.8/Rev.1).

27. At its sixth session,42 the Conference requested the President and the Chairmen of the Main Committees, working under the Presidentžs leadership as a team with which the Chairman of the Drafting Committee and the Rapporteur-General were associated,43 which was subsequently referred to as »the Colle­gium«,44 to prepare an Informal Composite Ne­gotiating Text (A/CONF.62/WP.10), covering the entire range of subjects and issues contained in Parts I to IV of the Revised Single Negotiating Text. The nature of the composite text so prepared was described in the Presidentžs memorandum (A/CONF.62/WP.10/Add.1).

28. At its seventh session, the Conference identified certain outstanding core issues and established seven ne­gotiating groups (as recorded in A/CONF.62/62) for the purpose of resolving these issues.45 Each group  comprised a nucleus of countries principally concerned with the outstanding core issue, but was open-ended.

The Chairmen of the Ne­gotiating Groups were:

Ne­gotiating Group on item 1           Francis X. Njenga (Kenya)

Ne­gotiating Group on item 2           Tommy T. B. Koh (Singapore)

Ne­gotiating Group on item 3           Paul Bamela Engo (United Republic of Cameroon), Chairman of the First Committee

Ne­gotiating Group on item 4           Satya N. Nandan (Fiji)

Ne­gotiating Group on item 5           Constantin A. Stavropoulos (Greece)

Ne­gotiating Group on item 6           Andrés Aguilar (Venezuela), Chairman of the Second Committee

Ne­gotiating Group on item 7           E.J. Manner (Finland)

The Chairmen of the Ne­gotiating Groups were to report on the results of their ne­gotiations to the Committee or the plenary functioning as a Committee, as appropriate, before they were presented to the plenary.

29. The ne­gotiations carried out at the seventh session and resumed seventh session of the Conference were reported on by the President concerning the work of the plenary functioning as a Main Committee, and by the Chairmen of the Main Committees and the Ne­gotiating Groups. These reports, together with the report of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, were incorporated in documents A/CONF.62/RCNG.1 and 2.46 The Conference also laid down criteria for any modifications or revisions of the Informal Composite Ne­gotiating Text, which are set out in document A/CONF.62/62.

30. At the eighth session a group of Le­gal Experts was set up with Harry Wuensche (German Democratic Republic) as its Chairman.47

31. On the basis of the deliberations of the Conference (A/CONF.62/SR.111-SR.116) concerning the reports of the President, the Chairmen of the Main Committees, the Chairmen of the Ne­gotiating Groups and the Chairman of the Group of Le­gal Experts on consultations conducted by them, a revision of the Informal Composite Ne­gotiating Text (A/CONF.62/WP.10/Rev.1) was prepared by the Colle­gium referred to in paragraph 27. The nature of the text was described in the explanatory memorandum by the President attached to the text.

32. At the resumed eighth session a further Group of Le­gal Experts was set up with Jens Evensen (Norway) at its Chairman.48

33. The reports on the ne­gotiations conducted at the resumed eighth session by the President, the Chairmen of the Main Committees, the Chairmen of the Ne­gotiating Groups and the Chairmen of the two Groups of Le­gal Experts together with the report of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee were incorportated in a memorandum by the President (A/CONF.62/91).

34. At its ninth session, on the basis of the report of the President concerning consultations conducted in the plenary acting as a Main Committee (A/CONF.62/L.49/Add.1 and 2), the Conference considered the draft Preamble prepared by the President (A/CONF.62/L.49/) for incorporation in the next revision of the Informal Composite Ne­gotiating Text (A/CONF.62/WP.10/Rev.1). On the basis of the deliberations of the Conference (A/CONF.62/SR.125-SR.128) concerning the reports of the President, the Chairmen of the Main Committees, the Chairmen of the Ne­gotiating Groups and the Chairmen of the Groups of Le­gal Experts on the consultations conducted by them, and the report of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee on its work, the Colle­gium49 undertook a second revision of the Informal Composite Ne­gotiating Text presented as the Informal Composite Ne­gotiating Text/Rev.2 (in document A/CONF.62/WP.10/Rev.2), the nature of which was described in the Presidentžs explanatory memorandum attached to it.

35. At its resumed ninth session, on the basis of the deliberations of the Conference (A/CONF.62/SR.134-SR.140) concerning the reports of the President and the Chairmen of the Main Committees on the consultations conducted by them, the Colle­gium prepared a further revision of the Informal Composite Ne­gotiating Text. The revised text, titled »Draft Convention of the Law of the Sea (Informal Text)« (A/CONF.62/WP.10/Rev.3), was issued together with the explanatory memorandum of the President (A/CONF.62/WP.10)Rev.3/Add.1), which described the nature of the text.

36. The Conference also decided that the statement of understanding on an exceptional method of delimitation of the Continental Shelf applicable to certain specific geological and geomorphological conditions would be incorporated in an annex to the Final Act.50

37. The Conference decided that the tenth session was to determine the status to be given to the draft Convention (Informal Text).51

38. Following the deliberations of the Conference at its tenth and resumed tenth sessions (A/CONF.62/SR.142-SR.155), the Colle­gium prepared a revision of the draft Convention on the Law of the Sea (Informal Text). The Conference decided that the text as revised (A/CONF.62/L.78) was the official draft Convention of the Conference, subject only to the specific conditions recorded in document A/CONF.62/114. At the resumed tenth session, the Conference decided that the decisions taken in the informal plenary concerning the seats of the International Sea-Bed Authority (Jamaica) and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in the Federal Republic of Germany) should be incorporated in the revision of the draft Convention; and that the introductory note to that revision should record the requirements agreed upon when the decision concerning the two seats was taken (A/CONF.62/L.78).

39. Following consideration by the plenary52 of the final clauses and in particular the question of entry into force of the Convention, the question of establishing a Preparatory Commission for the International Sea-Bed Authority and the convening of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea was considered by the plenary at the ninth session. The President, on the basis of the deliberations of the informal plenary, prepared a draft resolution to be adopted by the Conference concerning interim arrangements, which was annexed to his report (A/CONF.62/L.55 and Corr.1). On the basis of the further consideration of the subject jointly by the plenary and the First Committee at the tenth, resumed tenth and eleventh sessions of the Conference, the President and the Chairman of the First Committee presented a draft resolution (A/CONF.62/C.1/L.30, annex I).

40. Following consideration at the eleventh session of the question of the treatment to be accorded to preparatory investments made before the Convention enters into force, provided that such investments are compatible with the Convention and would not defeat its object and purpose, the President and the Chairman of the First Committee presented a draft resolution contained in annex II to their report A/CONF.62/C.1/L.30. The question of participation in the Convention was considered by the plenary of the Conference during the eighth to eleventh sessions, and the President presented a report on the consultations at the eleventh session in document A/CONF.62/L.86.

41. The eleventh session had been declared as the final decision-making session of the Conference.53 During that session, on the basis of the deliberations of the Conference (A/CONF.62/SR.157-SR.166) concerning the report of the President (A/CONF.62/L.86) and the reports of the Chairmen of the Main Committees (A/CONF.62/L.87, L.91 and L.92), on the ne­gotiations conducted by them and the report of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee on its work (A/CONF.62/L.85 and L.89), the Colle­gium issued a memorandum (A/CONF.62/L93 and Corr.1) containing changes to be incorporated in the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea (A/CONF.62/L.78), and document A/CONF.62/L.94 setting out three draft resolutions and a draft decision of the Conference which were to be adopted at the same time as the draft Convention.

The Conference determined that all efforts at reaching general agreement had been exhausted.54 Troughout the preceding eight years of its work the Conference had taken all decisions by consensus although it had exceptionally resorted to a vote only on procedural questions, on questions concerning the appointment of officials and on invitations to be extended to participants in the Conference as observers.

42. On the basis of the deliberations recorded in the records of the Conference (A/CONF.62/SR.167-SR.182), the Conference drew up:

THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA

RESOLUTION I on the establishment of the Preparatory Commission for the International Sea-Bed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

RESOLUTION II governing Preparatory Investment in Pioneer Activities relating to Polymetallic Nodules

RESOLUTION III relating to territories whose people have not obtained either full independence or some other self-governing status recognized by the United Nations or territories under colonial domination

RESOLUTION IV relating to national liberation movements.

The fore­going Convention together with resolutions I to IV, forming an inte­gral whole, was adopted on 30 April 1982, by a recorded vote taken at the request of one dele­gation.55 The Convention together with resolution I to IV were adopted subject to drafting changes thereafter approved by the Conference56 which were incorporated in the Convention and in resolutions I to IV, which are annexed to this Final Act (annex I). The Convention is subject to ratification and is opened for signature from 10 December 1982 until 9 December 1984 at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Jamaica and also from 1 July 1983 until 9 December 1984 at United Nations Headquarters. The same instrument is opened for accession in accordance with its provisions.

After 9 December 1984, the closing date for signature at United Nations Headquarters, the Convention will be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

There are annexed to this Final Act:

The Statement of Understanding referred to in paragraph 36 above (annex II); and the following resolutions adopted by the Conference:

Resolution paying tribute to Simón Bolívar the Liberator (annex III);57

Resolution expressing gratitude to the President, the Government and officials of Venezuela (annex IV);58

Tribute to the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama (annex V);59

Resolution on Development of National Marine Science, Technology and Ocean Service Infrastructures (annex VI);60

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the representatives have signed this Final Act.

DONE AT MONTEGO BAY this tenth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and eighty-two in a single copy in the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each text being equally authentic. The original texts shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations Secretariat.

The President of the Conference:

T.T.B. Koh

The Special Representative of the

Secretary-General to the Conference:

Bernardo Zuleta

The Executive Secretary of the Conference:

David Hall

Annex 1

RESOLUTION I

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PREPARATORY COMMISSION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SEA-BED AUTHORITY AND FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Having adopted the Convention on the Law of the Sea which provides for the establishment of the Inernational Sea-Bed Authority and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea,

Having decided to take all possible measures to ensure the entry into effective operation without undue delay of the Authority and the Tribunal and to make the necessary arrangements for the comencement of their functions,

Having decided that a Preparatory Commission should be established for the fulfilment of these purposes,

Decides as follows:

1. There is hereby established the Preparatory Commission for the International Sea-Bed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. Upon signature of or accession to the Convention by 50 States, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the Commission, and it shall meet no sooner than 60 days and no later than 90 days thereafter.

2. The Commission shall consist of the representatives of  States and of Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for Namibia, which have signed the Convention or acceded to it. The representatives of signatories of the Final Act may participate fully in the deliberations of the Commission as observers but shall not be entitled to participate in the taking of decisions.

3. The Commission shall elect its Chairman and other officers.

4. The Rules of Procedure of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea shall apply mutatis mutandis to the adoption of the rules of procedure of the Commission.

5. The Commission shall:

(a) prepare the provisional agenda for the first session of the Assembly and of the Council and, as appropriate, make recommendations relating to items thereon;

(b) prepare draft rules of procedure of the Assembly and of the Council;

(c) make recommendations concerning the budget for the first financial period of the Authority;

(d) make recommendations concerning the relationship between the Authority and the United Nations and other international organizations;

(e) make recommendations concerning the Secretariat of the Authority in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention;

(f) undertake studies, as necessary, concerning the establishment of the headquarters of the Authority, and make recommendations relating thereto;

(g) prepare draft rules, re­gulations and procedures, as necessary, to enable the Authority to commence its functions, including draft re­gulations concerning the financial management and the internal administration of the Authority;

(h) exercise the powers and functions assigned to it by resolution II of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea relating to preparatory investment;

(i) undertake studies on the problems which would be encountered by developing land-based producer States likely to be most seriously affected by the production of minerals derived from the Area with a view to minimizing their difficulties and helping them to make the necessary economic adjustment, including studies on the establishment of a compensation fund, and submit recommendations to the Authority thereon.

6. The Commission shal have such le­gal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes as set forth in this resolution.

7. The Commission may establish such subsidiary bodies as are necessary for the exercise of its functions and shall determine their functions and rules of procedure. It may also make use, as appropriate, of outside sources of expertise in accordance with United Nations practice to facilitate the work of bodies so established.

8. The Commission shall establish a special commission for the Enterprise and entrust to it the functions referred to in paragraph 12 of resolution II of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea relating to preparatory investment. The special commission shall take all measures necessary for the early entry into effective operation of the Enterprise.

9. The Commission shall establish a special commission on the problems which would be encountered by  developing land-based producer States likely to be most seriously affected by the producion of minerals derived from the Area and entrust to it the functions referred to in paragrph 5 (i).

10. The Commission shall prepare a report containing recommendations for submission to the meeting of the States Parties to be convened in accordance with Annex VI, article 4, of the Convention re­garding practical arrangements for the establishment of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.

11. The Commission shall prepare a final report on all matters within its mandate, except as provided in paragraph 10, for the presentation to the Assembly at its first session. Any action which may be taken on the basis of the report must be in conformity with the provisions of the Convention concerning the powers and functions entrusted to the respective organs of the Authority.

12. The Commission shall meet at the seat of the Authority if facilities are available; it shall meet as often as necessary for the expeditious exercise of its functions.

13. The Commission shall remain in existence until the conclusion of the first session of the Assembly, at which time its property and records shall be transferred to the Authority.

14. The expenses of the Commission shall be met from the re­gular budget of the United Nations, subject to the approval of the General Assembly of the United Nations.

15. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall make available to the Commission such secretariat services as may be required.

16. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall bring this resolution, in particular paragraphs 14 and 15, to the attention of the General Assembly for necessary action.

***

RESOLUTION II

GOVERNING PREPARATORY INVESTMENT IN PIONEER ACTIVITIES RELATING TO POLYMETALLIC NODULES

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Having adopted the Convention on the Law of the Sea (the »Convention«),

Having established by resolution I the Preparatory Commission for the International Sea-Bed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (the »Commission«) and directed it to prepare draft rules, re­gulations and procedures, as necessary to enable the Authority to commence its functions, as well as to make recommendations for the early entry into effective operation of the Enterprise,

Desirous of making provision for investments by States and other entities made in a manner compatible with the international régime set forth in Part XI of the Convention and the Annexes relating thereto, before the entry into force of the Convention,

Recognizing the need to ensure that the Enterprise will be provided with the funds, technology and expertise necessary to enable it to keep pace with the States and other entities referred to in the preceding paragraph with respect to activities in the Area,

Decides as follows:

1. For the purposes of this resolution:

(a) »pioneer investor« refers to:

(i) France, India, Japan and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or a state enterprise of each of those States or one natural or juridical person which possesses the nationality of or is effectively controlled by each of those States, or their nationals, provided that the State concerned signs the Convention and the State or state enterprise or natural or juridical person has expended, before 1 January 1983, an amount equivalent to at least $US 30 million (United States dollars calculated in constant dollars relative to 1982) in pioneer activities and has expended no less than 10 per cent of that amount in the location, survey and evaluation of the area referred to in paragraph 3 (a);

(ii) four entities, whose components being natural or juridical persons1 possess the nationality of one or more of the following States, or are effectively controlled by one or more of them or their nationals: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, provided that the certifying State or States sign the Convention and the entity concerned has expended, before 1 January 1983, the levels of expenditure for the purpose stated in subparagraph (i);

(iii) any developing State which signs the Convention or any state enterprise or natural or juridical person which possesses the nationality of such State or is effectively controlled by it or its nationals, or any group of the fore­going, which, before 1 January 1985, has expended the levels of expenditure for the purpose stated in subparagraph (i);

The rights of the pioneer investor may devolve upon its successor in interest.

(b) »pioneer activities« means undertakings, commitments of financial and other assets, investigations, findings, research, engineering development and other activities relevant to the identification, discovery, and systematic analysis and evaluation of polymetallic nodules and to the determination of the technical and economic feasibility of exploitation. Pioneer activites include:

(i) any at-sea observation and evaluation activity which has as its objective the establishment and documentation of the nature, shape, concentration, location and grade of polymetallic nodules and of the environmental, technical and other appropriate factors which must be taken into account before exploitation;

(ii) the recovery from the Area of polymetallic nodules with a view to the designing, fabricating and testing of equipment which is intended to be used in the exploitation of polymetallic nodules;

(c) »certifying State« means a State signs the Convention, standing in the same relation to a pioneer investor as would a sponsoring State pursuant to Annex III, article 4, of the Convention and which certifies the levels of expenditure specified in subparagraph (a);

(d) »polymetallic nodules« means one of the resources of the Area consisting of any deposit or accretion of nodules, on or just below the surface of the deep sea-bed, which contain manganese, nickel, cobalt and copper;

(e) »pioneer area« means an area allocated by the Commission to a pioneer investor for pioneer activities pursuant to this resolution. A pioneer area shall not exceed 150,000 square kilometres. The pioneer investor shall relinquish portions of the pioneer area to revert to the Area, in accordance with the following schedule:

(i) 20 per cent of the area allocated by the end of the third year from the date of the allocation;

(ii) an additional 10 per cent of the area allocated by the end of the fifth year from the date of the allocation;

(iii) an additional 20 per cent of the area allocated or such larger amount as would exceed the exploitation area decided upon by the Authority in its rules, re­gulations and procedures, after eight years from the date of the allocation of the area or the date of the award of a production authorization, whichever is earlier;

(f) »Area«, »Authority«, »activities in the Area« and »resources« have the meanings assigned to those terms in the Convention.

2. As soon as the Commission be­gins to function, any State which has signed the Convention may apply to the Commission on its behalf or on behalf of any state enterprise or entity or natural or juridical person specified in paragraph 1(a) for re­gistration as a pioneer investor. The Commission shall re­gister the applicant as a pioneer investor if the application:

(a) is accompanied, in the case of a State which has signed the Convention, by a statement certifying the level of expenditure made in accordance with paragraph 1(a), and, in all other cases, a certificate concerning such level of expenditure issued by a certifying State or States; and

(b) is in conformity with the other provisions of this resolution, including paragraph 5.

3. (a) Every application shall cover a total area which need not be a single continuous area, sufficiently large and of sufficient estimated commercial value to allow two mining operations. The application shall indicate the co-ordinates of the area defining the total area and dividing it into two parts of equal estimated commercial value and shall contain all the data available to the applicant with respect to both parts of the area. Such data shall include, inter alia, information relating to mapping, testing, the density of polymetallic nodules and their metal content. In dealing with such data, the Commission and its staff shall act in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention and its Annexes concerning the confidentiality of data.

(b) Within 45 days of receiving the data required by subparagraph (a), the Commission shall designate the part of the area which is to be reserved in accordance with the Convention for the conduct of activities in the Area by the Authority through the Enterprise or in association with developing States. The other part of the area shall be allocated to the pioneer investor as a pioneer area.

4. No pioneer investor may be re­gistered in respect of more than one pioneer area. In the case of a pioneer investor which is made up of two or more components, none of such components may apply to be re­gistered as a pioneer investor in its own right or under paragraph 1 (a) (iii).

5. (a) Any State which has signed the Convention and which is a prospective certifying State shall ensure, before making applications to the Commission under paragraph 2, that areas in respect of which applications are made do not overlap one another or areas previously allocated as pioneer areas. The states concerned shall keep the Commission currently and fully informed of any efforts to resolve conflicts with respect to overlapping claims and of the results thereof.

(b) Certifying States shall ensure, before the entry into force of the Convention, that pioneer activities are conducted in a manner compatible with it.

(c) The prospective certifying States, including all potential claimants, shall resolve their conflicts as required under subparagraph (a) by ne­gotiations within a reasonable period. If such conflicts have not been resolved by 1 March 1983, the prospective certifying States shall arrange for the submission of the such claims to binding arbitration in accordance with UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules to commence not later than 1 May 1983 and to be completed by 1 December 1984. If one of the States concerned does not wish to participate in the arbitration, it shall arrange for a juridical person of its nationality to represent it in the arbitration. The arbitral tribunal may, for good cause, extend the deadline for the making of the award for one or more 30-days periods.

(d) In determining the issue as to which applicant involved in a conflict shall be awarded all or part of each area in conflict, the arbitral tribunal shall find a solution which is fair and equitable, having re­gard, with respect to each applicant involved in the conflict, to the following factors:

(i) the deposit of the list of relevant co-ordinates with the prospective certifying State or States not later than the date of adoption of the Final act or 1 January 1983, whichever is earlier;

(ii) the continuity and extent of past activities relevant to each area in conflict and to the application area of which it is a part;

(iii) the date on which each pioneer investor concerned or predecessor in interest or component organization thereof commenced activities at sea in the application area;

(iv) the financial cost of activities measured in constant United States dollars relevant to each area in conflict and to the application area of which it is a part; and

(v) the time when those activities were carried out and the quality of activities.

6. A pioneer investor re­gistered pursuant to this resolution shall, from the date of re­gistration, have the exclusive right to carry out pioneer activities in the pioneer area allocated to it.

7. (a) Every applicant for re­gistration as a pioneer investor shall pay to the Commission a fee of $US 250,000. When the pioneer investor applies to the Authority for a plan of work for exploration and exploitation the fee referred to in Annex III, article 13, paragraph 2, of the Convention shall be $US 250,000.

(b) Every re­gistered pioneer investor shall pay an annual fixed fee of $US 1 million commencing from the date of the allocation of the pioneer area. The payments shall be made by the pioneer investor to the Authority upon the approval of its plan of work for exploration and exploitation. The financial arrangements undertaken pursuant to such plan of work shall be adjusted to take account of the payments made pursuant to this paragraph.

(c) Every re­gistered pioneer investor shall agree to incur periodic expenditures, with respect to the pioneer area allocated to it, until approval of its plan of work pursuant to paragraph 8, of an amount to be determined by the Commission. The amount should be reasonably related to the size of the pioneer area and the expenditures which would be expected of a bona fide operator who intends to bring that area into commercial production within a reasonable time.

8. (a) Within six months of the entry into force of the Convention and certification by the Commission in accordance with paragraph 11, of compliance with this resolution, the pioneer investor so re­gistered shall apply to the Authority for approval of a plan of work for exploration and exploitation, in accordance with the Convention. The plan of work in respect of such applications shall comply with and be governed by the relevant provisions of the Convention and the rules, re­gulations and procedures of the Authority, including those on the operational requirements, the financial requirements and the undertakings concerning the transfer of technology. Accordingly, the Authority shall approve such application.

(b) When an application for approval of a plan of work is submitted by an entity other than a State, pursuant to subparagraph (a), the certifying State or States shall be deemed to be the sponsoring State for the purposes of Annex III, article 4, of the Convention, and shall thereupon assume such obligations.

(c) No plan of work for exploration and exploitation shall be approved unless the certifying State is a Party to the Convention. In the case of the entities referred to in paragraph 1 (a) (ii), the plan of work for exploration and exploitation shall not be approved unless all the States whose natural or juridical persons comprise those entities are Parties to the Convention. If any such State fails to ratify the Convention with six months after it has received a notification from the Authority that an application by it, or sponsored by it, is pending, its status as s pioneer investor or certifying State, as the case may be, shall terminate, unless the Council, by a majority of three fourths of its members present and voting, decides to postpone the terminal date for a period not exceeding six months.

9. (a) In the allocation of production authorizations, in accordance with article 151 and Annex III, article 7, of the Convention, the pioneer investors who have obtained approval of plans of work for exploration and exploitation shall have priority over all applicants other than the Enterprise which shall be entitled to production authorizations for two mine sites including that referred to in article 151, paragraph 5, of the Convention. After each of the pioneer investors has obtained production authorization for its first mine site, the priority for the Enterprise contained in Annex III, article 7, paragraph 6, of the Convention shall apply.

(b) Production authorizations shall be issued to each pioneer investor  within 30 days of the date on which that pioneer investor  notifies the Authority that it will commence commercial production within five years. If a pioneer investor is unable to be­gin production within the period of five years for reasons beyond its control, it shall apply to the Le­gal and Technical Commission for an extension of time. That Commission shall grant the extension of time, for a period not exceeding five years and not subject to further extension, if it is satisfied that the pioneer investor cannot be­gin on an economically viable basis at the time originally planned. Nothing in this subparagraph shall prevent the Enterprise or any other pioneer applicant, who has notified the Authority that it will commence commercial production within five years, from being given a priority over any applicant who has obtained an extension of time under this subparagraph.

(c) If the Authority, upon being given notice, pursuant to subparagraph (b), determines that the commencement of commercial production within five years would exceed the production ceiling in article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7, of the Convention, the applicant shall hold a priority over any other applicant for the award of the next production authorization allowed by the production ceiling.

(d) If two or more pioneer investors apply for production authorizations to be­gin commercial production at the same time and article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7, of the Convention, would not permit all such production to commence simultaneously, the Authority shall notify the pioneer investors concerned. Within three months of such notification, they shall decide whether and, if so, to what extent they wish to apportion the allowable tonnage among themselves.

(e) If, pursuant to subparagraph (d), the pioneer investors concerned decide not to apportion the available production among themselves they shall agree on an order of priority for production authorizations and all subsequent applications for production authorizations will be granted after those referred to in this subparagraph have been approved.

(f) It, pursuant to subparagraph (d), the pioneer investors concerned decide to apportion the available production among themselves, the Authority shall award each of them a production authorization of such lesser quantity as they have agreed. In each case the stated production requirements of the applicant will be approved and their full production will be allowed as soon as the production ceiling admits of additional capacity sufficient for the applicants involved in the competition. All subsequent applications for production authorizations will only be granted after the requirements of this subparagraph have been met and the applicant is no longer subject to the reduction of production provided for in this subparagraph.

(g) If the parties fail to reach agreement within the stated time period, the matter shall be decided immediately by the means provided for in paragraph 5 (c) in accordance with the criteria set forth in Annex III, article 7, paragraphs 3 and 5, of the Convention.

10. (a) Any rights acquired by entities or natural or juridical persons which possess the nationality of or are effectively controlled by a State or States whose status as certifying State has been terminated, shall lapse unless the pioneer investor changes its nationality and sponsorship within six months of the date of such termination, as provided for in subparagraph (c).

(b) A pioneer investor may change its nationality and sponsorship from that existing at the time of its registration as a pioneer investor to that of any State Party to the Convention which has effective control over the pioneer investor in terms of paragraph 1 (a).

(c) Changes of nationality and sponsorship pursuant to this paragraph shall not affect any right or priority conferred on a pioneer investor pursuant to paragraphs 6 and 8.

11. The Commission shall:

(a) provide each pioneer investor with the certificate of compliance with the provisions of this resolution referred to in paragraph 8; and

(b) include in its final report required by paragraph 11 of resolution I of the Conference details of all registrations of pioneer investors and allocations of pionner areas pursuant to this resolution.

12. In order to ensure that the Enterprise is able to carry out activities in the Area in such a manner as to keep pace with States and other entities:

(a) every registered pioneer investor shall:

(i) carry out exploration, at the request of the Commission, in the area reserved, pursuant to paragraph 3 in connection with its application, for activities in the Area by the Authority through the Enterprise or in association with developing States, on the basis that the costs so incurred plus interest thereon at the rate of 10 per cent per annum shall be reimbursed;

(ii) provide training at all levels for personnel designated by the Commission;

(iii) undertake before the entry into force of the Convention, to perform the obligations prescribed in the Convention relating to transfer of technology;

(b) every certifying State shall:

(i) ensure that the necessary funds are made available to the Enterprise in a timely manner in accordance with the Convention, upon its entry into force; and

(ii) report periodically to the Commission on the activities carried out by it, by its entities or natural or juridical persons.

13. The Authority and its organs shall recognize and honour the rights and obligations arising from this resolution and the decisions  of the Commission taken pursuant to it.

14. Without prejudice to paragraph 13, this resolution shall have effect until the entry into force of the Convention.

15. Nothing in this resolution shall derogate from Annex III, article 6, paragraph 3 (c), of the Convention.

***

RESOLUTION III

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Having regard to the Convention on the Law of the Sea,

Bearing in mind the Charter of the United Nations, in particular Article 73,

1. Declares that:

(a) In the case of a territory whose people have not attained full independence or other self-governing status recognized by the United Nations, or a territory under colonial domination, provisions concerning rights and interests under the Convention shall be implemented for the benefit of the people of the territory with a view to promoting their well-being and development.

(b) Where a dispute exists between States over the sovereignty of a territory to which this resolution applies, in respect of which the United Nations has recommended specific means of settlement, there shall be consultations between the parties to that dispute regarding the exercise of the rights referred to in subparagraph (a). In such consultations the interests of the people of the territory concerned shall be a fundamental consideration. Any exercise of those rights shall take into account the relevant resolutions of the United Nations and shall be without prejudice to the position of any party to the dispute. The States concerned shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature and shall not jeopardize or hamper the reaching of a final settlement of the dispute.

2. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations to bring this resolution to the attention of all Members of the United Nations and the other participants in the Conference, as well as the principal organs of the United Nations, and to request their compliance with it.

***

RESOLUTION IV

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Bearing in mind the national liberation movements have been invited to participate in the Conference as observers in accordance with rule 62 of its rules of procedure,

Decides that the national liberation movements, which have been participating in the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, shall be entitled to sign the Final Act of the Conference, in their capacity as observers.

Annex II

STATEMENT OF UNDERSTANDING CONCERNING A SPECIFIC METHOD TO BE USED IN ESTABLISHING THE OUTER EDGE OF THE CONTINENTAL MARGIN

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Considering the special characteristics of a Statežs continental margin where:

(1) the average distance at which the 200 metre isobath occurs is not more than 20 nautical miles; (2) the greater proportion of the sedimentary rock of the continental margin lies beneath the rise; and

Taking into account the inequity that would result to that State from the application to its continental margin of article 76 of the Convention, in that, the mathematical average of the thickness of sedimentary rock along a line established at the maximum distance permissible in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 4 (a) (i) and (ii) of that article as representing the entire outer edge of the continental margin would not be less than 3.5 kilometres; and that more than half of the margin would be excluded thereby;

Recognizes that such State may, notwithstanding the provisions of article 76, establish the outer edge of its continental margin by straight lines not exceeding 60 nautical miles in length connecting fixed points, defined by latitude and longitude, at each of which the thickness of sedimentary rock is not less than 1 kilometre,

Where a State establishes the outer edge of its continental margin by applying the method set forth in the preceding paragraph of this statement, this method may also be utilized by a neighbouring State for delineating the outer edge of its continental margin on a common geological feature, where its outer edge would line on such feature on a line established at the maximum distance permissible in accordance with article 76, paragraph 4 (a) í(i) and (ii), along which the mathematical average of the thickness of sedmentary rock in not less than 3.5 kilometres,

The Conference requests the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf set up pursuant to Annex II of the Convention, to be governed by the terms of this Statement when making its recommendations on matters related to the establishment of the outer edge of the continental margins of these States in the southern part of the Bay of Bengal.

Annex III

TRIBUTE TO SIMON BOLIVAR THE LIBERATOR

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Considering that 23 July 1974 marks a further anniversary of the birth of Simón Bolívar, the Liberator, a man of vision and early champion of international organization, and a historic figure of universal dimensions,

Considering further that the work of Simón Bolívar the Liberator, based on the concepts of liberty and justice as foundations for the peace and progress of peoples, has left an indelible mark on history and constitutes a source of constant inspiration,

Decides to pay a public tribute of admiration and respect to Simón Bolívar the Liberator, in the plenary meeting of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea.

Annex IV

RESOLUTION EXPRESSING GRATITUDE TO THE PRESIDENT, THE GOVERNMENT AND OFFICIALS OF VENEZUELA

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Bearing in mind that is second session was held in the city of Caracas,cradle of Simón Bolívar, Liberator of five nations, who devoted his life to fighting for the self-determination of peoples, equality among States and justice as the expression of their common destiny,

Acknowledging with keen appreciation the extraordinary effort made by the Government and the people of Venezuela, which enabled the Conference to meet in the most favourable spirit of brotherhood and in unparalleled material conditions,

Decides

1. To express to His Excellency the President of the Republic of Venezuela, the President and members of the Organizing Committee of the Conference and the Government and people of Venezuela its deepest gratitude for the unforgettable hospitality which they have offered it;

2. To give voice to its hope that the ideals of social justice, equality among nations and solidarity among peoples advocated by the Liberator Simón Bolívar will serve to guide the future work of the Conference.

Annex V

TRIBUTE TO THE AMPHICTYONIC CONGRESS OF PANAMA

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, at its fifth session,

Considering that the current year 1976 marks the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, convoked by the Liberator Simón Bolívar for the laudable and visionary purpose of uniting the Latin American peoples,

Considering likewise that a spirit of universality prevailed at the Congress of Panama, which was ahead of its time and which foresaw that only on the basis of union and reciprocal co-operation is it possible to guarantee peace and promote the development of nations,

Considering further that the Congress of Panama evoked the prestigious and constructive Greek Amphictyony and anticipated the ecumenical and creative image of the United Nations,

Decides to render to the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, in a plenary meeting of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, at its fifth session, a public tribute acknowledging its expressive historic significance.

Annex VI

RESOLUTION ON DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL MARINE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND OCEAN SERVICE INFRASTRUCTURES

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Recognizing that the Convention on the Law of the Sea is intended to establish a new régime for the seas and oceans which will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order through making provision for the peaceful use of ocean space, the equitable and efficient management and utilization of its resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,

Bearing in mind that the new régime must take into account, in particular, the special needs and interests of the developing countries, whether coastal, landlocked, or geographically disadvantaged,

Aware of the rapid advances being made in the field of marine science and technology, and the need for the developing countries, whether coastal, landlocked or geographically disadvantaged, to share in these achievements if the aforementioned goals are to be met,

Convinced that, unless urgent measures are taken, the marine scientific and tehnological gap between the developed and the developing countries will widen further and thus endanger the very foundations of the new régime,

Believing that optimum utilization of the new opportunities for social and economic development offered by the new régime will be facilitated through action at the national and international level aimed at strengthening national capabilities in marine science, technology and ocean services, particularly in the developing countries, with a view to ensuring the rapid absorption and efficient application of technology and scientific knowledge available to them,

Considering that national and regional marine scientific and technological centres would be the principal institutions through which States and, in particular, the developing countries, foster and conduct marine scientific research, and receive and disseminate marine technology,

Recognizing the special role of the competent international organizations envisaged by the Convention on the Law of the Sea, especially in relation to the establishment and development of national and regional marine scientific and technological centres,

Noting that present efforts undertaken within the United Nations system in training, education and assistance in the field of marine science and technology and ocean services are far below current requirements and would be particularly inadequate to meet the demands generated through operation of the Convention on the Law of the Sea,

Welcoming recent initiatives within international organizations to promote and co-ordinate their major international assistance programmes aimed at strengthening marine science infrastructures in developing countries,

1. Calls upon all Member States to determine appropriate priorities in their development plans for the strengthening of their marine science, technology and ocean services;

2. Calls upon the developing countries to establish programmes for the promotion of technical co-operation among themselves in the field of marine science, technology and ocean service development;

3. Urges the industrialized countries to assist the developing countries in the preparation and implementation of their marine science, technology and ocean service development programmes;

4. Recommends that the World Bank, the regional banks, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Financing System for Science and Technology and other multilateral funding agencies augment and coordinate their operations for the provision of funds to developing countries for the preparation and implementation of major programmes of assistance in strengthening their marine science, technology and ocean services;

5. Recommends that all competent international organizations within the United Nations system expand programmes within their respective fields of competence for assistance to developing countries in the field of marine science technology and ocean services and co-ordinate their efforts on a system-wide basis in the implementation of such programmes, paying particular attention to the special needs of the developing countries, whether coastal, land-locked or geographically disadvantaged;

6. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations to transmit this resolution to the General Assembly at its hirty-seventh session.

Annex VII

RESOLUTION EXPRESSING GRATITUDE TO THE PRIME MINISTER, FOREIGN MINISTER AND DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER, THE GOVERNMENT AND OFFICIALS OF JAMAICA

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,

Bearing in mind that the Conference accepted with gratitude the invitation of the Government of Jamaica and held the final part of its eleventh session for the purpose of signing the Final Act of the Conference and opening the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for signature, in the city of Montego Bay in Jamaica,

Acknowledging with grateful appreciation the generosity of the Government and the people of Jamaica, which enabled the Conference to meet in a congenial atmosphere under excellent conditions,

Decides to express to their Excellencies the Prime Minister and the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs and Government and people of Jamaica, its profound gratitude for the exceptional hospitality extended to it.

– Resolution proposed by the President and adopted by the Conference at the 192nd meeting of the plenary on 9 December 1982.

Appendix

OBSERVERS THAT PARTICIPATED AT SESSIONS OF THE CONFERENCE

States and territories

Cook Islands (third and tenth sessions)

Netherlands Antilles (third to resumed seventh sessions, resumed eighth session, ninth and eleventh sessions)

Papua New Guinea (third session)

Seychelles (fifth session)

Suriname (third session)

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (third to eleventh sessions)

Liberation movements

African National Congress (South Africa)

African National Council (Zimbabwe)

African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Islands (PAIGC)

Palestine Liberation Organization

Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (South Africa)

Patriotic Front (Zimbabwe)

Seychelles Peopležs United Party (SPUP)

South West Africa People-s Organization (SWAPO)

Specialized agencies and other organizations

International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

World Health Organization (WHO)

World Bank

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Intergovernmental organizations

Andes Development Corporation

Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee

Commonwealth Secretariat

Council of Arab Economic Unity

Council of  Europe

European Communities

Inter-American Development Bank

International Hydrographic Bureau

International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

League of Arab States

Organization of African Unity

Organization of American States

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries

Organization of the Islamic Conference

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Permanent Commission for the South Pacific

Saudi-Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission

West African Economic Community

Non-governmental organizations

Category I

International Chamber of Commerce

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

International Co-operative Alliance

International Council of Voluntary Agencies

International Council of Women

International Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations

United Towns Organization

World Confederation of Labour

World Federation of United Nations Associations

World Muslim Congress

Category II

Arab Lawyers Union

Baháži International Community

Baptist World Alliance

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Commission of the Churches on International Affairs

Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, Inc., The

Friends World Committee for Consultation

Inter-American Council of Commerce and Production

International Air Transport Association

International Association for Religious Freedom

International Bar Association

International Chamber of Shipping

International Commission of Jurists

International Co-operation for Socio-Economic Development

International Council of Environmental Law

International Council of Scientific Unions

International Federation for Human Rights

International Hotel Association

International Law Association

International Movement for Fraternal Union among Races and Peoples (UFER)

International Organization of Consumersž Unions

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Latin American Association of Finance Development Institutions (ALIDE)

Mutual Assistance of the Latin American Government Oil Companies (ARPEL)

Pan American Federation of Engineering Societies (UPADI)

Pax Christi, International Catholic Peace Movement

Society for International Development (SID)

Womenžs International League for Peace and Freedom

World Alliance of Young Menžs Christian Associations

World Association of World Federalists

World Conference on Religion and Peace

World Peace Through Law Centre

World Young Womenžs Christian Association

Roster

Asian Environmental Society

Center for Inter-American Relations

Commission to Study the Organization of Peace

Foresta Institute for Ocean and Mountain Studies

Friends of the Earth (F.O.E.)

International Institute for Environment and Development

International Ocean Institute

International Studies Association

National Audubon Society

Population Institute

Sierra Club

United Seamenžs Service

World Federation of Scientific Workers

World Society of Ekistics

 

AGREEMENT RELATING TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PART XI OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA OF 10 DECEMBER 1982

The States Parties to this Agreement,

Recognizing the important contribution of the United Nations

Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 (hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”) to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,

Reaffirming that the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction (hereinafter referred to as “the Area”), as well as the resources of the Area, are the common heritage of mankind,

Mindful of the importance of the Convention for the protection and preservation of the marine environment and of the growing concern for the global environment,

Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the results of the informal consultations among States held from 1990 to 1994 on outstanding issues relating to Part XI and related provisions of the Convention (hereinafter referred to as “Part XI”),

Noting the political and economic changes, including market-oriented approaches, affecting the implementation of Part XI,

Wishing to facilitate universal participation in the Convention,

Considering that an agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI would best meet that objective,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Implementation of Part XI

1. The States Parties to this Agreement undertake to implement Part XI in accordance with this Agreement.

2. The Annex forms an integral part of this Agreement.

Article 2

Relationship between this Agreement and Part XI

1. The provisions of this Agreement and Part XI shall be interpreted and applied together as a single instrument. In the event of any inconsistency between this Agreement and Part XI, the provisions of this Agreement shall prevail.

2. Articles 309 to 319 of the Convention shall apply to this Agreement as they apply to the Convention.

Article 3

Signature

This Agreement shall remain open for signature at United Nations Headquarters by the States and entities referred to in article 305, paragraph 1 (a), (c), (d), (e) and (f), of the Convention for 12 months from the date of its adoption.

Article 4

Consent to be bound

1. After the adoption of this Agreement, any instrument of ratification or formal confirmation of or accession to the Convention shall also represent consent to be bound by this Agreement.

2. No State or entity may establish its consent to be bound by this Agreement unless it has previously established or establishes at the same time its consent to be bound by the Convention.

3. A State or entity referred to in article 3 may express its consent to be bound by this Agreement by:

(a) Signature not subject to ratification, formal confirmation or the procedure set out in article 5;

(b) Signature subject to ratification or formal confirmation, followed by ratification or formal confirmation;

(c) Signature subject to the procedure set out in article 5; or

(d) Accession. 4. Formal confirmation by the entities referred to in article 305, paragraph 1 (f), of the Convention shall be in accordance with Annex IX of the Convention. 5. The instruments of ratification, formal confirmation or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 5

Simplified procedure

1. A State or entity which has deposited before the date of the adoption of this Agreement an instrument of ratification or formal confirmation of or accession to the Convention and which has signed this Agreement in accordance with article 4, paragraph 3 (c), shall be considered to have established its consent to be bound by this Agreement 12 months after the date of its adoption, unless that State or entity notifies the depositary in writing before that date that it is not availing itself of the simplified procedure set out in this article. 2. In the event of such notification, consent to be bound by this

Agreement shall be established in accordance with article 4, paragraph 3 (b).

Article 6

Entry into force

1. This Agreement shall enter into force 30 days after the date on which 40 States have established their consent to be bound in accordance with articles 4 and 5, provided that such States include at least seven of the States referred to in paragraph 1 (a) of resolution II of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (hereinafter referred to as “resolution II”) and that at least five of those States are developed States. If these conditions for entry into force are fulfilled before 16 November 1994, this Agreement shall enter into force on 16 November 1994.

2. For each State or entity establishing its consent to be bound by this Agreement after the requirements set out in paragraph 1 have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of establishment of its consent to be bound.

Article 7

Provisional application

1. If on 16 November 1994 this Agreement has not entered into force, it shall be applied provisionally pending its entry into force by:

(a) States which have consented to its adoption in the General Assembly of the United Nations, except any such State which before 16 November 1994 notifies the depositary in writing either that it will not so apply this Agreement or that it will consent to such application only upon subsequent signature or notification in writing;

(b) States and entities which sign this Agreement, except any such State or entity which notifies the depositary in writing at the time of signature that it will not so apply this Agreement;

(c) States and entities which consent to its provisional application by so notifying the depositary in writing;

(d) States which accede to this Agreement.

2. All such States and entities shall apply this Agreement provisionally in accordance with their national or internal laws and regulations, with effect from 16 November 1994 or the date of signature, notification of consent or accession, if later.

3. Provisional application shall terminate upon the date of entry into force of this Agreement. In any event, provisional application shall terminate on 16 November 1998 if at that date the requirement in article 6, paragraph 1, of consent to be bound by this Agreement by at least seven of the States (of which at least five must be developed States) referred to in paragraph 1 (a) of resolution II has not been fulfilled.

Article 8

States Parties

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, “States Parties” means States which have consented to be bound by this Agreement and for which this Agreement is in force.

2. This Agreement applies mutatis mutandis to the entities referred to in article 305, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (e) and (f), of the Convention which become Parties to this Agreement in accordance with the conditions relevant to each, and to that extent “States Parties” refers to those entities.

Article 9

Depositary

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of this Agreement.

Article 10

Authentic texts

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Agreement.

DONE AT NEW YORK, this twenty-eight day of July, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four.

Annex

Section 1. COSTS TO STATES PARTIES AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

1. The International Seabed Authority (hereinafter referred to as “the Authority”) is the organization through which States Parties to the Convention shall, in accordance with the regime for the Area established in Part XI and this Agreement, organize and control activities in the Area, particularly with a view to administering the resources of the Area. The powers and functions of the Authority shall be those expressly conferred upon it by the Convention. The Authority shall have such incidental powers, consistent with the Convention, as are implicit in, and necessary for, the exercise of those powers and functions with respect to activities in the Area.

2. In order to minimize costs to States Parties, all organs and subsidiary bodies to be established under the Convention and this Agreement shall be cost-effective. This principle shall also apply to the frequency, duration and scheduling of meetings.

3. The setting up and the functioning of the organs and subsidiary bodies of the Authority shall be based on an evolutionary approach, taking into account the functional needs of the organs and subsidiary bodies concerned in order that they may discharge effectively their respective responsibilities at various stages of the development of activities in the Area.

4. The early functions of the Authority upon entry into force of the Convention shall be carried out by the Assembly, the Council, the Secretariat, the Legal and Technical Commission and the Finance Committee. The functions of the Economic Planning Commission shall be performed by the Legal and Technical Commission until such time as the Council decides otherwise or until the approval of the first plan of work for exploitation.

5. Between the entry into force of the Convention and the approval of the first plan of work for exploitation, the Authority shall concentrate on:

(a) Processing of applications for approval of plans of work for exploration in accordance with Part XI and this Agreement;

(b) Implementation of decisions of the Preparatory Commission for the International Seabed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (hereinafter referred to as “the Preparatory Commission”) relating to the registered pioneer investors and their certifying States, including their rights and obligations, in accordance with article 308, paragraph 5, of the Convention and resolution II, paragraph 13;

(c) Monitoring of compliance with plans of work for exploration approved in the form of contracts;

(d) Monitoring and review of trends and developments relating to deep seabed mining activities, including regular analysis of world metal market conditions and metal prices, trends and prospects;

(e) Study of the potential impact of mineral production from the Area on the economies of developing land-based producers of those minerals which are likely to be most seriously affected, with a view to minimizing their difficulties and assisting them in their economic adjustment, taking into account the work done in this regard by the Preparatory Commission;

(f) Adoption of rules, regulations and procedures necessary for the conduct of activities in the Area as they progress. Notwithstanding the provisions of Annex III, article 17, paragraph 2 (b) and (c), of the Convention, such rules, regulations and procedures shall take into account the terms of this Agreement, the prolonged delay in commercial deep seabed mining and the likely pace of activities in the Area;

(g) Adoption of rules, regulations and procedures incorporating applicable standards for the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(h) Promotion and encouragement of the conduct of marine scientific research with respect to activities in the Area and the collection and dissemination of the results of such research and analysis, when available, with particular emphasis on research related to the environmental impact of activities in the Area;

(i) Acquisition of scientific knowledge and monitoring of the development of marine technology relevant to activities in the Area, in particular technology relating to the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(j) Assessment of available data relating to prospecting and exploration;

(k) Timely elaboration of rules, regulations and procedures for exploitation, including those relating to the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

6. (a) An application for approval of a plan of work for exploration shall be considered by the Council following the receipt of a recommendation on the application from the Legal and Technical Commission. The processing of an application for approval of a plan of work for exploration shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, including Annex III thereof, and this Agreement, and subject to the following:

(i) A plan of work for exploration submitted on behalf of a State or entity, or any component of such entity, referred to in resolution II, paragraph 1 (a) (ii) or (iii), other than a registered pioneer investor, which had already undertaken substantial activities in the Area prior to the entry into force of the Convention, or its successor in interest, shall be considered to have met the financial and technical qualifications necessary for approval of a plan of work if the sponsoring State or States certify that the applicant has expended an amount equivalent to at least US $ 30 million in research and exploration activities and has expended no less than 10 per cent of that amount in the location, survey and evaluation of the area referred to in the plan of work. If the plan of work otherwise satisfies the requirements of the Convention and any rules, regulations and procedures adopted pursuant thereto, it shall be approved by the Council in the form of a contract. The provisions of section 3, paragraph 11, of this Annex shall be interpreted and applied accordingly;

(ii) Notwithstanding the provisions of resolution II, paragraph 8 (a), a registered pioneer investor may request approval of a plan of work for exploration within 36 months of the entry into force of the Convention. The plan of work for exploration shall consist of documents, reports and other data submitted to the Preparatory Commission both before and after registration and shall be accompanied by a certificate of compliance, consisting of a factual report describing the status of fulfilment of obligations under the pioneer investor regime, issued by the Preparatory Commission in accordance with resolution II, paragraph 11 (a). Such a plan of work shall be considered to be approved. Such an approved plan of work shall be in the form of a contract concluded between the Authority and the registered pioneer investor in accordance with Part XI and this Agreement. The fee of US $ 250,000 paid pursuant to resolution II, paragraph 7 (a), shall be deemed to be the fee relating to the exploration phase pursuant to section 8, paragraph 3, of this Annex. Section 3, paragraph 11, of this Annex shall be interpreted and applied accordingly;

(iii) In accordance with the principle of non-discrimination, a contract with a State or entity or any component of such entity referred to in subparagraph (a) (i) shall include arrangements which shall be similar to and no less favourable than those agreed with any registered pioneer investor referred to in subparagraph (a) (ii). If any of the States or entities or any components of such entities referred to in subparagraph (a) (i) are granted more favourable arrangements, the Council shall make similar and no less favourable arrangements with regard to the rights and obligations assumed by the registered pioneer investors referred to in subparagraph (a) (ii), provided that such arrangements do not affect or prejudice the interests of the Authority;

(iv) A State sponsoring an application for a plan of work pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (a) (i) or (ii) may be a State Party or a State which is applying this Agreement provisionally in accordance with article 7, or a State which is a member of the Authority on a provisional basis in accordance with paragraph 12;

(v) Resolution II, paragraph 8 (c), shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with subparagraph (a) (iv).

(b) The approval of a plan of work for exploration shall be in accordance with article 153, paragraph 3, of the Convention.

7. An application for approval of a plan of work shall be accompanied by an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed activities and by a description of a programme for oceanographic and baseline environmental studies in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures adopted by the Authority.

8. An application for approval of a plan of work for exploration, subject to paragraph 6 (a) (i) or (ii), shall be processed in accordance with the procedures set out in section 3, paragraph 11, of this Annex.

9. A plan of work for exploration shall be approved for a period of 15 years. Upon the expiration of a plan of work for exploration, the contractor shall apply for a plan of work for exploitation unless the contractor has already done so or has obtained an extension for the plan of work for exploration. Contractors may apply for such extensions for periods of not more than five years each. Such extensions shall be approved if the contractor has made efforts in good faith to comply with the requirements of the plan of work but for reasons beyond the contractoržs control has been unable to complete the necessary preparatory work for proceeding to the exploitation stage or if the prevailing economic circumstances do not justify proceeding to the exploitation stage.

10. Designation of a reserved area for the Authority in accordance with Annex III, article 8, of the Convention shall take place in connection with approval of an application for a plan of work for exploration or approval of an application for a plan of work for exploration and exploitation.

11. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 9, an approved plan of work for exploration which is sponsored by at least one State provisionally applying this Agreement shall terminate if such a State ceases to apply this Agreement provisionally and has not become a member on a provisional basis in accordance with paragraph 12 or has not become a State Party.

12. Upon the entry into force of this Agreement, States and entities referred to in article 3 of this Agreement which have been applying it provisionally in accordance with article 7 and for which it is not in force may continue to be members of the Authority on a provisional basis pending its entry into force for such States and entities, in accordance with the following subparagraphs:

(a) If this Agreement enters into force before 16 November 1996, such States and entities shall be entitled to continue to participate as members of the Authority on a provisional basis upon notification to the depositary of the Agreement by such a State or entity of its intention to participate as a member on a provisional basis. Such membership shall terminate either on 16 November 1996 or upon the entry into force of this Agreement and the Convention for such member, whichever is earlier. The Council may, upon the request of the State or entity concerned, extend such membership beyond 16 November 1996 for a further period or periods not exceeding a total of two years provided that the Council is satisfied that the State or entity concerned has been making efforts in good faith to become a party to the Agreement and the Convention;

(b) If this Agreement enters into force after 15 November 1996, such States and entities may request the Council to grant continued membership in the Authority on a provisional basis for a period or periods not extending beyond 16 November 1998. The Council shall grant such membership with effect from the date of the request if it is satisfied that the State or entity has been making efforts in good faith to become a party to the Agreement and the Convention;

(c) States and entities which are members of the Authority on a provisional basis in accordance with subparagraph (a) or (b) shall apply the terms of Part XI and this Agreement in accordance with their national or internal laws, regulations and annual budgetary appropriations and shall have the same rights and obligations as other members, including:

(i) The obligation to contribute to the administrative budget of the Authority in accordance with the scale of assessed contributions;

(ii) The right to sponsor an application for approval of a plan of work for exploration. In the case of entities whose components are natural or juridical persons possessing the nationality of more than one State, a plan of work for exploration shall not be approved unless all the States whose natural or juridical persons comprise those entities are States Parties or members on a provisional basis;

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 9, an approved plan of work in the form of a contract for exploration which was sponsored pursuant to subparagraph (c) (ii) by a State which was a member on a provisional basis shall terminate if such membership ceases and the State or entity has not become a State Party;

(e) If such a member has failed to make its assessed contributions or otherwise failed to comply with its obligations in accordance with this paragraph, its membership on a provisional basis shall be terminated.

13. The reference in Annex III, article 10, of the Convention to

performance which has not been satisfactory shall be interpreted to mean that the contractor has failed to comply with the requirements of an approved plan of work in spite of a written warning or warnings from the Authority to the contractor to comply therewith.

14. The Authority shall have its own budget. Until the end of the year following the year during which this Agreement enters into force, the administrative expenses of the Authority shall be met through the budget of the United Nations. Thereafter, the administrative expenses of the Authority shall be met by assessed contributions of its members, including any members on a provisional basis, in accordance with articles 171, subparagraph (a), and 173 of the Convention and this Agreement, until the Authority has sufficient funds from other sources to meet those expenses. The Authority shall not exercise the power referred to in article 174, paragraph 1, of the Convention to borrow funds to finance its administrative budget.

15. The Authority shall elaborate and adopt, in accordance with article 162, paragraph 2 (o) (ii), of the Convention, rules, regulations and procedures based on the principles contained in sections 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of this Annex, as well as any additional rules, regulations and procedures necessary to facilitate the approval of plans of work for exploration or exploitation, in accordance with the following subparagraphs:

(a) The Council may undertake such elaboration any time it deems that all or any of such rules, regulations or procedures are required for the conduct of activities in the Area, or when it determines that commercial exploitation is imminent, or at the request of a State whose national intends to apply for approval of a plan of work for exploitation;

(b) If a request is made by a State referred to in subparagraph (a) the Council shall, in accordance with article 162, paragraph 2 (o), of the Convention, complete the adoption of such rules, regulations and procedures within two years of the request;

(c) If the Council has not completed the elaboration of the rules, regulations and procedures relating to exploitation within the prescribed time and an application for approval of a plan of work for exploitation is pending, it shall none the less consider and provisionally approve such plan of work based on the provisions of the Convention and any rules, regulations and procedures that the Council may have adopted provisionally, or on the basis of the norms contained in the Convention and the terms and principles contained in this Annex as well as the principle of non-discrimination among contractors.

16. The draft rules, regulations and procedures and any recommendations relating to the provisions of Part XI, as contained in the reports and recommendations of the Preparatory Commission, shall be taken into account by the Authority in the adoption of rules, regulations and procedures in accordance with Part XI and this Agreement.

17. The relevant provisions of Part XI, section 4, of the Convention shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with this Agreement.

Section 2. THE ENTERPRISE

1. The Secretariat of the Authority shall perform the functions of the Enterprise until it begins to operate independently of the Secretariat. The Secretary-General of the Authority shall appoint from within the staff of the Authority an interim Director-General to oversee the performance of these functions by the Secretariat.

These functions shall be:

(a) Monitoring and review of trends and developments relating to deep seabed mining activities, including regular analysis of world metal market conditions and metal prices, trends and prospects;

(b) Assessment of the results of the conduct of marine scientific research with respect to activities in the Area, with particular emphasis on research related to the environmental impact of activities in the Area;

(c) Assessment of available data relating to prospecting and exploration, including the criteria for such activities;

(d) Assessment of technological developments relevant to activities in the Area, in particular technology relating to the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(e) Evaluation of information and data relating to areas reserved for the Authority;

(f) Assessment of approaches to joint-venture operations;

(g) Collection of information on the availability of trained manpower;

(h) Study of managerial policy options for the administration of the Enterprise at different stages of its operations.

2. The Enterprise shall conduct its initial deep seabed mining operations through joint ventures. Upon the approval of a plan of work for exploitation for an entity other than the Enterprise, or upon receipt by the Council of an application for a joint-venture operation with the Enterprise, the Council shall take up the issue of the functioning of the Enterprise independently of the Secretariat of the Authority. If joint-venture operations with the Enterprise accord with sound commercial principles, the Council shall issue a directive pursuant to article 170, paragraph 2, of the Convention providing for such independent functioning.

3. The obligation of States Parties to fund one mine site of the Enterprise as provided for in Annex IV, article 11, paragraph 3, of the Convention shall not apply and States Parties shall be under no obligation to finance any of the operations in any mine site of the Enterprise or under its joint-venture arrangements.

4. The obligations applicable to contractors shall apply to the Enterprise. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 153, paragraph 3, and Annex III, article 3, paragraph 5, of the Convention, a plan of work for the Enterprise upon its approval shall be in the form of a contract concluded between the Authority and the Enterprise.

5. A contractor which has contributed a particular area to the Authority as a reserved area has the right of first refusal to enter into a joint-venture arrangement with the Enterprise for exploration and exploitation of that area. If the Enterprise does not submit an application for a plan of work for activities in respect of such a reserved area within 15 years of the commencement of its functions independent of the Secretariat of the Authority or within 15 years of the date on which that area is reserved for the Authority, whichever is the later, the contractor which contributed the area shall be entitled to apply for a plan of work for that area provided it offers in good faith to include the Enterprise as a joint-venture partner.

6. Article 170, paragraph 4, Annex IV and other provisions of the Convention relating to the Enterprise shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with this section.

Section 3. DECISION-MAKING

1. The general policies of the Authority shall be established by the Assembly in collaboration with the Council.

2. As a general rule, decision-making in the organs of the Authority should be by consensus.

3. If all efforts to reach a decision by consensus have been exhausted, decisions by voting in the Assembly on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of members present and voting, and decisions on questions of substance shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of members present and voting, as provided for in article 159, paragraph 8, of the Convention.

4. Decisions of the Assembly on any matter for which the Council also has competence or on any administrative, budgetary or financial matter shall be based on the recommendations of the Council. If the Assembly does not accept the recommendation of the Council on any matter, it shall return the matter to the Council for further consideration. The Council shall reconsider the matter in the light of the views expressed by the Assembly.

5. If all efforts to reach a decision by consensus have been exhausted, decisions by voting in the Council on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of members present and voting, and decisions on questions of substance, except where the Convention provides for decisions by consensus in the Council, shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of members present and voting, provided that such decisions are not opposed by a majority in any one of the chambers referred to in paragraph 9. In taking decisions the Council shall seek to promote the interests of all the members of the Authority.

6. The Council may defer the taking of a decision in order to facilitate further negotiation whenever it appears that all efforts at achieving consensus on a question have not been exhausted.

7. Decisions by the Assembly or the Council having financial or budgetary implications shall be based on the recommendations of the Finance Committee.

8. The provisions of article 161, paragraph 8 (b) and (c), of the Convention shall not apply.

9. (a) Each group of States elected under paragraph 15 (a) to (c) shall be treated as a chamber for the purposes of voting in the Council. The developing States elected under paragraph 15 (d) and (e) shall be treated as a single chamber for the purposes of voting in the Council.

(b) Before electing the members of the Council, the Assembly shall establish lists of countries fulfilling the criteria for membership in the groups of States in paragraph 15 (a) to (d). If a State fulfils the criteria for membership in more than one group, it may only be proposed by one group for election to the Council and it shall represent only that group in voting in the Council.

10. Each group of States in paragraph 15 (a) to (d) shall be represented in the Council by those members nominated by that group. Each group shall nominate only as many candidates as the number of seats required to be filled by that group. When the number of potential candidates in each of the groups referred to in paragraph 15 (a) to (e) exceeds the number of seats available in each of those respective groups, as a general rule, the principle of rotation shall apply. States members of each of those groups shall determine how this principle shall apply in those groups.

11. (a) The Council shall approve a recommendation by the Legal and Technical Commission for approval of a plan of work unless by a two-thirds majority of its members present and voting, including a majority of members present and voting in each of the chambers of the Council, the Council decides to disapprove a plan of work. If the Council does not take a decision on a recommendation for approval of a plan of work within a prescribed period, the recommendation shall be deemed to have been approved by the Council at the end of that period. The prescribed period shall normally be 60 days unless the Council decides to provide for a longer period. If the Commission recommends the disapproval of a plan of work or does not make a recommendation, the Council may nevertheless approve the plan of work in accordance with its rules of procedure for decision-making on questions of substance.

(b) The provisions of article 162, paragraph 2 (j), of the Convention shall not apply.

12. Where a dispute arises relating to the disapproval of a plan of work, such dispute shall be submitted to the dispute settlement procedures set out in the Convention.

13. Decisions by voting in the Legal and Technical Commission shall be by a majority of members present and voting.

14. Part XI, section 4, subsections B and C, of the Convention shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with this section.

15. The Council shall consist of 36 members of the Authority elected by the Assembly in the following order:

(a) Four members from among those States Parties which, during the last five years for which statistics are available, have either consumed more than 2 per cent in value terms of total world consumption or have had net imports of more than 2 per cent in value terms of total world imports of the commodities produced from the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, provided that the four members shall include one State from the Eastern European region having the largest economy in that region in terms of gross domestic product and the State, on the date of entry into force of the Convention, having the largest economy in terms of gross domestic product, if such States wish to be represented in this group;

(b) Four members from among the eight States Parties which have made the largest investments in preparation for and in the conduct of activities in the Area, either directly or through their nationals;

(c) Four members from among States Parties which, on the basis of production in areas under their jurisdiction, are major net exporters of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, including at least two developing States whose exports of such minerals have a substantial bearing upon their economies;

(d) Six members from among developing States Parties, representing special interests. The special interests to be represented shall include those of States with large populations, States which are land-locked or geographically disadvantaged, island States, States which are major importers of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, States which are potential producers of such minerals and least developed States;

(e) Eighteen members elected according to the principle of ensuring an equitable geographical distribution of seats in the Council as a whole, provided that each geographical region shall have at least one member elected under this subparagraph. For this purpose, the geographical regions shall be Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and Western Europe and Others.

16. The provisions of article 161, paragraph 1, of the Convention shall not apply.

Section 4. REVIEW CONFERENCE

The provisions relating to the Review Conference in article 155, paragraphs 1, 3 and 4, of the Convention shall not apply. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 314, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Assembly, on the recommendation of the Council, may undertake at any time a review of the matters referred to in article 155, paragraph 1, of the Convention. Amendments relating to this Agreement and Part XI shall be subject to the procedures contained in articles 314, 315 and 316 of the Convention, provided that the principles, regime and other terms referred to in article 155, paragraph 2, of the Convention shall be maintained and the rights referred to in paragraph 5 of that article shall not be affected.

Section 5. TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

1. In addition to the provisions of article 144 of the Convention, transfer of technology for the purposes of Part XI shall be governed by the following principles:

(a) The Enterprise, and developing States wishing to obtain deep seabed mining technology, shall seek to obtain such technology on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions on the open market, or through joint-venture arrangements;

(b) If the Enterprise or developing States are unable to obtain deep seabed mining technology, the Authority may request all or any of the contractors and their respective sponsoring State or States to cooperate with it in facilitating the acquisition of deep seabed mining technology by the Enterprise or its joint venture, or by a developing State or States seeking to acquire such technology on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, consistent with the effective protection of intellectual property rights. States Parties undertake to cooperate fully and effectively with the Authority for this purpose and to ensure that contractors sponsored by them also cooperate fully with the Authority;

(c) As a general rule, States Parties shall promote international technical and scientific cooperation with regard to activities in the Area either between the parties concerned or by developing training, technical assistance and scientific cooperation programmes in marine science and technology and the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

2. The provisions of Annex III, article 5, of the Convention shall not apply.

Section 6. PRODUCTION POLICY

1. The production policy of the Authority shall be based on the following principles:

(a) Development of the resources of the Area shall take place in accordance with sound commercial principles;

(b) The provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, its relevant codes and successor or superseding agreements shall apply with respect to activities in the Area;

(c) In particular, there shall be no subsidization of activities in the Area except as may be permitted under the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b). Subsidization for the purpose of these principles shall be defined in terms of the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b);

(d) There shall be no discrimination between minerals derived from the Area and from other sources. There shall be no preferential access to markets for such minerals or for imports of commodities produced from such minerals, in particular:

(i) By the use of tariff or non-tariff barriers; and

(ii) Given by States Parties to such minerals or commodities produced by their state enterprises or by natural or juridical persons which possess their nationality or are controlled by them or their nationals;

(e) The plan of work for exploitation approved by the Authority in respect of each mining area shall indicate an anticipated production schedule which shall include the estimated maximum amounts of minerals that would be produced per year under the plan of work;

(f) The following shall apply to the settlement of disputes concerning the provisions of the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b):

(i) Where the States Parties concerned are parties to such agreements, they shall have recourse to the dispute settlement procedures of those agreements;

(ii) Where one or more of the States Parties concerned are not parties to such agreements, they shall have recourse to the dispute settlement procedures set out in the Convention;

(g) In circumstances where a determination is made under the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b) that a State party has engaged in subsidization which is prohibited or has resulted in adverse effects on the interests of another State Party and appropriate steps have not been taken by the relevant State Party or States Parties, a State Party may request the Council to take appropriate measures.

2. The principles contained in paragraph 1 shall not affect the rights and obligations under any provision of the agreements referred to in paragraph 1 (b), as well as the relevant free trade and customs union agreements, in relations between States Parties which are parties to such agreements.

3. The acceptance by a contractor of subsidies other than those which may be permitted under the agreements referred to in paragraph 1 (b) shall constitute a violation of the fundamental terms of the contract forming a plan of work for the carrying out of activities in the Area.

4. Any State Party which has reason to believe that there has been a breach of the requirements of paragraphs 1 (b) to (d) or 3 may initiate dispute settlement procedures in conformity with paragraph 1 (f) or (g).

5. A State Party may at any time bring to the attention of the Council activities which in its view are inconsistent with the requirements of paragraph 1 (b) to (d).

6. The Authority shall develop rules, regulations and procedures which ensure the implementation of the provisions of this section, including relevant rules, regulations and procedures governing the approval of plans of work.

7. The provisions of article 151, paragraphs 1 to 7 and 9, article 162, paragraph 2 (q), article 165, paragraph 2 (n), and Annex III, article 6, paragraph 5, and article 7, of the Convention shall not apply.

Section 7. ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

1. The policy of the Authority of assisting developing countries which suffer serious adverse effects on their export earnings or economies resulting from a reduction in the price of an affected mineral or in the volume of exports of that mineral, to the extent that such reduction is caused by activities in the Area, shall be based on the following principles:

(a) The Authority shall establish an economic assistance fund from a portion of the funds of the Authority which exceeds those necessary to cover the administrative expenses of the Authority. The amount set aside for this purpose shall be determined by the Council from time to time, upon the recommendation of the Finance Committee. Only funds from payments received from contractors, including the Enterprise, and voluntary contributions shall be used for the establishment of the economic assistance fund;

(b) Developing land-based producer States whose economies have been determined to be seriously affected by the production of minerals from the deep seabed shall be assisted from the economic assistance fund of the Authority;

(c) The Authority shall provide assistance from the fund to affected developing land-based producer States, where appropriate, in cooperation with existing global or regional development institutions which have the infrastructure and expertise to carry out such assistance programmes;

(d) The extent and period of such assistance shall be determined on a case-by-case basis. In doing so, due consideration shall be given to the nature and magnitude of the problems encountered by affected developing land-based producer States.

2. Article 151, paragraph 10, of the Convention shall be implemented by means of measures of economic assistance referred to in paragraph 1. Article 160, paragraph 2 (1), article 162, paragraph 2 (n), article 164, paragraph 2 (d), article 171, subparagraph (f), and article 173, paragraph 2 (c), of the Convention shall be interpreted accordingly.

Section 8. FINANCIAL TERMS OF CONTRACTS

1. The following principles shall provide the basis for establishing rules, regulations and procedures for financial terms of contracts:

(a) The system of payments to the Authority shall be fair both to the contractor and to the Authority and shall provide adequate means of determining compliance by the contractor with such system;

(b) The rates of payments under the system shall be within the range of those prevailing in respect of land-based mining of the same or similar minerals in order to avoid giving deep seabed miners an artificial competitive advantage or imposing on them a competitive disadvantage;

(c) The system should not be complicated and should not impose major administrative costs on the Authority or on a contractor. Consideration should be given to the adoption of a royalty system or a combination of a royalty and profit-sharing system. If alternative systems are decided upon, the contractor has the right to choose the system applicable to its contract. Any subsequent change in choice between alternative systems, however, shall be made by agreement between the Authority and the contractor;

(d) An annual fixed fee shall be payable from the date of commencement of commercial production. This fee may be credited against other payments due under the system adopted in accordance with subparagraph (c). The amount of the fee shall be established by the Council;

(e) The system of payments may be revised periodically in the light of changing circumstances. Any changes shall be applied in a non-discriminatory manner. Such changes may apply to existing contracts only at the election of the contractor. Any subsequent change in choice between alternative systems shall be made by agreement between the Authority and the contractor;

(f) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the rules and regulations based on these principles shall be subject to the dispute settlement procedures set out in the Convention.

2. The provisions of Annex III, article 13, paragraphs 3 to 10, of the Convention shall not apply.

3. With regard to the implementation of Annex III, article 13, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the fee for processing applications for approval of a plan of work limited to one phase, either the exploration phase or the exploitation phase, shall be US$ 250,000.

Section 9. THE FINANCE COMMITTEE

1. There is hereby established a Finance Committee. The Committee shall be composed of 15 members with appropriate qualifications relevant to financial matters. States Parties shall nominate candidates of the highest standards of competence and integrity.

2. No two members of the Finance Committee shall be nationals of the same State Party.

3. Members of the Finance Committee shall be elected by the Assembly and due account shall be taken of the need for equitable geographical distribution and the representation of special interests. Each group of States referred to in section 3, paragraph 15 (a), (b), (c) and (d), of this Annex shall be represented on the Committee by at least one member. Until the Authority has sufficient funds other than assessed contributions to meet its administrative expenses, the membership of the Committee shall include representatives of the five largest financial contributors to the administrative budget of the Authority. Thereafter, the election of one member from each group shall be on the basis of nomination by the members of the respective group, without prejudice to the possibility of further members being elected from each group.

4. Members of the Finance Committee shall hold office for a term of five years. They shall be eligible for re-election for a further term.

5. In the event of the death, incapacity or resignation of a member of the Finance Committee prior to the expiration of the term of office, the Assembly shall elect for the remainder of the term a member from the same geographical region or group of States.

6. Members of the Finance Committee shall have no financial interest in any activity relating to matters upon which the Committee has the responsibility to make recommendations. They shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their duties for the Authority.

7. Decisions by the Assembly and the Council on the following issues shall take into account recommendations of the Finance Committee:

(a) Draft financial rules, regulations and procedures of the organs of the Authority and the financial management and internal financial administration of the Authority;

(b) Assessment of contributions of members to the administrative budget of the Authority in accordance with article 160, paragraph 2 (e), of the Convention;

(c) All relevant financial matters, including the proposed annual budget prepared by the Secretary-General of the Authority in accordance with article 172 of the Convention and the financial aspects of the implementation of the programmes of work of the Secretariat;

(d) The administrative budget;

(e) Financial obligations of States Parties arising from the implementation of this Agreement and Part XI as well as the administrative and budgetary implications of proposals and recommendations involving expenditure from the funds of the Authority;

(f) Rules, regulations and procedures on the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area and the decisions to be made thereon.

8. Decisions in the Finance Committee on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of members present and voting. Decisions on questions of substance shall be taken by consensus.

9. The requirement of article 162, paragraph 2 (y), of the Convention to establish a subsidiary organ to deal with financial matters shall be deemed to have been fulfilled by the establishment of the Finance Committee in accordance with this section.

 

KONVENCIJA UJEDINJENIH NARODA
O PRAVU MORA

PREAMBULA

Države stranke Konvencije, potaknute željom da riješe, u duhu uzajamnog razumijevanja i suradnje, sve probleme koji se tiču prava mora, svjesne povijesnog značenja Konvencije kao važnog doprinosa održanju mira, pravde i napretka za sve narode svijeta,

konstatirajući da je razvoj poslije Konferencija Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora, održanih u Ženevi 1958. i 1960. godine, istaknuo potrebu za novom i općeprihvatljivom konvencijom o pravu mora,

svjesne da su problemi morskog prostora međusobno usko povezani i da ih treba razmatrati kao cjelinu,

priznavajući da je poželjno ustanoviti Konvencijom, s dužnim obzirom prema suverenosti svih država, pravni poredak za mora i oceane koji će pogodovati međunarodnim vezama i pridonositi miroljubivoj uporabi mora i oceana, pravičnom i djelotvornom iskorištavanju njihovih bogatstava, očuvanju njihovih živih bogatstava te proučavanju, zaštiti i očuvanju morskog okoliša,

imajući na umu da će postizanje tih ciljeva pridonijeti ostvarenju pravednog i pravičnog međunarodnog ekonomskog poretka koji će uzimati u obzir interese i potrebe čovječanstva kao cjeline, a osobito posebne interese i potrebe zemalja u razvoju, bilo obalnih ili neobalnih,

želeći Konvencijom razviti načela sadržana u rezoluciji 2749 (XXV) od 17. prosinca 1970., u kojoj je Opća skupština Ujedinjenih naroda svečano izjavila, između ostaloga, da su zona dna mora i oceana i njihovoga podzemlja izvan granica nacionalne jurisdikcije, kao i njezina bogatstva zajednička baština čovje­čanstva, te se moraju istraživati i iskorištavati za dobrobit čovje­čanstva kao cjeline, neovisno o geografskom položaju država,

vjerujući da će kodifikacija i progresivni razvoj prava mora ostvareni u ovoj Konvenciji pridonijeti jačanju mira, sigurnosti, suradnje i prijateljskih odnosa među svim nacijama, u skladu s načelima pravde i ravnopravnosti, i da će promicati ekonomski i socijalni napredak svih naroda svijeta, u skladu s ciljevima i načelima Ujedinjenih naroda izloženima u Povelji,

potvrđujući da će predmeti koji nisu uređeni Konvencijom i nadalje biti uređeni pravilima i načelima općega međunarodnog prava,

sporazumjele su se o sljedećem:

DIO I.

UVOD

Članak 1.

Upotreba izraza i domašaj

1. U svrhe Konvencije:

(1) “Zona” znači dno mora i oceana i njihovo podzemlje izvan granica nacionalne jurisdikcije;

(2) “Vlast” znači Međunarodnu vlast za morsko dno;

(3) “djelatnosti u Zoni” znači sve djelatnosti istraživanja i iskorištavanja bogatstava Zone;

(4) “onečišćenje morskog okoliša” znači čovjekovo izravno ili neizravno unošenje tvari ili energije u morski okoliš, uključujući estuarije, koje uzrokuje ili može prouzročiti takve pogubne posljedice kao što su šteta živim bogatstvima i životu u moru, ugrožavanje ljudskog zdravlja, ometanje pomorskih djelatnosti, uključujući ribolov i druge zakonite upotrebe mora, pogoršanje upotrebne kvalitete morske vode i umanjenje privlač­nosti;

(5)(a) “potapanje” znači:

(i) svako namjerno odlaganje otpadaka ili drugih predmeta s brodova, zrakoplova, platformi ili drugih umjetnih naprava na moru;

(ii) svako namjerno potapanje brodova, zrakoplova, platformi ili drugih umjetnih naprava na moru;

(b) “potapanje” ne uključuje:

(i) odlaganje otpadaka ili drugih predmeta koji izravno ili neizravno proistječu iz uobičajene upotrebe brodova, zrakoplova, platformi ili drugih umjetnih naprava na moru, kao i njihove opreme, osim kad se radi o otpacima ili drugim predmetima koji se prevoze brodovima, zrakoplovima, platformama ili drugim umjetnim napravama na moru, ili se na njih prekrcavaju, a koji se koriste upravo radi odlaganja tih predmeta, ili koji su rezultat prerade tih otpadaka ili drugih predmeta na takvim brodovima, zrakoplovima, platformama ili napravama,

(ii) ostavljanje predmeta kojemu nije svrha njihovo odlaganje, uz uvjet da takvo ostavljanje nije u suprotnosti s ciljevima Konvencije.

2. (1) “Države stranke” znači države koje su pristale biti vezane Konvencijom i za koje je Konvencija na snazi.

(2) Konvencija se primjenjuje mutatis mutandis na subjekte navedene u članku 305., stavku 1. (b), (c), (d), (e) i (f), koji postanu stranke Konvencije u skladu s uvjetima koji vrijede za svakog od njih i u toj se mjeri izraz “države stranke” odnosi na te subjekte.

DIO II.

TERITORIJALNO MORE I VANJSKI POJAS

Odsjek 1. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 2.

Pravni položaj teritorijalnog mora, zračnog prostora iznad teritorijalnog mora i njegovog dna i podzemlja

1. Suverenost obalne države proteže se - izvan njezinoga kopnenog područja i njezinih unutrašnjih voda i, ako se radi o arhipelaškoj državi, njezinih arhipelaških voda - na susjedni pojas mora, koji se naziva teritorijalnim morem.

2. Ta se suverenost proteže na zračni prostor iznad teritorijalnog mora i na njegovo dno i podzemlje.

3. Suverenost nad teritorijalnim morem ostvaruje se prema odredbama ove Konvencije i prema drugim pravilima među­na­rod­­nog prava.

Odsjek 2. GRANICE TERITORIJALNOG MORA

Članak 3.

Širina teritorijalnog mora

Svaka država ima pravo ustanoviti širinu svoga teritorijalnog mora do granice koja ne prelazi 12 morskih milja, mjerenih od polaznih crta koje su određene u skladu s Konvencijom.

Članak 4.

Vanjska granica teritorijalnog mora

Vanjska je granica teritorijalnog mora crta kojoj je udalje­nost svake točke od najbliže točke polazne crte jednaka širini teri­torijalnog mora.

Članak 5.

Normalna polazna crta

Ako nije drukčije određeno Konvencijom, normalna je polazna crta za mjerenje širine teritorijalnog mora crta niske vode uzduž obale, kako je naznačena na pomorskim kartama krupnog mjerila koje obalna država službeno priznaje.

Članak 6.

Grebeni

Za otoke koji se nalaze na atolima ili otoke uzduž kojih se nalazi niz grebena, polazna je crta za mjerenje širine teritorijalnog mora crta niske vode na grebenu u smjeru mora, kako je označena na pomorskim kartama koje obalna država službeno priznaje.

Članak 7.

Ravne polazne crte

1. Ako je obala razvedena i duboko usječena, ili ako se uzduž obale u njezinoj neposrednoj blizini nalazi niz otoka, za povlačenje polazne crte od koje se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora može se upotrijebiti metoda ravnih polaznih crta koje spajaju prikladne točke.

2. Ako je zbog postojanja delte i drugih prirodnih uvjeta obalna crta izrazito nestabilna, prikladne se točke mogu izabrati uzduž najudaljenije crte niske vode u smjeru mora i, usprkos kasnijem povlačenju crte niske vode, ravne polazne crte ostaju valjanima sve dok ih obalna država ne izmijeni u skladu s Konvencijom.

3. Ravne polazne crte ne smiju se povlačiti tako da se znatno udalje od općeg smjera obale, a morski prostori koji se nalaze unutar tih crta moraju biti dovoljno povezani s kopnenim područjem da bi bili podvrgnuti režimu unutrašnjih voda.

4. Ravne polazne crte ne smiju se povlačiti na uzvišice suhe za niske vode, niti od njih, osim ako su na njima podignuti svjetionici ili slični uređaji koji se stalno nalaze iznad morske razine, ili ako je povlačenje polaznih crta na takve uzvišice i od njih dobilo opće međunarodno priznanje.

5. Kad se primjenjuje metoda ravnih polaznih crta prema stavku 1., može se kod određivanja pojedinih polaznih crta voditi računa o posebnim gospodarskim interesima dotičnog kraja, kojih su postojanje i važnost jasno dokazani dugom upotrebom.

6. Država ne može primijeniti metodu ravnih polaznih crta tako da time odvoji teritorijalno more druge države od otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa.

Članak 8.

Unutrašnje vode

1. Uz iznimku predviđenu u dijelu IV., vode koje se nalaze od polazne crte teritorijalnog mora u smjeru kopna dio su unutrašnjih voda države.

2. Kad se određivanjem ravne polazne crte, u skladu s metodom opisanom u članku 7., kao unutrašnje vode obuhvate vode koje se prije toga nisu smatrale takvima, u tim će vodama postojati pravo neškodljivog prolaska kako je predviđeno u ovoj Konvenciji.

Članak 9.

Ušća rijeka

Ako se rijeka izravno ulijeva u more, polazna je crta ravna crta preko ušća rijeke između točaka na crti niske vode na njezinim obalama.

Članak 10.

Zaljevi

1. Ovaj se članak odnosi samo na zaljeve kojih obale pripadaju jednoj državi.

2. U svrhe Konvencije, zaljev je jasno istaknuta uvala koja zadire u kopno u takvu omjeru prema širini svog ulaza da sadržava vode zatvorene kopnom, a nije samo obična krivina obale. Uvala se, naime, neće smatrati zaljevom ako njezina površina nije jednaka ili veća od površine polukruga kojemu je promjer crta povučena preko ulaza u tu uvalu.

3. U svrhu mjerenja, površinom uvale smatra se površina obuhvaćena između crte niske vode uzduž obale uvale i crte povučene između crte niske vode na njenim prirodnim ulaznim točkama. Ako, zbog postojanja otoka, uvala ima više od jednog ulaza, polukrug se povlači tako da se kao promjer uzme ukupna duljina crta koje zatvaraju pojedine ulaze. Površina otoka unutar uvale računa se kao dio morske površine uvale.

4. Ako razmak između crta niske vode na prirodnim ulaznim točkama zaljeva nije veći od 24 morske milje, može se povući granična crta između tih dviju crta niske vode, a vode koje su njome zatvorene smatraju se unutrašnjim vodama.

5. Ako je razmak između crta niske vode na prirodnim ulaznim točkama zaljeva veći od 24 morske milje, povlači se ravna polazna crta od 24 morske milje unutar zaljeva, tako da se crtom te duljine zatvori najveća moguća površina vode.

6. Prethodne se odredbe ne primjenjuju na takozvane “historijske” zaljeve, kao ni u slučajevima kada se primjenjuje metoda ravnih polaznih crta predviđena u članku 7.

Članak 11.

Luke

U svrhe određivanja granica teritorijalnog mora smatra se da stalne lučke građevine, koje su sastavni dio lučkoga sustava, a koje su najudaljenije u smjeru mora, čine dio obale. Uređaji na pučini i umjetni otoci ne smatraju se stalnim lučkim građevinama.

Članak 12.

Sidrišta

Sidrišta koje uobičajeno služe za krcanje, iskrcavanje i sidrenje brodova, a koja bi se inače nalazila, u cijelosti ili dijelom, izvan vanjske granice teritorijalnog mora, uključena su u teritorijalno more.

Članak 13.

Uzvišice suhe za niske vode

1. Uzvišica suha za niske vode je prirodni dio kopna okružen morem i suh za niske vode, ali preplavljen za visoke vode. Kad se uzvišica suha za niske vode nalazi, u cijelosti ili dijelom, na udaljenosti od kontinenta ili otoka koja ne prelazi širinu teritorijalnog mora, crta niske vode na toj uzvišici može se uzeti kao polazna crta od koje se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora.

2. Kad se uzvišica suha za niske vode nalazi u cijelosti na udaljenosti od kontinenta ili otoka koja prelazi širinu teritorijalnog mora, ona nema vlastitog teritorijalnog mora.

Članak 14.

Kombiniranje metoda za određivanje polaznih crta

Ovisno o različitim uvjetima, obalna država može odrediti polazne crte primjenjujući naizmjence metode predviđene u prethodnim člancima.

Članak 15.

Razgraničenje teritorijalnog mora između država čije obale leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče

Kad obale dviju država leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče, nijedna od tih dviju država nije ovlaštena, ako među njima nema suprotnog sporazuma, proširiti svoje teritorijalno more preko crte sredine, kojoj je svaka točka jednako udaljena od najbližih točaka polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora svake od tih dviju država. Ova se odredba, međutim, ne primjenjuje u slučaju gdje je zbog historijskog naslova ili drugih posebnih okolnosti potrebno razgraničiti teritorijalna mora dviju država na drukčiji način.

Članak 16.

Pomorske karte i popis geografskih koordinata

1. Polazne crte za mjerenje širine teritorijalnog mora, utvrđene u skladu sa člancima 7., 9. i 10., ili granice koje su otuda proizašle, i crte razgraničenja, povučene u skladu sa člancima 12. i 15., naznačuju se na pomorskim kartama takva mjerila ili takvih mjerila koja su prikladna za utvrđivanje njihova položaja. Umjesto toga, može se izraditi popis geografskih koordinata točaka s navedenim geodetskim podacima.

2. Obalna država na propisan način objavljuje takve karte ili popise geografskih koordinata, a jedan primjerak svake takve karte ili popisa polaže kod glavnog tajnika Ujedinjenih naroda.

Odsjek 3. NEŠKODLJIVI PROLAZAK
U TERITORIJALNOM MORU

Pododsjek A. PRAVILA KOJA SE PRIMJENJUJU NA SVE BRODOVE

Članak 17.

Pravo neškodljivog prolaska

Uz uvjet poštivanja Konvencije, brodovi svih država, obalnih i neobalnih, uživaju pravo neškodljivog prolaska teritorijalnim morem.

Članak 18.

Značenje izraza “prolazak”

1. Prolazak je plovidba teritorijalnim morem radi:

(a) presijecanja tog mora bez ulaska u unutrašnje vode ili pristajanja na sidrištu ili uz lučke uređaje izvan unutrašnjih voda;

(b) ulaska u unutrašnje vode ili izlaska iz njih, ili pristajanja na takvu sidrištu ili uz takve lučke uređaje.

2. Prolazak mora biti neprekinut i brz. Prolazak, međutim, obuhvaća zaustavljanje i sidrenje, ali samo ukoliko su to uzgredni događaji u redovitom tijeku plovidbe ili ih nameće viša sila ili nevolja, ili su potrebni radi pružanja pomoći osobama, brodovima ili zrakoplovima u opasnosti ili nevolji.

Članak 19.

Značenje izraza “neškodljivi prolazak”

1. Prolazak je neškodljiv sve dok ne dira u mir, red ili sigurnost obalne države. Takav se prolazak mora obaviti u skladu s Konvencijom i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava.

2. Smatrat će se da prolazak stranog broda dira u mir, red ili sigurnost obalne države ako se brod u teritorijalnom moru upušta u bilo koju od ovih djelatnosti:

(a) prijetnju silom ili upotrebu sile protiv suverenosti, teritorijalne cjelovitosti ili političke neovisnosti obalne države, ili na bilo koji drugi način protivno načelima međunarodnog prava sadržanima u Povelji Ujedinjenih naroda;

(b) vježbu ili obuku s oružjem bilo koje vrste;

(c) prikupljanje informacija na štetu obrane ili sigurnosti obalne države;

(d) propagandu radi slabljenja obrane ili sigurnosti obalne države;

(e) uzlijetanje, slijetanje ili prihvaćanje na brod bilo kakva zrakoplova;

(f) uzlijetanje, slijetanje ili prihvaćanje na brod bilo kakve vojne naprave;

(g) ukrcavanje ili iskrcavanje robe, novca ili osoba suprotno carinskim, fiskalnim, useljeničkim ili zdravstvenim zakonima i drugim propisima obalne države;

(h) namjerno i ozbiljno onečišćenje protivno ovoj Konvenciji;

(i) ribolov;

(j) istraživanja ili mjerenja;

(k) ometanje bilo kojega sustava komunikacija ili bilo kojih drugih sredstava ili uređaja obalne države;

(l) svaku drugu djelatnost koja nije u izravnoj vezi s prolaskom.

Članak 20.

Podmornice i druga podvodna prijevozna sredstva

Podmornice i druga podvodna prijevozna sredstva u teritorijalnom moru moraju ploviti površinom i istaknuti svoju zastavu.

Članak 21.

Zakoni i drugi propisi obalne države o neškodljivom prolasku

1. U skladu s odredbama Konvencije i s drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava, obalna država može donositi zakone i druge propise o neškodljivom prolasku teritorijalnim morem koji se odnose na sva ili na neka od ovih pitanja:

(a) sigurnost plovidbe i uređenje pomorskog prometa;

(b) zaštitu navigacijskih pomagala i sredstava i drugih sredstava i uređaja;

(c) zaštitu kabela i cjevovoda;

(d) očuvanje živih bogatstava mora;

(e) sprečavanje kršenja zakona i drugih propisa obalne države o ribolovu;

(f) očuvanje okoliša obalne države i sprečavanje, smanjivanje i nadziranje onečišćenja;

(g) znanstveno istraživanje mora i hidrografska mjerenja;

(h) sprečavanje kršenja carinskih, fiskalnih, useljeničkih ili zdravstvenih zakona i drugih propisa obalne države.

2. Ti se zakoni i propisi neće primjenjivati na nacrt, konstrukciju, posadu ili opremu stranih brodova, osim ako se njima ne provode općeprihvaćena međunarodna pravila ili standardi.

3. Obalna država na propisan način objavljuje sve te zakone i propise.

4. Ostvarujući pravo neškodljivog prolaska teritorijalnim morem, strani se brodovi pridržavaju tih zakona i drugih propisa i svih općeprihvaćenih međunarodnih propisa o sprečavanju sudara na moru.

Članak 22.

Plovni putovi i sustavi odvojenog prometa u
teritorijalnom moru

1. Radi sigurnosti plovidbe, obalna država može od stranih brodova koji ostvaruju pravo neškodljivog prolaska njezinim teritorijalnim morem zahtijevati da plove onim plovnim putovima koje je ona odredila i prema sustavima odvojenog prometa koje je propisala radi uređenja prolaska brodova.

2. Posebno se može zahtijevati da tankeri, brodovi na nuklearni pogon i brodovi koji prevoze radioaktivne ili druge po svojoj naravi opasne ili škodljive tvari ili materijale ograniče svoj prolazak na te plovne putove.

3. Prilikom određivanja plovnih putova i propisivanja sustava odvojenog prometa na temelju ovoga članka, obalna država će voditi računa:

(a) o preporukama nadležne međunarodne organizacije;

(b) o svim kanalima koji se uobičajeno koriste za međunarodnu plovidbu;

(c) o posebnim karakteristikama određenih brodova i kanala, i

(d) o gustoći prometa.

4. Obalna država jasno naznačuje te plovne putove i sustave odvojenog prometa na pomorskim kartama, koje na propisan način objavljuje.

Članak 23.

Strani brodovi na nuklearni pogon i brodovi koji prevoze radioaktivne ili druge po svojoj naravi opasne ili škodljive tvari

Strani brodovi na nuklearni pogon i brodovi koji prevoze radioaktivne i druge po svojoj naravi opasne ili škodljive tvari, kada se služe pravom neškodljivog prolaska teritorijalnim morem, moraju imati isprave i poštovati posebne mjere opreza koje su, za takve brodove, utvrđene međunarodnim sporazumima.

Članak 24.

Dužnosti obalne države

1. Obalna država ne smije ometati neškodljivi prolazak stranih brodova teritorijalnim morem, osim u slučajevima predviđe­nima ovom Konvencijom. Posebno, prilikom primjene Konvencije ili bilo kojih zakona ili drugih propisa donesenih u skladu s Konvencijom, obalna država ne smije:

(a) postavljati takve zahtjeve stranim brodovima kojih bi učinak bilo uskraćivanje ili ograničavanje prava neškodljivog prolaska, ili

(b) diskriminirati, pravno ili stvarno, brodove bilo koje države ili brodove koji prevoze teret u neku državu, iz nje ili za nju.

2. Obalna država objavljuje na prikladan način svaku opasnost za plovidbu u svom teritorijalnom moru koja joj je poznata.

Članak 25.

Prava zaštite obalne države

1. Obalna država može poduzimati u svom teritorijalnom moru mjere potrebne radi sprečavanja prolaska koji nije neš­kodljiv.

2. Ako brodovi ulaze u unutrašnje vode ili pristaju uz lučki uređaj izvan unutrašnjih voda, obalna država ima još i pravo poduzimati potrebne mjere radi sprečavanja svakog kršenja uvjeta pod kojima je dopušten ulazak tih brodova u unutrašnje vode ili takvo pristajanje.

3. Obalna država može, bez pravne ili stvarne diskriminacije među stranim brodovima, privremeno obustaviti, u točno naznačenim dijelovima svoga teritorijalnog mora, neškodljivi prolazak stranih brodova, ako je takva obustava nužna za zaštitu njezine sigurnosti, uključujući provedbu vježbe s upotrebom oružja. Takva obustava stupa na snagu tek nakon propisne objave.

Članak 26.

Pristojbe koje se smiju ubirati od stranih brodova

1. Nikakve se pristojbe ne smiju ubirati od stranih brodova samo zbog njihova prolaska teritorijalnim morem.

2. Od stranog broda koji prolazi teritorijalnim morem mogu se ubirati pristojbe jedino kao naknada za posebne usluge učinjene brodu. Te će se pristojbe ubirati bez diskriminacije.

Pododsjek B. PRAVILA KOJA SE PRIMJENJUJU NA TRGOVAČKE BRODOVE I DRŽAVNE BRODOVE KOJI SLUŽE ZA TRGOVAČKE SVRHE

Članak 27.

Kaznena sudbenost na stranom brodu

1. Obalna država ne bi trebala vršiti svoju kaznenu sudbenost na stranom brodu koji prolazi teritorijalnim morem, radi uhićenja neke osobe ili vršenja istražnih radnji u vezi s bilo kojim kaznenim djelom počinjenim na brodu za vrijeme njegova prolaska, osim u ovim slučajevima:

(a) ako se posljedice kaznenog djela protežu na obalnu državu;

(b) ako je kazneno djelo takvo da remeti mir zemlje ili red u teritorijalnom moru;

(c) ako je zapovjednik broda, ili diplomatski agent, ili konzularni dužnosnik države zastave zatražio pomoć mjesnih organa, ili

(d) ako su takve mjere potrebne radi suzbijanja nedopuštene trgovine opojnim drogama ili psihotropnim tvarima.

2. Gornje odredbe ne diraju u pravo obalne države da poduzme bilo koje mjere, na koje ju ovlašćuje njezino unutrašnje pravo, radi uhićenja ili istražne radnje na stranom brodu koji prolazi teritorijalnim morem ploveći iz unutrašnjih voda.

3. U slučajevima predviđenim u stavcima 1. i 2. obalna država mora, na zahtjev zapovjednika broda, obavijestiti diplomatskog agenta ili konzularnog dužnosnika države zastave prije nego li poduzme ma kakve mjere i olakšati dodir tog agenta ili dužnosnika s posadom broda. U slučajevima hitne potrebe ta se obavijest može dati i tijekom poduzimanja tih mjera.

4. Prilikom odlučivanja hoće li se i na koji način izvršiti uhićenje, mjesni organi trebaju voditi računa o interesima plovidbe.

5. Osim u slučajevima predviđenima u dijelu XII. ili zbog kršenja zakona i drugih propisa donesenih u skladu s dijelom V., obalna država ne može poduzimati nikakve mjere na stranom brodu koji prolazi teritorijalnim morem radi uhićenja neke osobe ili radi vršenja istražnih radnji u vezi s bilo kojim kaznenim djelom počinjenim prije ulaska broda u teritorijalno more, ako brod koji je doplovio iz strane luke samo prolazi teritorijalnim morem ne ulazeći u unutrašnje vode.

Članak 28.

Građanska sudbenost prema stranom brodu

1. Obalna država ne bi trebala zaustavljati strani brod koji prolazi teritorijalnim morem niti ga skretati s puta radi vršenja građanske sudbenosti nad osobom koja se nalazi na brodu.

2. Obalna država ne može poduzeti prema tom brodu mjere ovrhe ili zadržavanja u bilo kojem građanskom postupku, osim zbog obveza koje je taj brod sam preuzeo, ili odgovornosti koje su za nj nastale u tijeku plovidbe ili zbog plovidbe vodama obalne države.

3. Stavak 2. ne dira u pravo obalne države da, u skladu sa svojim unutrašnjim pravom, poduzima mjere ovrhe ili zadržavanja u bilo kojem građanskom postupku prema stranom brodu koji se zaustavio u teritorijalnom moru ili koji prolazi teritorijalnim morem doplovivši iz unutrašnjih voda.

Pododsjek C. PRAVILA KOJA SE PRIMJENJUJU NA RATNE BRODOVE I DRUGE DRŽAVNE BRODOVE KOJI SLUŽE ZA NETRGOVAČKE SVRHE

Članak 29.

Definicija ratnog broda

U svrhe Konvencije “ratni brod” znači brod koji pripada oružanim snagama neke države i nosi vanjske znakove raspoznavanja takvih brodova njegove državne pripadnosti, pod zapovjedništvom je časnika koji je u službi vlade te države i čije je ime upisano u odgovarajući popis časnika ili u drugu ispravu jednakog značenja i čija je posada podvrgnuta pravilima vojne stege.

Članak 30.

Nepoštovanje zakona i drugih propisa obalne države od ratnog broda

Ako neki ratni brod ne poštuje zakone i druge propise obalne države o prolasku teritorijalnim morem i ako se ne odazove pozivu koji mu je upućen da im se pokori, obalna država može zahtijevati da on odmah isplovi iz teritorijalnog mora.

Članak 31.

Odgovornost države zastave za štetu koju je prouzročio ratni brod ili drugi državni brod koji služi za netrgovačke svrhe

Država zastave snosi međunarodnu odgovornost za svaki gubitak ili štetu nanesenu obalnoj državi zbog nepoštovanja njenog ratnog broda ili drugog državnog broda koji služi za netrgovačke svrhe, zakona i drugih propisa obalne države o prolasku teritorijalnim morem ili odredaba Konvencije ili drugih pravila međunarodnog prava.

Članak 32.

Imuniteti ratnih brodova i drugih državnih brodova koji služe za netrgovačke svrhe

Osim iznimaka sadržanih u pododsjeku A i u člancima 30. i 31., ništa u ovoj Konvenciji ne dira u imunitete ratnih brodova i drugih državnih brodova koji služe za netrgovačke svrhe.

Odsjek 4. VANJSKI POJAS

Članak 33.

Vanjski pojas

1. U pojasu mora koji se nalazi uz njezino teritorijalno more, nazvanom vanjski pojas, obalna država može vršiti nadzor potreban da bi:

(a) spriječila kršenje svojih carinskih, fiskalnih, useljeničkih ili zdravstvenih zakona i drugih propisa na svom području ili u svom teritorijalnom moru;

(b) kaznila kršenje tih zakona i drugih propisa počinjeno na svom području ili u svom teritorijalnom moru.

2. Vanjski pojas ne može se prostirati preko 24 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora.

DIO III.

TJESNACI KOJI SLUŽE MEĐUNARODNOJ PLOVIDBI

Odsjek 1. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 34.

Pravni položaj voda u tjesnacima koji služe međunarodnoj plovidbi

1. Režim prolaska tjesnacima koji služe međunarodnoj plovidbi, ustanovljen u ovom dijelu, ni u kojem drugom smislu ne dira u pravni položaj voda u takvim tjesnacima, ni u ostvarivanje suverenosti ili jurisdikcije obalnih država na tjesnacima nad tim vodama, zračnim prostorom iznad njih i njihovim dnom i podzemljem.

2. Suverenost ili jurisdikcija obalnih država na tjesnacima vrše se u skladu s ovim dijelom i drugim pravilima međunarod­nog prava.

Članak 35.

Domašaj ovoga dijela

Ništa u ovom dijelu ne dira:

(a) u bilo koji dio unutrašnjih voda u tjesnacu, osim ondje gdje se određivanjem ravne polazne crte u skladu s metodom opisanom u članku 7., kao unutrašnje vode obuhvate vode koje se prije toga nisu smatrale takvima;

(b) u pravni položaj voda izvan teritorijalnih mora obalnih država na tjesnacima kao isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva ili otvorenoga mora; ili

(c) u pravni režim u tjesnacima u kojima je prolazak u cjelini ili djelomično uređen međunarodnim konvencijama koje su odavno na snazi posebno za te tjesnace.

Članak 36.

Putovi otvorenim morem ili isključivim gospodarskim pojasevima u tjesnacima koji služe međunarodnoj plovidbi

Ovaj se dio ne primjenjuje na tjesnace koji služe međunarodnoj plovidbi u kojima postoji put otvorenim morem ili isključivim gospodarskim pojasom, koji je jednako pogodan s obzirom na navigacijske i hidrografske osobine; u takvim putovima primjenjuju se drugi relevantni dijelovi Konvencije, uključujući odredbe o slobodi plovidbe i prelijetanja.

Odsjek 2. TRANZITNI PROLAZAK

Članak 37.

Domašaj ovoga odsjeka

Ovaj se odsjek primjenjuje na tjesnace koji služe među­narodnoj plovidbi između jednog dijela otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa i drugog dijela otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa.

Članak 38.

Pravo tranzitnog prolaska

1. U tjesnacima iz članka 37. svi brodovi i zrakoplovi uživaju pravo tranzitnog prolaska, koje se ne smije ometati, osim što se u tjesnacu između otoka obalne države na tjesnacu i njezina kontinentalnog područja tranzitni prolazak neće primjenjivati ako postoji put otvorenim morem ili isključivim gospodarskim pojasom i to od otoka u smjeru otvorenog mora koji je jednako pogodan s obzirom na navigacijske i hidrografske osobine.

2. Tranzitni prolazak je ostvarivanje, u skladu s ovim dijelom, slobode plovidbe i prelijetanja jedino radi neprekinutog i brzog tranzita tjesnacem između jednog dijela otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa i drugog dijela otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa. Međutim, zahtjev za neprekinutim i brzim tranzitom ne isključuje prolazak kroz tjesnac radi ulaska u obalnu državu na tjesnacu, izlaska ili povratka iz nje, u skladu s uvjetima za ulazak u tu državu.

3. Svaka djelatnost koja nije ostvarivanje prava tranzitnog prolaska tjesnacem podvrgnuta je drugim primjenjivim odredbama Konvencije.

Članak 39.

Dužnosti brodova i zrakoplova za vrijeme tranzitnog prolaska

1. Ostvarujući pravo tranzitnog prolaska, brodovi i zrakoplovi:

(a) plove tjesnacem ili prelijeću tjesnac bez zadržavanja;

(b) suzdržavaju se od prijetnje silom ili upotrebe sile protiv suverenosti, teritorijalne cjelovitosti ili političke neovisnosti obalnih država na tjesnacu, ili na bilo koji drugi način protivno načelima međunarodnog prava sadržanima u Povelji Ujedinjenih naroda;

(c) suzdržavaju se od svih djelatnosti osim onih koje su svojstvene redovitom načinu neprekinutog i brzog tranzita, osim u slučaju više sile ili nevolje;

(d) pridržavaju se drugih relevantnih odredaba ovoga dijela.

2. Brodovi u tranzitnom prolasku:

(a) pridržavaju se općeprihvaćenih međunarodnih propisa, postupaka i prakse o sigurnosti na moru, uključivši Međunarodna pravila za izbjegavanje sudara na moru;

(b) pridržavaju se općeprihvaćenih međunarodnih propisa, postupaka i prakse o sprečavanju, smanjivanju i nadziranju onečišćenja s brodova.

3. Zrakoplovi u tranzitnom prolasku:

(a) poštuju Pravila o zračnom prometu utvrđena u Među­narod­noj organizaciji za civilno zrakoplovstvo koja se primjenjuju na civilne zrakoplove; državni će se zrakoplovi redovito pridržavati sigurnosnih mjera predviđenih tim pravilima i stalno se kretati primjereno poštujući sigurnost plovidbe;

(b) stalno provjeravaju radiofrekvenciju koju im je dodijelilo nadležno međunarodno tijelo za nadzor zračnog prometa, ili odgovarajuću međunarodnu radiofrekvenciju za slučaj nevolje.

Članak 40.

Istraživanja i hidrografska mjerenja

Za vrijeme tranzitnog prolaska strani brodovi, uključujući brodove za znanstveno istraživanje mora i hidrografske brodove, ne mogu obavljati nikakva istraživanja ili mjerenja bez prethodnog ovlaštenja obalnih država na tjesnacima.

Članak 41.

Plovni putovi i sustavi odvojenog prometa u tjesnacima koji služe međunarodnoj plovidbi

1. U skladu s ovim dijelom, obalne države na tjesnacima mogu - gdje je to potrebno radi sigurnosti prolaska brodova tjesnacima - odrediti plovne putove i propisati sustave odvojenog prometa za plovidbu.

2. Te države mogu, kada okolnosti zahtijevaju, nakon što to na propisan način objave, zamijeniti drugim plovnim putovima ili sustavima odvojenog prometa bilo koje plovne putove ili sustave odvojenog prometa koje su prije odredile ili propisale.

3. Takvi plovni putovi i sustavi odvojenog prometa moraju biti u skladu s općeprihvaćenim međunarodnim propisima.

4. Prije određivanja ili zamjene plovnih putova, ili propisivanja ili zamjene sustava odvojenog prometa, obalne države na tjesnacima dostavljaju svoje prijedloge nadležnoj međunarodnoj organizaciji radi njihova usvajanja. Organizacija može usvojiti samo one plovne putove i sustave odvojenog prometa s kojima se slažu obalne države na tjesnacima, nakon čega ih te države mogu odrediti, propisati ili zamijeniti.

5. Ako se radi o tjesnacu u kojemu predloženi plovni putovi ili sustavi odvojenog prometa prolaze kroz vode dviju ili više obalnih država na tjesnacu, zainteresirane države surađuju u izradi prijedloga savjetujući se s nadležnom međunarodnom organizacijom.

6. Obalne države na tjesnacima jasno naznačuju sve plovne putove i sustave odvojenog prometa koje su odredile ili propisale na pomorskim kartama, koje na propisan način objavljuju.

7. Brodovi u tranzitnom prolasku poštuju plovne putove i sustave odvojenog prometa ustanovljene u skladu s ovim član­kom.

Članak 42.

Zakoni i drugi propisi obalnih država na tjesnacima o tranzitnom prolasku

1. U skladu s odredbama ovoga odsjeka, obalne države na tjesnacu mogu donositi zakone i druge propise o tranzitnom prolasku tjesnacem koji se odnose na sva ili neka od ovih pitanja:

(a) sigurnost plovidbe i uređenje pomorskog prometa, kako je to predviđeno u članku 41.;

(b) sprečavanje, smanjivanje i nadziranje onečišćenja, provedbu primjenjivih međunarodnih propisa koji se odnose na ispuštanje u tjesnacu nafte, naftnih otpadaka i drugih škodljivih tvari;

(c) ako se radi o ribarskim brodovima - sprečavanje ribolova, uključivši pohranu ribolovnog pribora;

(d) ukrcavanje ili iskrcavanje robe, novca ili osoba suprotno carinskim, fiskalnim, useljeničkim ili zdravstvenim zakonima i drugim propisima obalnih država na tjesnacima.

2. Ti zakoni i drugi propisi ne smiju omogućiti ni pravnu ni stvarnu diskriminaciju među stranim brodovima, a njihova primjena ne smije prouzročiti uskraćivanje, ometanje ili ograničavanje prava tranzitnog prolaska, kako je on određen u ovom odsjeku.

3. Obalne države na tjesnacima na propisan način objavljuju sve te zakone i propise.

4. Ostvarujući pravo tranzitnog prolaska, strani se brodovi pridržavaju tih zakona i drugih propisa.

5. Kada brod ili zrakoplov, koji uživa suvereni imunitet, postupi protivno tim zakonima i drugim propisima ili odredbama ovoga dijela, država zastave broda ili država registracije zrakoplova snosi međunarodnu odgovornost za svaki gubitak ili štetu nanesenu državama na tjesnacima.

Članak 43.

Objekti sigurnosti plovidbe, navigacijska pomagala i druga oprema; sprečavanje, smanjivanje i nadziranje onečišćenja

Države koje se služe tjesnacem i obalne države na tome tjesnacu sporazumno surađuju:

(a) u postavljanju i održavanju u tjesnacu potrebnih objekata sigurnosti plovidbe i navigacijskih pomagala ili druge opreme koja služi međunarodnoj plovidbi, i

(b) u sprečavanju, smanjivanju i nadziranju onečišćenja s brodova.

Članak 44.

Dužnosti obalnih država na tjesnacima

Obalne države na tjesnacima ne smiju ometati tranzitni prolazak i dužne su na prikladan način objaviti svaku opasnost za plovidbu u tjesnacu ili prelijetanje tjesnaca koja im je poznata. Tranzitni prolazak se ne smije obustaviti.

Odsjek 3. NEŠKODLJIVI PROLAZAK

Članak 45.

Neškodljivi prolazak

1. Režim neškodljivog prolaska, u skladu s odsjekom 3. dijela II., primjenjuje se u tjesnacima koji služe međunarodnoj plovidbi:

(a) u kojima se ne primjenjuje režim tranzitnog prolaska na temelju stavka 1. članka 38.; ili

(b) između jednog dijela otvorenog mora ili isključivog gospodarskog pojasa i teritorijalnog mora strane države.

2. Neškodljivi prolazak kroz takve tjesnace ne smije se obustaviti.

DIO IV.

ARHIPELAŠKE DRŽAVE

Članak 46.

Uporaba izraza

U svrhe Konvencije:

(a) “arhipelaška država” znači državu koja se u cijelosti sastoji od jednoga ili više arhipelaga, a može obuhvaćati i druge otoke;

(b) “arhipelag” znači skupinu otoka, uključujući dijelove otoka, vode koje ih spajaju i druga prirodna obilježja, koji su tako tijesno međusobno povezani da stvarno tvore geografsku, gospodarsku i političku cjelinu ili su povijesno smatrani takvima.

Članak 47.

Arhipelaške polazne crte

1. Arhipelaška država može povući ravne arhipelaške polazne crte spajajući krajnje točke najudaljenijih otoka i nadvodnih grebena u arhipelagu, pod uvjetom da su tim crtama obuhvaćeni glavni otoci i područje u kojemu je omjer površine vode i kopna, uključujući atole, između jedan prema jedan i devet prema jedan.

2. Duljina tih polaznih crta ne smije prijeći 100 morskih milja, osim što do tri posto ukupnog broja polaznih crta koje opasuju svaki arhipelag može prijeći tu duljinu, do najveće duljine od 125 morskih milja.

3. Polazne se crte ne smiju povlačiti tako da se znatno udalje od općeg oblika arhipelaga.

4. Te se polazne crte ne smiju povlačiti na uzvišice suhe za niske vode, niti od njih, osim ako su na njima podignuti svjetionici ili slični uređaji koji se stalno nalaze iznad morske razine, ili kad se uzvišica suha za niske vode nalazi, u cijelosti ili dijelom, na udaljenosti od najbližeg otoka koja ne prelazi širinu teritorijalnog mora.

5. Arhipelaška država ne može primijeniti metodu takvih polaznih crta tako da time odvoji teritorijalno more druge države od otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa.

6. Ako se jedan dio arhipelaških voda arhipelaške države nalazi između dvaju dijelova neposredno susjedne države, postojeća prava i svi drugi zakoniti interesi koje je ta susjedna država tradicionalno vršila u tim vodama, kao i sva prava što proistječu iz sporazuma zaključenih između tih dviju država, očuvani su i dalje se poštuju.

7. Za izračunavanje omjera vode i kopna na temelju stavka 1., kopnena područja mogu uključivati vode koje se nalaze unutar grebena uzduž vanjskog ruba otoka i atola, uključujući onaj dio strmih obronaka oceanskog platoa koji je zatvoren ili gotovo zatvoren lancem otoka vapnenačkog sastava i nadvodnih grebena koji se nalaze u perimetru platoa.

8. Polazne crte povučene u skladu s ovim člankom naznačuju se na pomorskim kartama takva mjerila ili takvih mjerila koja su prikladna za utvrđivanje njihova položaja. Umjesto toga, mogu se izraditi popisi geografskih koordinata točaka s navedenim geodetskim podacima.

9. Arhipelaška država na propisan način objavljuje takve karte ili popise geografskih koordinata, a jedan primjerak svake takve karte ili popisa polaže kod glavnog tajnika Ujedinjenih naroda.

Članak 48.

Mjerenje širine teritorijalnog mora, vanjskog pojasa, isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa i epikontinentalnog pojasa

Širina teritorijalnog mora, vanjskog pojasa, isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa i epikontinentalnog pojasa mjeri se od arhipelaških polaznih crta povučenih u skladu sa člankom 47.

Članak 49.

Pravni položaj arhipelaških voda, zračnog prostora iznad arhipelaških voda i njihovog dna i podzemlja

1. Suverenost arhipelaške države proteže se na vode obuhva­ćene arhipelaškim polaznim crtama povučenim u skladu sa člankom 47.; one se nazivaju arhipelaške vode, bez obzira na njihovu dubinu ili udaljenost od obale.

2. Ta se suverenost proteže na zračni prostor iznad arhipe­laških voda, a i na njihovo dno i podzemlje i bogatstva koja oni sadrže.

3. Ta se suverenost vrši prema odredbama ovoga dijela.

4. Režim arhipelaškog prolaska, ustanovljen u ovome dijelu, ni u kojem drugom smislu ne dira u pravni položaj arhipelaških voda, uključujući plovne putove, ili u vršenje suverenosti arhipelaške države nad tim vodama, zračnim prostorom iznad njih, dnom i podzemljem i bogatstvima koja oni sadrže.

Članak 50.

Razgraničenje unutrašnjih voda

Unutar svojih arhipelaških voda arhipelaška država može, u skladu sa člancima 9., 10. i 11., povući crte koje određuju granicu unutrašnjih voda.

Članak 51.

Postojeći sporazumi, tradicionalna ribolovna prava i postojeći podmorski kabeli

1. Ne dirajući u članak 49., arhipelaška država poštuje postojeće sporazume s drugim državama i priznaje tradicionalna ribolovna prava i druge zakonite djelatnosti neposredno susjednih država u pojedinim područjima koja su dio arhipelaških voda. Uvjeti i načini vršenja tih prava i djelatnosti, uključujući njihovu prirodu, opseg i područja na koja se protežu, uređuju se, na zahtjev bilo koje od zainteresiranih država, dvostranim sporazumima među njima. Ta se prava ne smiju prenositi ni dijeliti s trećim državama ili njihovim državljanima.

2. Arhipelaška država poštuje postojeće podmorske kabele koje su položile druge države koji prolaze kroz njezine vode, a ne izlaze na obalu. Arhipelaška država dopušta održavanje i zamjenu takvih kabela, uz uvjet da je na odgovarajući način obaviještena o njihovu položaju i o namjeri da se oni poprave ili zamijene.

Članak 52.

Pravo neškodljivog prolaska

1. Uz uvjete poštovanja članka 53. i ne dirajući u članak 50., bro­dovi svih država uživaju pravo neškodljivog prolaska arhi­pe­laškim vodama, u skladu s odsjekom 3. dijela II.

2. Arhipelaška država može, bez pravne ili stvarne diskriminacije među stranim brodovima, privremeno obustaviti, u točno naznačenim dijelovima svojih arhipelaških voda, neškodljivi prolazak stranih brodova, ako je takva obustava nužna za zaštitu njezine sigurnosti. Takva obustava stupa na snagu tek nakon propisne objave.

Članak 53.

Pravo arhipelaškog prolaska

1. Arhipelaška država može odrediti plovne puteve i iznad njih zračne koridore prikladne za neprekinut i brz prolazak stranih brodova kroz arhipelaške vode i teritorijalno more uz njih i prelijetanje stranih zrakoplova zračnim prostorom iznad njih.

2. Svi brodovi i zrakoplovi uživaju pravo arhipelaškog prolaska u tim plovnim putovima i zračnim koridorima.

3. Arhipelaški prolazak je ostvarivanje, u skladu s Konvencijom, prava plovidbe i prelijetanja na uobičajeni način jedino radi neprekinutog, brzog i neometanog tranzita između jednog dijela otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa i drugog dijela otvorenog mora ili isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa.

4. Ti plovni putovi ili zračni koridori presijecaju arhipelaške vode i teritorijalno more uz njih i obuhvaćaju sve uobičajene rute za međunarodnu plovidbu kroz arhipelaške vode ili za prelijetanje iznad njih, a unutar tih ruta, što se tiče brodova, sve uobičajene plovne kanale, s tim da nije potrebno uspostavljati nekoliko jednako pogodnih putova između istih ulaznih i izlaznih točaka.

5. Ti plovni putovi i zračni koridori određuju se nizom neprekinutih osovinskih crta od njihovih ulaznih točaka do izlaznih točaka. Brodovi i zrakoplovi ne smiju se tijekom arhipelaškog prolaska udaljiti više od 25 morskih milja sa svake strane od tih osovinskih crta, niti se smiju približiti obali na udaljenost koja je manja od 10 posto od udaljenosti između najbližih točaka na otocima s jedne i s druge strane plovnog puta.

6. Arhipelaška država koja određuje plovne putove na temelju ovog članka može također propisati sustave odvojenog prometa radi sigurnog prolaska brodova uskim kanalima u tim plovnim putovima.

7. Arhipelaška država može, kada okolnosti zahtijevaju, nakon što to na propisan način objavi, zamijeniti drugim plovnim putovima ili sustavima odvojenog prometa bilo koje plovne putove ili sustave odvojenog prometa koje je prije odredila ili propisala.

8. Takvi plovni putovi i sustavi odvojenog prometa moraju biti u skladu s općeprihvaćenim međunarodnim propisima.

9. Prilikom određivanja ili zamjene plovnih putova, ili propisivanja ili zamjene sustava odvojenog prometa, arhipelaška država dostavlja svoje prijedloge nadležnoj međunarodnoj organizaciji radi njihova usvajanja. Organizacija može usvojiti samo one plovne putove i sustave odvojenog prometa s kojima se slaže arhipelaška država, nakon čega ih arhipelaška država može odrediti, propisati ili zamijeniti.

10. Arhipelaška država jasno naznačuje osi plovnih putova i sustava odvojenog prometa koje je odredila ili propisala na pomorskim kartama, koje na propisan način objavljuje.

11. Brodovi u arhipelaškom prolasku poštuju plovne putove i sustave odvojenog prometa ustanovljene u skladu s ovim člankom.

12. Ako jedna arhipelaška država ne odredi plovne putove ili zračne koridore, pravo arhipelaškog prolaska može se ostvarivati putovima i koridorima koji uobičajeno služe međunarodnoj plo­vid­bi.

Članak 54.

Dužnosti brodova i zrakoplova za vrijeme njihova prolaska, istraživanja i hidrografskih mjerenja, dužnosti arhipelaške države i zakoni i drugi propisi arhipelaške države o arhipelaškom prolasku

Članci 39., 40., 42. i 44. primjenjuju se mutatis mutandis na arhipelaški prolazak.

DIO V.

ISKLJUČIVI GOSPODARSKI POJAS

Članak 55.

Poseban pravni režim isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa

Isključivi gospodarski pojas je područje koje se nalazi izvan teritorijalnog mora i uz njega, podvrgnuto posebnom pravnom režimu ustanovljenom u ovome dijelu, na temelju kojega su prava i jurisdikcija obalne države i prava i slobode drugih država uređeni relevantnim odredbama Konvencije.

Članak 56.

Prava, jurisdikcija i dužnosti obalne države u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu

1. U isključivom gospodarskom pojasu obalna država ima:

(a) suverena prava radi istraživanja i iskorištavanja, očuvanja i gospodarenja živim i neživim prirodnim bogatstvima voda nad morskim dnom i onih morskog dna i njegova podzemlja, te glede drugih djelatnosti radi gospodarskog istraživanja i iskorištavanja pojasa, kao što je proizvodnja energije korištenjem vode, struja i vjetrova;

(b) jurisdikciju, u skladu s relevantnim odredbama Konvencije, glede:

(i) podizanja i upotrebe umjetnih otoka, uređaja i naprava;

(ii) znanstvenog istraživanja mora;

(iii) zaštite i očuvanja morskog okoliša;

(c) druga prava i dužnosti predviđene u ovoj Konvenciji.

2. U ostvarivanju svojih prava i ispunjavanju svojih dužnosti u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu na temelju Konvencije, obalna država dolično poštuje prava i dužnosti drugih država i postupa na način koji je u skladu s odredbama Konvencije.

3. Prava koja su izložena u ovom članku, a odnose se na morsko dno i podzemlje, ostvaruju se u skladu s dijelom VI.

Članak 57.

Širina isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa

Isključivi gospodarski pojas ne smije se prostirati preko 200 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora.

Članak 58.

Prava i dužnosti drugih država u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu

1. U isključivom gospodarskom pojasu sve države, obalne i neobalne, uživaju, u uvjetima određenim u relevantnim odredbama Konvencije, slobode plovidbe, prelijetanja i polaganja podmorskih kabela i cjevovoda navedene u članku 87. i druge međunarodnopravno dopuštene upotrebe mora koje se tiču tih sloboda, kao što su one vezane uz iskorištavanje brodova, zrakoplova i podmorskih kabela i cjevovoda, a u skladu su s drugim odredbama Konvencije.

2. Članci 88. do 115. i druga primjerena pravila među­narodnog prava primjenjuju se u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu u onoj mjeri u kojoj nisu nespojiva s ovim dijelom.

3. U ostvarivanju svojih prava i ispunjavanju svojih dužnosti u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu na temelju Konvencije, države dolično poštuju prava i dužnosti obalne države i drže se zakona i drugih propisa koje je donijela obalna država u skladu s odredbama Konvencije i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava, ukoliko ona nisu nespojiva s ovim dijelom.

Članak 59.

Temelj za rješavanje sukoba u slučajevima za koje Konvencija ne pripisuje nikakva prava ni jurisdikciju u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu

U slučajevima za koje Konvencijom u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu nisu pripisana prava ili jurisdikcija obalnoj državi ili drugim državama, a sukob izbije između interesa obalne države i neke druge države ili država, taj bi se sukob trebao riješiti na temelju pravičnosti i u svjetlu svih relevantnih okolnosti, vodeći računa o važnosti tih interesa za stranke i za međunarodnu zajednicu u cjelini.

Članak 60.

Umjetni otoci, uređaji i naprave u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu

1. U isključivom gospodarskom pojasu obalna država ima isključivo pravo graditi i dopuštati i uređivati izgradnju, rad i upotrebu:

(a) umjetnih otoka;

(b) uređaja i naprava za svrhe predviđene u članku 56. i za druge gospodarske svrhe;

(c) uređaja i naprava koji mogu ometati ostvarivanje prava obalne države u pojasu.

2. Obalna država ima isključivu jurisdikciju nad tim umjetnim otocima, uređajima i napravama, uključujući jurisdikciju glede carinskih, fiskalnih, zdravstvenih, sigurnosnih i useljeničkih zakona i drugih propisa.

3. Mora se dati propisna obavijest o izgradnji umjetnih otoka, uređaja i naprava i moraju se održavati stalna upozoravajuća sredstva o njihovoj prisutnosti. Svaki uređaj i naprava koji je napušten ili se više ne upotrebljava mora se ukloniti radi sigurnosti plovidbe, vodeći računa o općeprihvaćenim međunarodnim standardima koje je za takve slučajeve usvojila nadležna međunarodna organizacija. Pri tom uklanjanju također se dolično vodi računa o ribolovu, zaštiti morskog okoliša i pravima i dužnostima drugih država. Na primjeren način će se objaviti dubina, položaj i dimenzije uređaja ili naprava koji nisu potpuno uklonjeni.

4. Obalna država može, kad je to potrebno, oko spomenutih umjetnih otoka, uređaja i naprava ustanoviti sigurnosne zone razumnih dimenzija, u kojima može poduzeti mjere potrebne za sigurnost plovidbe i sigurnost umjetnih otoka, uređaja i naprava.

5. Širinu sigurnosnih zona određuje obalna država, vodeći računa o primjenjivim međunarodnim standardima. Te se zone određuju na način koji osigurava da one razumno odgovaraju prirodi i funkciji umjetnih otoka, uređaja i naprava i da ne prelaze udaljenost od 500 metara oko njih, mjereći od svake točke njihova vanjskog ruba, osim ako drukčije ovlašćuju općeprihvaćeni međunarodni standardi ili drukčije preporučuje nadležna međunarodna organizacija. Mora se dati propisna obavijest o širini sigurnosnih zona.

6. Svi brodovi moraju poštovati takve sigurnosne zone i pridržavati se općeprihvaćenih međunarodnih standarda o plovidbi u blizini umjetnih otoka, uređaja, naprava i sigurnosnih zona.

7. Umjetni otoci, uređaji, naprave i sigurnosne zone oko njih ne smiju se postavljati tamo gdje mogu ometati upotrebu priznatih plovidbenih putova bitnih za međunarodnu plovidbu.

8. Umjetni otoci, uređaji i naprave nemaju pravni položaj otoka. Oni nemaju vlastitoga teritorijalnog mora i njihovo postojanje ne utječe na određivanje granica teritorijalnog mora, isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa ili epikontinentalnog pojasa.

Članak 61.

Očuvanje živih bogatstava

1. Obalna država određuje dopustivi ulov živih bogatstava u svome isključivom gospodarskom pojasu.

2. Obalna država, vodeći računa o najpouzdanijim znanstvenim podacima s kojima raspolaže, odgovarajućim mjerama za očuvanje i gospodarenje osigurava da se održavanje živih bogatstava u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu ne ugrozi prekomjernim iskorištavanjem. U tu svrhu obalna država i nadležne međunarodne organizacije, subregionalne, regionalne ili svjetske, surađuju na prikladan način.

3. Takvim je mjerama također svrha da se održavaju ili obnavljaju populacije lovljenih vrsta na razinama koje mogu osigurati najviši održivi prinos, određen relevantnim ekološkim i gospodarskim činiteljima, uključujući gospodarske potrebe obalnih ribarskih zajednica i posebne potrebe država u razvoju, te vodeći računa o načinu ribolova, međuovisnosti ribljih naselja i svim općenito preporučenim subregionalnim, regionalnim ili svjetskim međunarodnim minimalnim standardima.

4. Prilikom poduzimanja takvih mjera obalna država vodi računa o učincima na one vrste koje su udružene s vrstama koje se love ili su ovisne o njima, radi održavanja ili obnavljanja populacija tih udruženih ili ovisnih vrsta iznad razina na kojima bi se njihova reprodukcija mogla ozbiljno ugroziti.

5. Raspoložive znanstvene informacije, statistike o ulovu i poduzetom ribolovu i drugi podaci važni za očuvanje ribljih naselja daju se i redovito razmjenjuju preko nadležnih među­narodnih organizacija, subregionalnih, regionalnih ili svjetskih, gdje je to primjereno, i uz sudjelovanje svih zainteresiranih država, uključujući države čijim je državljanima dopušteno ribariti u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu.

Članak 62.

Iskorištavanje živih bogatstava

1. Obalna se država zalaže za optimalno iskorištavanje živih bogatstava u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu ne dirajući u članak 61.

2. Obalna država određuje svoju sposobnost iskorištavanja živih bogatstava isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa. Ako obalna država nema sposobnost iskorištavanja cjelokupnoga dopustivog ulova, ona će sporazumima ili drugim aranžmanima, a u skladu s načinima, uvjetima, zakonima i drugim propisima navedenima u stavku 4. odobriti drugim državama pristup višku dopustivog ulova, vodeći posebice računa o odredbama članaka 69. i 70., osobito prema tamo spomenutim državama u razvoju.

3. Prilikom odobravanja pristupa drugim državama svome isključivom gospodarskom pojasu na temelju ovog članka, obalna država vodi računa o svim relevantnim činiteljima, uključujući, pored ostaloga, važnost živih bogatstava toga područja za njezino gospodarstvo i druge njezine nacionalne interese, odredbe članaka 69. i 70., potrebe država u razvoju u subregiji ili regiji za iskorištavanjem dijela viška i potrebu svođenja na najmanju moguću mjeru gospodarskih poremećaja u državama čiji su državljani uobičajeno ribarili u tome pojasu ili koje su znatno pridonijele istraživanju i identificiranju ribljih naselja.

4. Državljani drugih država koji ribare u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu pridržavaju se mjera očuvanja i drugih načina i uvjeta utvrđenih u zakonima i drugim propisima obalne države. Ti zakoni i drugi propisi moraju biti u skladu s Konvencijom i mogu se, pored ostaloga, odnositi:

(a) na izdavanje dozvola za ribare, ribarske brodove i opremu, uključujući plaćanje pristojbi i druge oblike naknade koji se, za obalne države u razvoju, mogu sastojati od odgovarajućih naknada na polju financiranja, opreme i tehnologije za ribarsku industriju;

(b) na određivanje vrsta koje se mogu loviti i utvrđivanje kvota ulova, bilo u odnosu na određena riblja naselja ili skupine naselja, ili ulova po jednom brodu u određenom vremenskom razdoblju, ili ulova državljana jedne države u određenom razdoblju;

(c) na utvrđivanje sezona i područja ribolova, tipova, veličina i količine ribarskog pribora te tipova, veličina i broja ribarskih brodova koji se mogu koristiti;

(d) na preciziranje starosti i veličine riba i drugih vrsta koje se mogu loviti;

(e) na određivanje informacija koje se traže od ribarskih brodova, uključujući statistike o ulovu i poduzetom ribolovu, te izvješća o položaju broda;

(f) na obvezu da se provedu, uz ovlaštenje i pod nadzorom obalne države, programi određenih istraživanja ribolova i uređenje provedbe tih istraživanja, uključujući uzimanje uzoraka ulova, korištenje uzoraka i izvještavanje o pratećim znanstvenim podacima;

(g) na postavljanje promatrača ili vježbenika na te brodove od strane obalne države;

(h) na iskrcavanje cijeloga ili jednog dijela ulova takvih brodova u lukama obalne države;

(i) na načine i uvjete koji se odnose na zajedničke pothvate ili druge oblike suradnje;

(j) na tražene uvjete za uvježbavanje osoblja i za prijenos tehnologije ribolova, uključujući jačanje sposobnosti obalnih država za poduzimanje istraživanja na području ribolova;

(k) na postupke za provedbu propisa.

5. Obalne države na propisan način daju obavijest o zakonima i drugim propisima koji se odnose na očuvanje i gospodarenje živim bogatstvima.

Članak 63.

Riblja naselja koja se nalaze u isključivim gospodarskim pojasevima dviju ili više obalnih država ili u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu jedne države i u području uz njega

1. Kada se isto riblje naselje ili riblja naselja udruženih vrsta nalaze u isključivim gospodarskim pojasevima dviju ili više obalnih država, te se države nastoje, izravno ili uz pomoć odgovarajućih subregionalnih ili regionalnih organizacija, sporazumjeti o mjerama koje su potrebne za usklađivanje i osiguranje očuvanja i razvoja takvih ribljih naselja, ne dirajući u ostale odredbe ovoga dijela.

2. Kada se isto riblje naselje ili riblja naselja udruženih vrsta nalaze kako u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu tako i u susjednom području uz pojas, obalna država i države koje love ta riblja naselja u susjednom području nastoje, izravno ili uz pomoć odgovarajućih subregionalnih ili regionalnih organizacija, sporazumjeti se o mjerama koje su potrebne za očuvanje tih ribljih naselja u susjednom području.

Članak 64.

Vrlo migratorne vrste

1. Obalna država i druge države čiji državljani u regiji love vrlo migratorne vrste, navedene u Prilogu I., surađuju izravno ili pomoću odgovarajućih međunarodnih organizacija kako bi osigurale očuvanje takvih vrsta i promicale njihovo optimalno iskorištavanje u čitavoj regiji, kako u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu, tako i izvan njega. U regijama za koje ne postoji odgovarajuća međunarodna organizacija, obalna država i druge države čiji državljani love te vrste u regiji surađuju radi osnivanja takve organizacije i sudjelovanja u njenom radu.

2. Odredbe stavka 1. primjenjuju se uz druge odredbe ovoga dijela.

Članak 65.

Morski sisavci

Ništa u ovome dijelu ne ograničava pravo obalne države ili, ovisno o prilikama, nadležnost međunarodne organizacije, da zabrani, ograniči ili uredi iskorištavanje morskih sisavaca strože nego što je predviđeno u ovome dijelu. Države surađuju radi očuvanja morskih sisavaca, a posebno moraju, uz pomoć odgovarajućih međunarodnih organizacija, djelovati radi zaštite, gospodarenja i proučavanja kitova.

Članak 66.

Naselja anadromnih riba

1. Države iz čijih rijeka potječu naselja anadromnih riba imaju prvenstveni interes i odgovornost za ta naselja.

2. Država porijekla naselja anadromnih riba osigurava njihovo očuvanje utvrđivanjem prikladnih mjera za uređenje ribolova u svim vodama od kopna do vanjskih granica njezinoga isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa i ribolova predviđenog u stavku 3. (b). Država porijekla može, nakon savjetovanja s drugim državama navedenima u stavcima 3. i 4. koje love ta riblja naselja, utvrditi ukupne dopustive ulove za naselja koja potječu iz njezinih rijeka.

3.(a) Ribolov naselja anadromnih riba smije se obavljati samo u vodama od kopna do vanjskih granica isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva, osim u slučajevima u kojima bi primjena ove odredbe mogla izazvati gospodarske poremećaje za državu koja nije država porijekla. O ribolovu izvan vanjskih granica isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa, zainteresirane se države savjetuju radi postizanja sporazuma o načinima i uvjetima takva ribolova, poštujući dolično zahtjeve očuvanja i potrebe države porijekla s obzirom na ta riblja naselja.

(b) Država porijekla surađuje u svođenju na najmanju moguću mjeru gospodarskih poremećaja u drugim državama koje love takva riblja naselja, vodeći računa o uobičajenom ulovu i načinu na koji te države iskorištavaju takva naselja i o svim područjima u kojima se ona love.

(c) Državama navedenim u podstavku (b), koje sudjeluju sporazumno s državom porijekla u mjerama obnove naselja anadromnih riba, osobito ako pokrivaju dio troškova za takve svrhe, država porijekla iskazuje posebnu pozornost prilikom lova ribljih naselja koja potječu iz njezinih rijeka.

(d) Provedba propisa o naseljima anadromnih riba izvan isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa ostvaruje se na temelju sporazuma između države porijekla i drugih zainteresiranih država.

4. Kada naselja anadromnih riba migriraju u vode ili kroz vode od kopna do vanjskih granica isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa države koja nije država porijekla, ta će država surađivati s državom porijekla radi očuvanja i gospodarenja takvim ribljim naseljima.

5. Država porijekla naselja anadromnih riba i druge države koje love takva riblja naselja zaključuju aranžmane o primjeni odredaba ovoga članka, a gdje je to prikladno - uz pomoć regionalnih organizacija.

Članak 67.

Katadromne vrste

1. Obalna država u čijim vodama katadromne vrste provode veći dio svoga životnog ciklusa, odgovorna je za gospodarenje tim vrstama i dužna je osigurati migratornim ribama ulazak u te vode i izlazak iz njih.

2. Kadatromne se vrste love jedino u vodama koje se nalaze od kopna do vanjskih granica isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa. Kada se lovi u isključivim gospodarskim pojasevima, ribolov podliježe odredbama ovog članka i drugim odredbama Konvencije koje se odnose na ribolov u tim zonama.

3. Ako katadromna riba migrira kroz isključivi gospodarski pojas druge države, bilo kao juvenilna ili odrasla riba, gospodarenje takvom ribom, uključujući ribolov, uređuje se sporazumom između države spomenute u stavku 1. i druge zainteresirane države. Takav sporazum mora osigurati racionalno gospodarenje tim vrstama i voditi računa o odgovornostima države spomenute u stavku 1. za očuvanje tih vrsta.

Članak 68.

Vrste od dna

Ovaj se dio ne primjenjuje na vrste od dna definirane u stavku 4., članka 77.

Članak 69.

Pravo neobalnih država

1. Neobalne države imaju pravo na pravičnoj osnovi sudjelovati u iskorištavanju odgovarajućeg dijela viška živih bogatstava isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva obalnih država iz iste subregije ili regije, vodeći računa o relevantnim gospodarskim i geografskim okolnostima svih zainteresiranih država i u skladu s odredbama ovoga članka i članaka 61. i 62.

2. Uvjete i načine takva sudjelovanja utvrđuju zainteresirane države dvostranim, subregionalnim ili regionalnim sporazumima, vodeći računa, između ostaloga:

(a) o potrebi da se izbjegnu štetni učinci za ribarske zajednice ili ribarsku industriju obalne države;

(b) o mjeri u kojoj neobalna država, u skladu s odredbama ovoga članka, sudjeluje ili je ovlaštena sudjelovati na temelju postojećih dvostranih, subregionalnih ili regionalnih sporazuma u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa drugih obalnih država;

(c) o mjeri u kojoj druge neobalne države i države u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju već sudjeluju u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa obalne države i potrebi, koja iz toga proistječe, da se izbjegne nametanje posebno teškog tereta samo jednoj obalnoj državi ili jednom njezinom dijelu;

(d) o prehrambenim potrebama stanovništva tih država.

3. Kada se ribolovni kapacitet obalne države približi stupnju razvijenosti koji joj omogućuje iskorištavanje cjelokupnoga dopustivog ulova živih bogatstava u svome isključivom gospodarskom pojasu, ta obalna država i druge zainteresirane države surađuju radi zaključivanja pravičnih aranžmana na dvostranoj, subregionalnoj ili regionalnoj osnovi, kojima se neobalnim državama u razvoju iz iste subregije ili regije dopušta sudjelovanje u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva obalnih država te subregije ili regije, ovisno o okolnostima i na temelju uvjeta koji zadovoljavaju sve stranke. Pri primjeni ove odredbe vodi se računa i o činiteljima spomenutima u stavku 2.

4. Razvijene neobalne države, na temelju odredaba ovoga članka, ovlaštene su sudjelovati u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava jedino u isključivim gospodarskim pojasevima razvijenih obalnih država iz iste subregije ili regije, vodeći računa o mjeri u kojoj je obalna država, odobravajući drugim državama pristup živim bogatstvima svoga isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa, vodila računa o potrebi da se štetni učinci za ribarske zajednice i gospodarski poremećaji u državama čiji su državljani uobičajeno ribarili u pojasu svedu na najmanju moguću mjeru.

5. Gornje se odredbe primjenjuju ne dirajući u aranžmane koji mogu biti zaključeni u subregijama ili regijama gdje obalne države mogu dati neobalnim državama iz iste subregije ili regije jednaka ili preferencijalna prava za iskorištavanje živih bogatstava njihova isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa.

Članak 70.

Pravo država u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju

1. Države u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju imaju pravo na pravičnoj osnovi sudjelovati u iskorištavanju odgovarajućeg dijela viška živih bogatstava isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva obalnih država iz iste subregije ili regije, vodeći računa o relevantnim gospodarskim i geografskim okolnostima svih zainteresiranih država i u skladu s odredbama ovoga članka i članaka 61. i 62.

2. U svrhe ovoga dijela izraz “država u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju” označava obalne države, uključujući obalne države na zatvorenim ili poluzatvorenim morima, koje njihov geografski položaj čini, glede dovoljne opskrbe ribom za prehrambene potrebe njihova stanovništva ili dijela stanovništva, ovisnima o iskorištavanju živih bogatstava isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva drugih država u subregiji ili regiji, i obalne države koje ne mogu imati vlastiti isključivi gospodarski pojas.

3. Uvjete i načine takva sudjelovanja utvrđuju zainteresirane države dvostranim, subregionalnim ili regionalnim sporazumima, vodeći računa, između ostaloga:

(a) o potrebi da se izbjegnu štetni učinci za ribarske zajednice ili ribarsku

industriju obalne države;

(b) o mjeri u kojoj država u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju, u skladu s odredbama ovoga članka, sudjeluje ili je ovlaštena sudjelovati na temelju postojećih dvostranih, subregionalnih ili regionalnih sporazuma u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava isključivog gospodarskog pojasa drugih obalnih država;

(c) o mjeri u kojoj druge države u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju i neobalne države već sudjeluju u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa obalne države i potrebi, koja iz toga proistječe, da se izbjegne nametanje posebno teškog tereta samo jednoj obalnoj državi ili jednom njezinom dijelu;

(d) o prehrambenim potrebama stanovništva tih država.

4. Kada se ribolovna sposobnost obalne države približi stupnju razvijenosti koji joj omogućuje iskorištavanje cjelokupnoga dopustivog ulova živih bogatstava u svome isključivom gospodarskom pojasu, ta obalna država i druge zainteresirane države surađuju radi zaključivanja pravičnih aranžmana na dvostranoj, subregionalnoj ili regionalnoj osnovi, kojima se državama u razvoju u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju iz iste subregije ili regije dopušta sudjelovanje u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva obalnih država te subregije ili regije, ovisno o okolnostima i na temelju uvjeta koji zadovoljavaju sve stranke. Pri primjeni ove odredbe vodi se računa i o činiteljima spomenutima u stavku 3.

5. Razvijene države u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju, na temelju odredaba ovoga članka, ovlaštene su sudjelovati u iskorištavanju živih bogatstava jedino u isključivim gospodarskim pojasevima razvijenih obalnih država iz iste subregije ili regije, vodeći računa o mjeri u kojoj je obalna država, odobravajući drugim državama pristup živim bogatstvima svoga isključivog gospodarskog pojasa, vodila računa o potrebi da se štetni učinci za ribarske zajednice i gospodarski poremećaji u državama čiji su državljani uobičajeno ribarili u pojasu svedu na najmanju moguću mjeru.

6. Gornje se odredbe primjenjuju ne dirajući u aranžmane koji mogu biti zaključeni u subregijama ili regijama gdje obalne države mogu dati državama u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju iz iste subregije ili regije jednaka ili preferencijalna prava za iskorištavanje živih bogatstava njihova isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa.

Članak 71.

Neprimjenjivost članaka 69. i 70.

Odredbe članaka 69. i 70. ne primjenjuju se na obalne države čije je gospodarstvo pretežno ovisno o iskorištavanju živih bogatstava njihova isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa.

Članak 72.

Ograničenja prijenosa prava

1. Prava iskorištavanja živih bogatstava, predviđena u člancima 69. i 70., ne smiju se ni izravno ni neizravno prenositi trećim državama ili njihovim državljanima najmom ili licencom, zasnivanjem zajedničkih pothvata ili bilo kojim drugim načinom s učinkom takva prijenosa, osim ako se zainteresirane države drukčije dogovore.

2. Prethodna odredba ne sprečava zainteresirane države u dobivanju tehničke ili financijske pomoći od trećih država ili međunarodnih organizacija radi lakšeg ostvarivanja prava prema člancima 69. i 70., pod uvjetom da to nema učinka navedenog u stavku 1.

Članak 73.

Provedba zakona i drugih propisa obalne države

1. Obalna država može, u ostvarivanju svojih suverenih prava istraživanja, iskorištavanja, očuvanja i gospodarenja živim bogatstvima u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu, poduzimati takve mjere, uključujući zaustavljanje broda, njegov pregled, uzapćenje i sudski postupak, koje su nužne radi osiguranja poštovanja zakona i drugih propisa koje je ona donijela u skladu s Konvencijom.

2. Uzapćeni brodovi i njihove posade hitno se oslobađaju nakon položene zadovoljavajućeg jamstva ili druge garancije.

3. Kazne koje propisuje obalna država, zbog kršenja zakona i drugih propisa o ribolovu u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu, ne mogu, ako nema drukčijeg sporazuma između zainteresiranih država, uključiti zatvaranje ni bilo kakav drugi način tjelesnog kažnjavanja.

4. U slučaju uzapćenja ili zadržavanja stranih brodova obalna država odmah na prikladan način obavještava državu zastave o poduzetoj mjeri i kaznama, ukoliko su izrečene.

Članak 74.

Razgraničenje isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa između država čije obale leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče

1. Razgraničenje isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa između država čije obale leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče ostvaruje se sporazumom na temelju međunarodnog prava, kako je ono navedeno u članku 38. Statuta Međunarodnog suda, radi postizanja pravičnog rješenja.

2. Ako se sporazum ne može postići u razumnom roku, zainteresirane će države pribjeći postupcima predviđenima u dijelu XV.

3. Dok se ne postigne sporazum predviđen u stavku 1., zainteresirane će države, u duhu razumijevanja i suradnje, učiniti svaki napor kako bi zaključile privremene aranžmane praktične prirode i kako ne bi u tom prijelaznom razdoblju ugrozile ili omele postizanje konačnog sporazuma. Privremeni aranžmani neće štetiti konačnom razgraničenju.

4. Kada između zainteresiranih država postoji sporazum koji je na snazi, pitanja u vezi s razgraničenjem isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa uređuju se u skladu s odredbama toga sporazuma.

Članak 75.

Pomorske karte i popisi geografskih koordinata

1. U skladu s ovim dijelom, vanjske granice isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa i crte razgraničenja povučene u skladu sa člankom 74., naznačuju se na pomorskim kartama takvog mjerila ili takvih mjerila koja su prikladna za utvrđivanje njihova položaja. Popisi geografskih koordinata točaka s navedenim geodetskim podacima mogu zamijeniti, kad je to opravdano, te vanjske granice ili crte razgraničenja.

2. Obalna država na propisan način objavljuje takve karte ili popise geografskih koordinata, a jedan primjerak svake takve karte ili popisa polaže kod glavnog tajnika Ujedinjenih naroda.

DIO VI.

Epikontinentalni pojas

Članak 76.

Definicija epikontinentalnog pojasa

1. Epikontinentalni pojas obalne države obuhvaća morsko dno i njegovo podzemlje izvan njezinoga teritorijalnog mora preko čitavoga prirodnog produžetka njezinoga kopnenog područja do vanjskog ruba kontinentalne orubine, ili do udaljenosti od 200 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora, tamo gdje vanjski rub kontinentalne orubine ne seže do te udaljenosti.

2. Epikontinentalni pojas obalne države ne smije se prostirati izvan granica naznačenih u stavcima 4. do 6.

3. Kontinentalna orubina obuhvaća podvodni produžetak kopnene mase obalne države i sastoji se od morskog dna i podzemlja kontinentalne ravnine, kontinentalne strmine i kontinentalne kosine. Ona ne uključuje dno oceana na velikim dubinama s njegovim oceanskim hrptovima, ni njegovo podzemlje.

4. (a)  U svrhe Konvencije, obalna država ustanovljava vanjski rub kontinentalne orubine svugdje gdje se orubina prostire izvan 200 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora, na jedan od ovih načina:

(i) crtom povučenom u skladu sa stavkom 7., spajajući krajnje stalne točke na kojima debljina sloja sedimentnih stijena iznosi najmanje jedan posto najkraće udaljenosti od te točke do podnožja kontinentalne strmine, ili

(ii) crtom povučenom u skladu sa stavkom 7., spajajući stalne točke koje nisu udaljene više od 60 morskih milja od podnožja kontinentalne strmine.

(b) Ako nema suprotnih dokaza, podnožje kontinentalne strmine određuje se kao točka najveće promjene u nagibu njezine baze.

5. Stalne točke koje čine crtu vanjske granice epikontinentalnog pojasa na morskom dnu, povučenu u skladu sa stavkom 4. (a), (i) i (ii), ne smiju se nalaziti na udaljenosti većoj od 350 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora, ili, na udaljenosti većoj od 100 morskih milja od izobate 2 500 metara, što je crta koja spaja točke dubine od 2 500 metara.

6. Unatoč odredbama stavka 5., vanjska granica epikontinentalnog pojasa na podmorskim hrptovima ne smije prelaziti 350 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora. Ovaj se stavak ne primjenjuje na podmorske uzvišice koje su prirodni sastojak kontinentalne orubine, kao što su njene dubokomorske ravnine, isponi, glavice, bankovi i izdanci.

7. Tamo gdje se epikontinentalni pojas prostire izvan 200 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora, obalna država određuje vanjsku granicu svoga epikontinentalnog pojasa ravnim crtama koje spajaju stalne točke definirane koordinatama geografske širine i duljine, a koje nisu dulje od 60 morskih milja.

8. Informacije o granicama epikontinentalnog pojasa izvan 200 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora, obalna država podnosi Komisiji za granice epikontinentalnog pojasa, ustanovljenoj prema Prilogu II. na temelju pravične geografske zastupljenosti. Komisija daje preporuke obalnim državama o pitanjima ustanovljenja vanjskih granica njihova epikontinentalnog pojasa. Granice epikontinentalnog pojasa koje obalna država ustanovi na temelju tih preporuka konačne su i obvezujuće.

9. Obalna država polaže kod glavnog tajnika Ujedinjenih naroda pomorske karte i relevantne informacije, uključivši geodetske podatke, koji na trajan način opisuju vanjsku granicu njezinog epikontinentalnog pojasa. Glavni tajnik ih na prikladan način objavljuje.

10. Odredbe ovoga članka ne diraju u pitanje razgraničenja epikontinentalnog pojasa između država čije obale leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče.

Članak 77.

Prava obalne države na epikontinentalnom pojasu

1. Obalna država ostvaruje nad epikontinentalnim pojasom suverena prava radi njegova istraživanja i iskorištavanja njegovih prirodnih bogatstava.

2. Prava o kojima je riječ u stavku 1., isključiva su u tom smislu da, ako obalna država ne istražuje epikontinentalni pojas ili ne iskorištava njegova prirodna bogatstva, nitko ne može poduzeti te djelatnosti bez izričitog pristanka obalne države.

3. Prava obalne države na epikontinentalni pojas ne zavise o stvarnoj ili fiktivnoj okupaciji, niti o bilo kakvom izričitom proglasu.

4. Prirodna bogatstva o kojima je riječ u ovom dijelu obuhvaćaju rudno i drugo neživo bogatstvo morskog dna i podzemlja kao i živa bića koja pripadaju vrstama od dna, tj. bića koja su u stadiju u kojem se mogu loviti bilo nepomična na morskom dnu ili ispod njega ili su nesposobna pomicati se ako nisu u stalnom fizičkom dodiru s morskim dnom ili podzemljem.

Članak 78.

Pravni položaj voda i zračnog prostora iznad epikontinentalnog pojasa te prava i slobode drugih država

1. Prava obalne države na epikontinentalnom pojasu ne diraju u pravni položaj voda iznad njega, niti zračnog prostora iznad tih voda.

2. Ostvarivanje prava obalne države na epikontinentalnom pojasu ne smije povrijediti, niti na bilo koji neopravdan način ometati plovidbu i druga prava i slobode koja se Konvencijom priznaju drugim državama.

Članak 79.

Podmorski kabeli i cjevovodi na epikontinentalnom pojasu

1. Sve su države ovlaštene polagati podmorske kabele i cjevovode na epikontinentalnom pojasu, u skladu s odredbama ovoga članka.

2. Uz uvjet poštovanja njezinoga prava da poduzima razumne mjere za istraživanje epikontinentalnog pojasa, iskorištavanje njegovih prirodnih bogatstava i sprečavanja, smanjivanja i nadziranja onečišćenja iz cjevovoda, obalna država ne može ometati polaganje ili održavanje tih kabela ili cjevovoda.

3. Određivanje pravca za polaganje cjevovoda na epikontinentalnom pojasu podliježe suglasnosti obalne države.

4. Ništa u ovome dijelu ne dira u pravo obalne države da utvrdi uvjete za kabele ili cjevovode koji ulaze na njeno područje ili u njezino teritorijalno more, ni u njezinu jurisdikciju nad kabelima i cjevovodima koji su položeni ili se koriste u vezi s istraživanjem njezinoga epikontinentalnog pojasa ili s iskorištavanjem njegovih bogatstava ili s upotrebom umjetnih otoka, uređaja i naprava pod njezinom jurisdikcijom.

5. Prilikom polaganja podmorskih kabela ili cjevovoda države dolično paze na već položene kabele ili cjevovode. Posebno se ne smiju onemogućavati popravci već položenih kabela i cjevovoda.

Članak 80.

Umjetni otoci, uređaji i naprave na epikontinentalnom pojasu

Članak 60. primjenjuje se mutatis mutandis na umjetne otoke, uređaje i naprave na epikontinentalnom pojasu.

Članak 81.

Bušenje na epikontinentalnom pojasu

Na epikontinentalnom pojasu obalna država ima isključivo pravo odobravanja i uređivanja bušenja u bilo koju svrhu.

Članak 82.

Plaćanja i doprinosi za iskorištavanje epikontinentalnog pojasa izvan 200 morskih milja

1. Obalna država plaća ili daje doprinose u naravi za iskorištavanje neživih bogatstava epikontinentalnog pojasa izvan 200 morskih milja od polaznih crta od kojih se mjeri širina teritorijalnog mora.

2. Plaćanja i doprinosi daju se godišnje za cjelokupnu proizvodnju na jednom ležištu nakon prvih pet godina proizvodnje na tome ležištu. Za šestu godinu iznos plaćanja ili doprinosa bit će jedan posto vrijednosti ili opsega proizvodnje na tome ležištu. Iznos se povećava za jedan posto za svaku sljedeću godinu do dvanaeste godine i ostaje, nakon toga, sedam posto. Proizvodnja ne uključuje sredstva upotrijebljena u vezi s iskorištavanjem.

3. Država u razvoju koja u potpunosti uvozi rudu koja se dobiva iz njezinoga epikontinentalnog pojasa oslobođena je takvih plaćanja ili doprinosa za tu rudu.

4. Plaćanja ili doprinosi daju se preko Vlasti, koja ih dijeli državama strankama Konvencije na temelju kriterija o pravičnoj raspodjeli, vodeći računa o interesima i potrebama država u razvoju, posebno onih među njima koje su najmanje razvijene i neobalne.

Članak 83.

Razgraničenje epikontinentalnog pojasa između država čije obale leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče

1. Razgraničenje epikontinentalnog pojasa između država čije obale leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče ostvaruje se sporazumom na temelju međunarodnog prava, kako je ono navedeno u članku 38. Statuta Međunarodnog suda, radi postizanja pravičnog rješenja.

2. Ako se sporazum ne može postići u razumnom roku, zainteresirane će države pribjeći postupcima predviđenima u dijelu XV.

3. Dok se ne postigne sporazum predviđen u stavku 1., zainteresirane će države, u duhu razumijevanja i suradnje, učiniti svaki napor kako bi zaključile privremene aranžmane praktične prirode i kako ne bi u tom prijelaznom razdoblju ugrozile ili omele postizanje konačnog sporazuma. Privremeni aranžmani neće štetiti konačnom razgraničenju.

4. Kada između zainteresiranih država postoji sporazum koji je na snazi, pitanja u vezi s razgraničenjem epikontinentalnog pojasa uređuju se u skladu s odredbama toga sporazuma.

Članak 84.

Pomorske karte i popisi geografskih koordinata

1. U skladu s ovim dijelom, vanjske granice epikontinentalnog pojasa i crte razgraničenja povučene u skladu sa člankom 83., naznačuju se na pomorskim kartama takva mjerila ili takvih mjerila koja su prikladna za utvrđivanje njihova položaja. Popisi geografskih koordinata točaka s navedenim geodetskim podacima mogu se zamijeniti, kad je to opravdano, te vanjske granice ili crte razgraničenja.

2. Obalna država na propisan način objavljuje takve karte ili popise geografskih koordinata, a jedan primjerak svake takve karte ili popisa polaže kod glavnog tajnika Ujedinjenih naroda; one na kojima su naznačene vanjske granice epikontinentalnog pojasa polaže i kod glavnog tajnika Vlasti.

Članak 85.

Bušenje tunela

Ovaj dio ne dira u pravo obalne države da iskorištava podzemlje bušenjem tunela, ma koja bila visina vode iznad podzemlja.

DIO VII.

OTVORENO MORE

Odsjek 1. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 86.

Primjena odredaba ovoga dijela

Odredbe ovoga dijela primjenjuju se na sve dijelove mora koji nisu uključeni u isključivi gospodarski pojas, teritorijalno more ili unutrašnje vode neke države, ili u arhipelaške vode neke arhipelaške države. Ovaj članak ni na koji način ne ograničava slobode koje uživaju sve države u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu u skladu sa člankom 58.

Članak 87.

Sloboda otvorenog mora

1. Otvoreno more je otvoreno za sve države, obalne i neobalne. Sloboda otvorenog mora ostvaruje se pod uvjetima koje određuju Konvencija i druga pravila međunarodnog prava. Za obalne i za neobalne države ona sadrži, između ostalog:

(a) slobodu plovidbe;

(b) slobodu prelijetanja;

(c) slobodu polaganja podmorskih kabela i cjevovoda, uz uvjet poštovanja dijela VI.;

(d) slobodu izgradnje umjetnih otoka i drugih uređaja koje dopušta međunarodno pravo, uz uvjet poštovanja dijela VI.;

(e) slobodu ribolova, uz uvjet poštovanja uvjeta navedenih u odsjeku 2.;

(f) slobodu znanstvenog istraživanja, uz uvjet poštovanja dijelova VI. i XIII.

2. Sve države ostvaruju te slobode dolično poštujući interese drugih država u ostvarivanju slobode otvorenog mora i uz dolično poštovanje prava sadržanih u ovoj Konvenciji glede djelatnosti u Zoni.

Članak 88.

Korištenje otvorenog mora isključivo u miroljubive svrhe

Otvoreno more smije se koristiti isključivo u miroljubive svrhe.

Članak 89.

Pravna neosnovanost zahtjeva za suverenošću nad otvorenim morem

Nijedna država nema pravo zahtijevati da podvrgne bilo koji dio otvorenog mora svojoj suverenosti.

Članak 90.

Pravo plovidbe

Sve države, obalne i neobalne, imaju pravo da na otvorenom moru plove brodovi koji vijore njezinu zastavu.

Članak 91.

Državna pripadnost brodova

1. Svaka država određuje uvjete pod kojima dodjeljuje brodovima svoju državnu pripadnost, kao i uvjete upisa u upisnik na svom području i pravo na vijorenje svoje zastave. Brodovi imaju pripadnost one države čiju su zastavu ovlašteni vijoriti. Mora postojati stvarna veza između države i broda.

2. Brodovima, kojima je podijelila pravo da vijore njezinu zastavu, država izdaje isprave u tu svrhu.

Članak 92.

Položaj brodova

1. Brodovi plove pod zastavom samo jedne države i podvrgnuti su na otvorenom moru, osim u iznimnim slučajevima izrijekom predviđenim u međunarodnim ugovorima ili u ovoj Konvenciji, isključivo njezinoj jurisdikciji. Brod ne smije mijenjati svoju zastavu za vrijeme putovanja ili pristajanja u nekoj luci, osim u slučaju stvarnog prijenosa vlasništva ili izmjene upisa u upisniku.

2. Brod koji plovi pod zastavama dviju ili više država, kojima se služi po svome nahođenju, neće se prema trećim državama moći pozvati ni na jednu od tih državnih pripadnosti i može se izjednačiti s brodom bez državne pripadnosti.

Članak 93.

Brodovi koji vijore zastavu Ujedinjenih naroda, njihovih specijaliziranih ustanova i Međunarodne agencije za atomsku energiju

Prethodni članci ne diraju u pitanje brodova u službenoj upotrebi Ujedinjenih naroda, njihovih specijaliziranih ustanova ili Međunarodne agencije za atomsku energiju, koji vijore zastavu organizacije.

Članak 94.

Dužnosti države zastave

1. Svaka država djelotvorno vrši svoju jurisdikciju i nadzor nad brodovima koji vijore njezinu zastavu glede upravnih, tehničkih i socijalnih pitanja.

2. Posebno, svaka država:

(a) vodi upisnik brodova s imenima i podacima o brodovima koji vijore njezinu zastavu, osim onih brodova na koje se, zbog njihove male veličine, ne primjenjuju općeprihvaćeni među­narodni propisi, i

(b) vrši nad svakim brodom koji vijori njezinu zastavu, njegovim zapovjednikom, časnicima i posadom jurisdikciju u skladu sa svojim unutrašnjim pravom glede upravnih, tehničkih i socijalnih pitanja koja se tiču broda.

3. Svaka država, za brodove koji vijore njezinu zastavu, poduzima potrebne mjere za ostvarivanje sigurnosti na moru, između ostaloga glede:

(a) konstrukcije i opreme broda i njegove sposobnosti za plovidbu;

(b) sastava, radnih uvjeta i osposobljavanja posade, vodeći računa o primjenjivim međunarodnim aktima;

(c) upotrebe signala, održavanja veza i sprečavanja sudara.

4. Te mjere uključuju i one koje su potrebne da se osigura:

(a) da ovlašteni inspektor brodova pregleda svaki brod prije upisa u upisnik i nakon, u odgovarajućim vremenskim razdobljima, te da svaki brod ima takve pomorske karte, nautičke publikacije, navigacijsku opremu i instrumente koji omogućavaju sigurnu plovidbu broda;

(b) da je svaki brod pod odgovornošću zapovjednika broda i časnika koji imaju odgovarajuću osposobljenost, naročito za upravljanje brodom, navigaciju, veze i upravljanje strojevima, te da posada po svojoj osposobljenosti i broju odgovara tipu, veličini, strojevima i opremi broda;

(c) da zapovjednik, časnici, a u odgovarajućoj mjeri i posada, potpuno poznaju sve primjenjive međunarodne propise i da se od njih zahtijeva poštovanje tih propisa o sigurnosti života na moru, sprečavanju sudara, sprečavanju, smanjivanju i nadziranju onečišćenju mora i održavanju radio-veza.

5. Prilikom poduzimanja mjera na koje upućuju stavci 3. i 4., svaka država mora postupati u skladu s općeprihvaćenim među­narodnim propisima, postupcima i praksom i poduzeti sve što je potrebno radi osiguranja njihova poštovanja.

6. Država koja ima ozbiljnih razloga za sumnju da nad nekim brodom nije vršena odgovarajuća jurisdikcija ni nadzor, može o tim činjenicama obavijestiti državu zastave. Nakon što je primila takvu obavijest, država zastave pokreće istragu i, ako je potrebno, poduzima nužne mjere radi ispravljanja takvoga stanja.

7. Svaka država pokreće istragu, koju vodi ili koja se vodi pred osobom ili osobama odgovarajuće osposobljenosti, u povodu svake pomorske nesreće ili plovidbene nezgode na otvorenom moru u koju je upleten brod koji vijori njezinu zastavu, a koja je uzrokovala gubitak života ili tešku povredu državljana druge države ili veliku štetu brodovima ili uređajima druge države ili morskom okolišu. Država zastave i druga država surađuju u vođenju svake istrage koju provodi ta druga država zbog svake takve pomorske nesreće ili plovidbene nezgode.

Članak 95.

Imunitet ratnih brodova na otvorenom moru

Ratni brodovi uživaju na otvorenom moru potpuni imunitet od jurisdikcije svake druge države osim države zastave.

Članak 96.

Imunitet brodova koji su namijenjeni samo za vladinu netrgovačku službu

Brodovi u vlasništvu države ili kojima se ona koristi, a namijenjeni su samo za vladinu netrgovačku službu, uživaju na otvorenom moru potpuni imunitet od jurisdikcije svake druge države osim države zastave.

Članak 97.

Kaznena sudbenost zbog sudara ili svake druge plovidbene nezgode

1. U slučaju sudara ili svake druge plovidbene nezgode koja se tiče broda na otvorenom moru i koja povlači kaznenu ili stegovnu odgovornost zapovjednika broda ili ma koje druge osobe u službi broda, kazneni ili stegovni postupak moći će se povesti protiv tih osoba samo pred sudskim ili upravnim organima bilo države zastave ili države čiji su te osobe državljani.

2. U stegovnim je predmetima država, koja je izdala pomorsku knjižicu zapovjedniku ili svjedodžbu o osposobljenju ili dozvolu, jedina nadležna da nakon redovitog pravnog postupka izrekne oduzimanje tih isprava, čak i ako držatelj nije državljanin države koja ih je izdala.

3. Uzapćenje ili zadržavanje broda, čak i kao istražnu radnju mogu narediti samo organi države zastave.

Članak 98.

Dužnost pružanja pomoći

1. Svaka država zahtijeva od zapovjednika broda koji vijori njezinu zastavu, ako on to može učiniti bez ozbiljne opasnosti za brod, posadu ili putnike:

(a) da pruži pomoć svakoj osobi koja se nađe u moru, a kojoj prijeti opasnost;

(b) ako je obaviješten o njihovoj potrebi za pomoć, da zaplovi punom brzinom u pomoć osobama koje su u nevolji, utoliko koliko se može od njega razumno očekivati da tako postupi;

(c) da nakon sudara pruži pomoć drugom brodu, njegovoj posadi i njegovim putnicima i da, kad je to moguće, priopći drugom brodu ime vlastitog broda, njegovu luku upisa i najbližu luku u koju će pristati.

2. Svaka obalna država pomaže osnivanje, rad i održavanje odgovarajuće i djelotvorne službe za traženje i spašavanje radi sigurnosti na moru i u zraku i u tu svrhu, gdje to okolnosti traže, surađuje sa susjednim državama u okviru regionalnih aranžmana.

Članak 99.

Zabrana prijevoza robova

Svaka država poduzima djelotvorne mjere radi sprečavanja i kažnjavanja prijevoza robova na brodovima koji su ovlašteni da vijore njezinu zastavu i radi sprečavanja protupravne upotrebe njezine zastave u tu svrhu. Svaki rob koji prebjegne na brod bilo koje zastave slobodan je ipso facto.

Članak 100.

Dužnost suradnje radi suzbijanja piratstva

Sve države surađuju koliko najviše mogu na suzbijanju piratstva na otvorenom moru ili na bilo kojem drugom mjestu koje ne potpada pod jurisdikciju nijedne države.

Članak 101.

Definicija piratstva

Piratstvo je bilo koje od ovih djela:

(a) svaki nezakoniti čin nasilja ili zadržavanja ili bilo kakva pljačka, koje za osobne svrhe izvrši posada ili putnici privatnog broda ili privatnog zrakoplova i usmjeren:

(i) na otvorenom moru protiv drugog broda ili zrakoplova ili protiv osoba ili dobara na njima,

(ii) protiv broda ili zrakoplova, osoba ili dobara na mjestu koje ne potpada pod jurisdikciju nijedne države;

(b) svaki čin dobrovoljnog sudjelovanja u upotrebi broda ili zrakoplova, ako počinitelj zna za činjenice koje tom brodu ili zrakoplovu daju značaj piratskog broda ili zrakoplova;

(c) svaki čin kojemu je svrha poticanje ili namjerno omogućavanje nekog djela opisanog u podstavcima (a) ili (b).

Članak 102.

Piratstvo ratnog broda, državnog broda ili državnog zrakoplova čija se posada pobunila

Djela piratstva, opisana u članku 101., koja počini ratni brod ili državni brod ili državni zrakoplov kojih se posada pobunila i preuzela vlast nad brodom ili zrakoplovom, izjednačena su s djelima koja počini privatni brod ili zrakoplov.

Članak 103.

Definicija piratskog broda ili zrakoplova

Brod ili zrakoplov smatra se piratskim ako su ga osobe, u čijoj se vlasti stvarno nalazi, namijenile upotrijebiti za izvršenje jednog od djela navedenih u članku 101. Isto vrijedi ako je brod ili zrakoplov upotrijebljen za izvršenje tih djela, dokle god se nalazi u vlasti osoba krivih za to djelo.

Članak 104.

Zadržavanje ili gubitak državne pripadnosti piratskog broda ili zrakoplova

Brod ili zrakoplov može zadržati svoju državnu pripadnost iako je postao piratski brod ili zrakoplov. Zadržavanje ili gubitak državne pripadnosti određeni su unutrašnjim pravom države koje je dodijelila državnu pripadnost.

Članak 105.

Uzapćenje piratskog broda ili zrakoplova

Svaka država može na otvorenom moru ili na bilo kojem drugom mjestu koje ne potpada pod jurisdikciju nijedne države uzaptiti piratski brod ili zrakoplov ili brod ili zrakoplov koji je otet djelom piratstva i nalazi se u vlasti pirata te uhititi osobe i zaplijeniti dobra na njima. Sudovi države koja je izvršila uzapćenje mogu odlučiti o kaznama koje treba izreći i o poduzimanju mjera prema brodovima, zrakoplovima ili dobrima, ne dirajući u prava trećih osoba koje postupaju u dobroj vjeri.

Članak 106.

Odgovornost za uzapćenje bez valjanih razloga

Ako je uzapćenje broda ili zrakoplova zbog sumnje da je počinjeno djelo piratstva izvršeno bez valjanih razloga, država koja je uzaptila brod ili zrakoplov odgovorna je državi čiju pripadnost ima brod ili zrakoplov za sav gubitak ili štetu prouzročenu uzapćenjem.

Članak 107.

Brodovi i zrakoplovi koji su ovlašteni za uzapćenje zbog piratstva

Uzapćenje zbog piratstva mogu izvršiti samo ratni brodovi ili vojni zrakoplovi, ili drugi brodovi ili zrakoplovi koji nose vanjske znakove prema kojima se jasno raspoznaje da su u vladinoj službi i da su ovlašteni u tu svrhu.

Članak 108.

Nedopuštena trgovina opojnim drogama ili psihotropnim tvarima

1. Sve države surađuju na suzbijanju nedopuštene trgovine opojnim drogama ili psihotropnim tvarima kojom se bave brodovi na otvorenom moru u suprotnosti s međunarodnim konvencijama.

2. Svaka država koja ima ozbiljnih razloga vjerovati da se brod koji vijori njezinu zastavu bavi nedopuštenom trgovinom opojnim drogama ili psihotropnim tvarima može zatražiti suradnju drugih država radi suzbijanja takve trgovine.

Članak 109.

Neovlašteno emitiranje s otvorenog mora

1. Sve države surađuju na suzbijanju neovlaštenog emitiranja s otvorenog mora.

2. U svrhe Konvencije “neovlašteno emitiranje” znači odašiljanje, suprotno međunarodnim propisima, radijskih ili televizijskih programa s broda ili uređaja na otvorenom moru namijenjeno širokoj javnosti, izuzimajući odašiljanje poziva za pomoć u nevolji.

3. Svaka osoba koja se bavi neovlaštenim emitiranjem može se izvesti pred sud:

(a) države zastave broda;

(b) države u kojoj je uređaj registriran;

(c) države čiji je ta osoba državljanin;

(d) svake države u kojoj se emisija može primati, ili

(e) svake države u kojoj su takvim emitiranjem ometane dopuštene radio-veze.

4. Država koja ima sudbenost u skladu sa stavkom 3. može, u skladu sa člankom 110., uhititi svaku osobu ili zaustaviti svaki brod na otvorenom moru koji neovlašteno emitira i zaplijeniti opremu za emitiranje.

Članak 110.

Pravo pregleda

1. Osim u slučajevima kad je intervencija utemeljena na ovlaštenjima iz međunarodnog ugovora, ratni brod koji na otvorenom moru sretne strani brod koji nije brod što uživa puni imunitet u skladu sa člancima 95. i 96., ne može taj brod pregledati ako nema ozbiljnih razloga sumnjati:

(a) da se brod bavi piratstvom;

(b) da se brod bavi trgovinom robljem;

(c) da se brod bavi neovlaštenim emitiranjem, a država zastave ratnog broda ima sudbenost na temelju članka 109.;

(d) da je brod bez državne pripadnosti; ili

(e) da je brod, iako vijori stranu zastavu ili odbija istaknuti svoju zastavu, u stvari brod iste državne pripadnosti kao ratni brod.

2. U slučajevima predviđenim u stavku 1., ratni brod može pristupiti provjeravanju prava broda na vijorenje njegove zastave. U tu svrhu on smije na sumnjivi brod poslati brodicu pod zapovjedništvom časnika. Ako sumnja ostane i nakon provjere isprava, on može na brodu pristupiti daljem ispitivanju, koje se mora obavljati uz sve moguće obzire.

3. Ako se pokaže da sumnje nisu osnovane, i pod uvjetom da pregledani brod nije počinio nikakav čin koji bi ih opravdao, naknađuje mu se svaki gubitak ili šteta koje je pretrpio.

4. Ove odredbe primjenjuju se mutatis mutandis na vojni zrakoplov.

5. Ove se odredbe primjenjuju i na sve druge propisno ovlaštene brodove ili zrakoplove koji nose vanjske znakove prema kojima se jasno raspoznaje da su u vladinoj službi.

Članak 111.

Pravo progona

1. Progon stranoga broda može se poduzeti kad nadležne vlasti obalne države imaju ozbiljnih razloga vjerovati da je taj brod prekršio zakone i druge propise te države. Taj progon mora započeti dok se strani brod ili jedna od njegovih brodica nalazi u unutrašnjim vodama, u arhipelaškim vodama, u teritorijalnom moru ili vanjskom pojasu države koja progoni, i može se nastaviti izvan teritorijalnog mora ili vanjskog pojasa samo pod uvjetom da nije bio prekinut. Nije potrebno da brod koji daje nalog za zaustavljanje također bude u teritorijalnom moru ili vanjskom pojasu u času kad strani brod, koji plovi u teritorijalnom moru ili vanjskom pojasu, primi nalog za zaustavljanje. Ako se strani brod nalazi u vanjskom pojasu, definiranom u članku 33., progon se može poduzeti samo zbog kršenja prava za čiju je zaštitu taj pojas ustanovljen.

2. Pravo progona primjenjuje se mutatis mutandis u isklju­čivom gospodarskom pojasu ili na epikontinentalnom pojasu, uključujući sigurnosne zone oko uređaja na epikontinentalnom pojasu, zbog kršenja zakona i drugih propisa obalne države koji se primjenjuju u skladu s Konvencijom u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu ili epikontinentalnom pojasu, uključujući spomenute sigurnosne zone.

3. Pravo progona prestaje čim progonjeni brod uplovi u teritorijalno more vlastite države ili neke treće države.

4. Smatrat će se da je progon započet samo ako se brod progonitelj prikladnim sredstvima kojima raspolaže uvjerio da se progonjeni brod ili jedna od njegovih brodica ili druga plovila, koja rade zajedno i služe se progonjenim brodom kao maticom, nalaze unutar granica teritorijalnog mora ili, ovisno o slučaju, u vanjskom pojasu ili u isključivom gospodarskom pojasu ili iznad epikontinentalnog pojasa. Progon se može započeti tek pošto je dan vidni ili zvučni znak za zaustavljanje iz udaljenosti s koje ga strani brod može vidjeti ili čuti.

5. Pravo progona mogu vršiti samo ratni brodovi ili vojni zrakoplovi, ili drugi brodovi ili zrakoplovi koji nose vanjske znakove prema kojima se jasno raspoznaje da su u vladinoj službi i koji su ovlašteni u tu svrhu.

6. Kad progon vrši zrakoplov:

(a) odredbe stavaka od 1. do 4. primjenjuju se mutatis mutandis;

(b) zrakoplov koji daje nalog za zaustavljanje mora sam aktivno progoniti brod sve dok neki brod ili drugi zrakoplov obalne države, što ga prvi zrakoplov pozove, ne stigne da nastavi progon, ako taj prvi zrakoplov sam nije u stanju uzaptiti brod. Da bi se opravdalo uzapćenje broda izvan teritorijalnog mora nije dovoljno da ga je zrakoplov samo otkrio u izvršenju povrede ili kao sumnjivog za povredu, ako ga nije ujedno pozvao da stane i progonio ili sam zrakoplov ili drugi zrakoplovi ili brodovi koji nastavljaju progon bez prekida.

7. Puštanje broda, koji je uzapćen na mjestu podvrgnutom jurisdikciji neke države i koji je praćen prema nekoj luci te države radi istrage pred nadležnim organima, ne može se zahtijevati samo zato što je brod, u tijeku toga putovanja - zato što su okolnosti to nalagale - bio praćen kroz dio isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa ili otvorenog mora.

8. Ako je brod bio zaustavljen ili uzapćen izvan teritorijalnog mora pod okolnostima koje ne opravdavaju ostvarivanje prava progona, naknađuje mu se svaki gubitak ili šteta koje je pretrpio.

Članak 112.

Pravo polaganja podmorskih kabela i cjevovoda

1. Sve su države ovlaštene polagati podmorske kabele i cjevovode na dno otvorenog mora izvan epikontinentalnog pojasa.

2. Stavak 5., članka 79. primjenjuje se na te kabele i cjevovode.

Članak 113.

Prekid ili oštećenje podmorskih kabela ili cjevovoda

Svaka država donosi potrebne zakone i druge propise kojima se određuje da su kažnjiva djela kad brod njezine zastave ili osoba podvrgnuta njezinoj jurisdikciji, namjerno ili iz nehata prekine ili ošteti podmorski kabel na otvorenom moru, što bi moglo imati za posljedicu prekid ili ometanje telegrafskih ili telefonskih veza, ili ako pod istim uvjetima prekine ili ošteti podmorski vod visokog napona ili cjevovod. Ta se odredba primjenjuje i na postupke koji su planirani radi izazivanja takvih prekida ili oštećenja, ili mogu do njih dovesti. Ona se, međutim, ne primjenuje na prekide ili oštećenja koje su prouzročili počinitelji djelujući jedino u zakonitom cilju spašavanja svojih života ili svojih brodova, pošto su poduzeli sve potrebne mjere opreza radi izbjegavanja takvog prekida ili oštećenja.

Članak 114.

Prekid ili oštećenje podmorskog kabela ili cjevovoda od vlasnika drugog kabela ili cjevovoda

Svaka država donosi potrebne zakone i druge propise kojima se određuje da osobe koje su podvrgnute njezinoj jurisdikciji, koje su vlasnici podmorskog kabela ili cjevovoda u otvorenom moru i koje polaganjem ili popravljanjem toga kabela ili cjevovoda prouzroče prekid ili oštećenje drugoga kabela ili cjevovoda, snose troškove popravka.

Članak 115.

Naknada štete za gubitak nastao zbog izbjegavanja oštećenja podmorskog kabela ili cjevovoda

Svaka država donosi potrebne zakone i druge propise da bi vlasnik kabela ili cjevovoda nadoknadio štetu brodovlasnicima koji mogu dokazati da su žrtvovali sidro, mrežu ili neki drugi ribarski pribor kako ne bi oštetili neki podmorski kabel ili cjevovod, pod uvjetom da je brodovlasnik prije toga poduzeo sve razumne mjere opreza.

Odsjek 2. OČUVANJE I GOSPODARENJE ŽIVIM BOGATSTVIMA OTVORENOG MORA

Članak 116.

Pravo ribolova na otvorenom moru

Sve države imaju pravo da se njihovi državljani bave ribolovom na otvorenom moru uz uvjet poštovanja:

a) svojih ugovornih obveza;

b) prava i dužnosti, kao i interesa obalnih država, predviđenih, pored ostaloga, u stavku 2., članka 63. i člancima 64. do 67;

c) odredaba ovoga odsjeka.

Članak 117.

Dužnost država da za svoje državljane usvoje mjere radi očuvanja živih bogatstava otvorenog mora

Sve su države dužne usvojiti takve mjere, svaka za svoje državljane, koje su potrebne za očuvanje živih bogatstava otvorenog mora, ili surađivati s drugim državama na usvajanju takvih mjera.

Članak 118.

Suradnja država na očuvanju i gospodarenju živim bogatstvima

Države međusobno surađuju na očuvanju i gospodarenju živim bogatstvima otvorenog mora. Države čiji državljani iskorištavaju ista živa bogatstva ili različita živa bogatstva u istom području, pregovaraju radi usvajanja potrebnih mjera za očuvanje tih živih bogatstava. U tu svrhu one na prikladan način surađuju na osnivanju subregionalnih ili regionalnih ribolovnih organizacija.

Članak 119.

Očuvanje živih bogatstava otvorenog mora

1. Države, prilikom određivanja dopustivog ulova i utvrđivanja drugih mjera za očuvanje živih bogatstava otvorenog mora:

a) usvajaju mjere kojima je svrha da se, na temelju najpouzdanijih znanstvenih podataka kojima raspolažu zainteresirane države, održavaju ili obnavljaju populacije lovljenih vrsta na razinama koje mogu osigurati najviši održivi prinos, uvjetovan relevantnim ekološkim i gospodarskim činiteljima, uključujući posebne potrebe država u razvoju te vodeći računa o načinu ribolova, međuovisnosti ribljih naselja i svim općenito preporučenim subregionalnim, regionalnim ili svjetskim minimalnim standardima;

b) vode računa o učincima takvih mjera na one vrste koje su udružene s vrstama koje se love ili su ovisne o njima, radi održavanja ili obnavljanja populacija tih udruženih ili ovisnih vrsta iznad razina na kojima bi se njihova reprodukcija mogla ozbiljno ugroziti.

2. Raspoložive znanstvene informacije, statistike o ulovu i poduzetom ribolovu i drugi podaci važni za očuvanje ribljih naselja daju se i redovito razmjenjuju preko nadležnih među­narodnih organizacija, subregionalnih, regionalnih ili svjetskih, gdje je to prikladno, i uz sudjelovanje svih zainteresiranih država.

3. Zainteresirane države osiguravaju da mjere za očuvanje i njihova primjena ne diskriminiraju ni pravno ni stvarno ribare bilo koje države.

Članak 120.

Morski sisavci

Članak 65. primjenjuje se također i na očuvanje i gospodarenje morskim sisavcima na otvorenom moru.

DIO VIII.

REŽIM OTOKA

Članak 121.

Režim otoka

1. Otok je prirodni dio kopna, okružen vodom, koji je suh za visoke vode.

2. Osim u slučajevima navedenima u stavku 3., teritorijalno more, vanjski pojas, isključivi gospodarski pojas i epikontinentalni pojas otoka određuju se prema odredbama Konvencije koje se primjenjuju na druga kopnena područja.

3. Stijene na kojima nije moguć ljudski boravak ili samostalni gospodarski život nemaju ni isključivi gospodarski pojas ni epikontinentalni pojas.

DIO IX.

ZATVORENA ILI POLUZATVORENA MORA

Članak 122.

Definicija

U svrhe Konvencije “zatvoreno ili poluzatvoreno more” znači zaljev, bazen ili more okruženo s dvije ili više država i povezano s drugim morem ili oceanom uskim prolazom, ili koje se u cijelosti ili pretežito sastoji od teritorijalnih mora i isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva dviju ili više obalnih država.

Članak 123.

Suradnja obalnih država na zatvorenim ili poluzatvorenim morima

Obalne države na zatvorenom ili poluzatvorenom moru trebale bi međusobno surađivati na ostvarivanju svojih prava i ispunjavanju svojih dužnosti na temelju Konvencije. U tu svrhu one nastoje da, izravno ili pomoću odgovarajuće regionalne organizacije:

a) usklađuju gospodarenje, očuvanje, istraživanje i isko­rištavanje živih bogatstava mora;

b) usklađuju ostvarivanje svojih prava i ispunjavanje svojih dužnosti glede zaštite i očuvanja morskog okoliša;

c) usklađuju svoje politike znanstvenog istraživanja i - gdje je to primjereno - poduzimaju zajedničke programe znanstvenog istraživanja toga područja;

d) pozovu, na odgovarajući način, druge zainteresirane države ili međunarodne organizacije na suradnju s njima u provedbi odredaba ovog članka.

DIO X.

PRAVO PRISTUPA NEOBALNIH DRŽAVA MORU I OD MORA I SLOBODA TRANZITA

Članak 124.

Upotreba izraza

1. U svrhe Konvencije:

(a) “neobalna država” znači državu koja nema morsku obalu;

(b) “tranzitna država” znači državu s morskom obalom ili bez nje, koja se nalazi između neobalne države i mora, kroz čije se područje obavlja promet u tranzitu;

(c) “promet u tranzitu” znači tranzit osoba, prtljage, dobara i prijevoznih sredstava kroz područje jedne ili više tranzitnih država, kada je prolazak kroz to područje - s prekrcajem, uskla­dištenjem, podjelom tereta ili mijenjanjem načina prijevoza ili bez toga - samo dio cjelovitog putovanja koje započinje ili završava unutar područja neobalne države;

(d) “prijevozna sredstva” znači:

(i) željeznička prijevozna sredstva, plovila za prijevoz morem, jezerima i rijekama i cestovna vozila,

(ii) nosače i tovarne životinje, gdje lokalni uvjeti to zahtijevaju.

2. Neobalne države i tranzitne države mogu se sporazumjeti da u prijevozna sredstva uključe cjevovode i plinovode i druga prijevozna sredstva koja nisu navedena u stavku 1.

Članak 125.

Pravo pristupa moru i od mora i sloboda tranzita

1. Neobalne države imaju pravo pristupa moru i od mora radi ostvarivanja prava predviđenih Konvencijom, uključujući prava koja se tiču slobode otvorenog mora i zajedničke baštine čovječanstva. U tu svrhu neobalne države uživaju slobodu tranzita preko područja tranzitnih država svim prijevoznim sredstvima.

2. Zainteresirane neobalne države i tranzitne države dogovaraju se dvostranim, subregionalnim i regionalnim sporazumima o uvjetima i načinima ostvarivanja slobode tranzita.

3. Tranzitne države, u ostvarivanju svoje pune suverenosti nad svojim područjem, imaju pravo poduzimati sve potrebne mjere radi osiguranja da prava i olakšice, predviđeni u ovom dijelu za neobalne države, ni na koji način ne naruše njihove zakonite interese.

Članak 126.

Isključenje primjene klauzule najpovlaštenije nacije

Odredbe Konvencije, kao i posebni sporazumi koji se odnose na ostvarivanje prava pristupa moru i od mora, kojima se utvrđuju prava i olakšice zbog posebnog geografskog položaja neobalnih država, isključuju se od primjene klauzule najpovlaštenije nacije.

Članak 127.

Carina, takse i druge pristojbe

1. Promet u tranzitu oslobođen je svih carina, taksa ili drugih pristojbi, osim naknada za određene usluge učinjene u vezi s takvim prometom.

2. Prijevozna sredstva u tranzitu i druge pogodnosti za tranzit predviđene za neobalne države, koje one i koriste, ne smiju biti podložni taksama ili pristojbama višim od onih koje se ubiru za upotrebu prijevoznih sredstava tranzitne države.

Članak 128.

Slobodne zone i druge carinske olakšice

Radi olakšavanja prometa u tranzitu, u ulaznim i izlaznim lukama tranzitnih država mogu se sporazumima između tih država i neobalnih država ustanoviti slobodne zone ili druge carinske olakšice.

Članak 129.

Suradnja u izgradnji i usavršavanju prijevoznih sredstava

Ako u tranzitnoj državi nema prijevoznih sredstava za ostvarivanje slobode tranzita ili ako postojeća sredstva, uključujući lučke uređaje i opremu, ne odgovaraju u bilo kojem pogledu, tranzitna država i zainteresirana neobalna država mogu surađivati u izgradnji ili usavršavanju tih sredstava.

Članak 130.

Mjere za izbjegavanje ili uklanjanje zakašnjenja ili drugih tehničkih poteškoća u prometu u tranzitu

1. Tranzitne države poduzimaju sve odgovarajuće mjere radi izbjegavanja zakašnjenja ili drugih tehničkih poteškoća u prometu u tranzitu.

2. Ako dođe do takvih zakašnjenja ili poteškoća, nadležne vlasti tranzitne države i zainteresirane neobalne države surađuju radi njihova brzog uklanjanja.

Članak 131.

Jednakost postupanja u morskim lukama

Brodovi koji vijore zastavu neobalnih država podvrgnuti su u morskim lukama jednakom postupku kao i drugi strani brodovi.

Članak 132.

Dodjeljivanje većih tranzitnih olakšica

Konvencija ni na koji način ne izaziva opozivanje tranzitnih olakšica većih od olakšica koje su u njoj predviđene, a o kojima su se države stranke Konvencije sporazumjele ili ih je jedna država stranka odobrila. Konvencija, isto tako, ne priječi odobravanje većih olakšica u budućnosti.

DIO XI.

ZONA

Odsjek 1. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 133.

Upotreba izraza

U svrhe ovoga dijela:

(a) “bogatstva” znači sva čvrsta, tekuća ili plinovita rudna bogatstva in situ u Zoni, na morskome dnu, ili u njegovu podzemlju, uključujući i polimetalne grumene;

(b) “rudama” se označavaju bogatstva nakon što su izvađe­na iz Zone.

Članak 134.

Domašaj ovoga dijela

1. Ovaj se dio odnosi na Zonu.

2. Djelatnosti u Zoni uređuju se odredbama ovoga dijela.

3. Obveze polaganja i objavljivanja pomorskih karata ili popisa geografskih koordinata kojima se naznačuju granice iz članka 1., stavka 1. (1) navedene su u dijelu VI.

4. Odredbe ovoga članka ne diraju u ustanovljenje vanjskih granica epikontinentalnog pojasa u skladu s dijelom VI., niti u valjanost sporazuma o razgraničenju između država čije obale leže sučelice ili međusobno graniče.

Članak 135.

Pravni položaj voda i zračnog prostora iznad Zone

Ni ovaj dio, ni prava koja se priznaju ili ostvaruju na temelju njega, ne diraju u pravni položaj voda iznad Zone ili u pravni položaj zračnog prostora iznad tih voda.

Odsjek 2. NAČELA UREĐENJA ZONE

Članak 136.

Zajednička baština čovječanstva

Zona i njezina bogatstva su zajednička baština čovječanstva.

Članak 137.

Pravni položaj Zone i njezinih bogatstava

1. Nijedna država ne može zahtijevati ni ostvarivati suverenost ili suverena prava nad bilo kojim dijelom Zone ili njezinim bogatstvima; nijedna država, ni fizička ili pravna osoba ne može prisvojiti bilo koji dio Zone ili njezinih bogatstava. Nijedan takav zahtjev ili ostvarivanje suverenosti ili suverenih prava ili takvo prisvajanje neće se priznati.

2. Sva prava na bogatstva Zone pripadaju čovječanstvu kao cjelini, u ime kojega djeluje Vlast. Ta bogatstva ne mogu se otuđiti. Rude izvađene iz Zone mogu se otuđiti samo u skladu s ovim dijelom, te pravilima, propisima i postupcima Vlasti.

3. Nijedna država, ni fizička ili pravna osoba ne može zahtijevati, stjecati ili ostvarivati prava na rude izvađene iz Zone osim u skladu s ovim dijelom. Prava drukčije zahtijevana, stjecana ili ostvarivana neće se priznati.

Članak 138.

Opće ponašanje država glede Zone

Opće ponašanje država glede Zone mora biti u skladu s odredbama ovoga dijela, načelima sadržanima u Povelji Ujedinjenih naroda i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava, u interesu održavanja mira i sigurnosti, promicanja međunarodne suradnje i uzajamnog razumijevanja.

Članak 139.

Obveza osiguravanja poštovanja Konvencije i odgovornosti u slučaju štete

1. Države stranke obvezne su osigurati da djelatnosti u Zoni budu izvođene u skladu s odredbama ovog dijela, bilo da ih poduzimaju one same, državna poduzeća, fizičke ili pravne osobe koje imaju državljanstvo država stranaka ili se nalaze pod njihovim stvarnim nadzorom ili pod nadzorom njihovih državljana. Istu obvezu imaju međunarodne organizacije za djelatnosti koje one poduzimaju u Zoni.

2. Ne dirajući u pravila međunarodnog prava i članak 22., Priloga III., država stranka ili međunarodna organizacija odgovorna je za štetu koju je prouzročila neizvršavanjem svojih obveza na temelju ovoga dijela; države stranke ili međunarodne organizacije koje djeluju zajedno, solidarno su odgovorne. Međutim, država stranka nije odgovorna za štetu prouzročenu nepošto­vanjem ovoga dijela od osobe za koju ona jamči prema stavku 2. (b), članka 153., ako je država stranka poduzela sve potrebne i prikladne mjere radi osiguravanja djelotvornog poštovanja ovoga dijela i priloga koji se na njega odnose, kako je to predviđeno stavkom 4., članka 153. i stavkom 4., članka 4., Priloga III.

3. Države stranke koje su članice međunarodnih organizacija poduzimaju odgovarajuće mjere kako bi osigurale primjenu ovoga članka s obzirom na te organizacije.

Članak 140.

Dobrobit čovječanstva

1. Djelatnosti u Zoni izvode se za dobrobit čovječanstva kao cjeline, kako je to izričito predviđeno u ovome dijelu, neovisno o geografskom položaju država, bilo da su obalne ili neobalne, posebno vodeći računa o interesima i potrebama država u razvoju i naroda koji nisu stekli punu neovisnost ili drugi samoupravni položaj koji Ujedinjeni narodi priznaju u skladu s rezolucijom Opće skupštine 1514 (XV) i drugim relevantnim rezolucijama Opće skupštine.

2. Vlast brine o pravičnoj raspodjeli financijskih i drugih ekonomskih koristi proizašlih iz djelatnosti u Zoni pomoću prikladnog mehanizma, na temelju nediskriminacije, u skladu sa stavkom 2. (f)(i), članka 160.

Članak 141.

Korištenje Zone isključivo u miroljubive svrhe

Sve države, obalne i neobalne, smiju koristiti Zonu isklju­čivo u miroljubive svrhe, bez diskriminacije i štete za ostale odredbe ovoga dijela.

Članak 142.

Prava i zakoniti interesi obalnih država

1. Djelatnosti u Zoni, koje se odnose na nalazišta bogatstava u Zoni koja se protežu i unutar granica nacionalne jurisdikcije, izvode se s dužnim obzirom prema pravima i zakonitim interesima obalne države pod čijom se jurisdikcijom ta nalazišta nalaze.

2. Radi izbjegavanja povreda tih prava i interesa održavaju se savjetovanja sa zainteresiranom državom, uključujući sustav prethodnog obavještavanja. Za slučajeve u kojima djelatnosti u Zoni mogu dovesti do iskorištavanja bogatstava koja leže unutar granica nacionalne jurisdikcije obalne države, potrebna je prethodna suglasnost te države.

3. Ni ovaj dio, ni prava priznata ili vršena na temelju njega, ne diraju u prava obalnih država da poduzimaju mjere u skladu s relevantnim odredbama dijela XII. koje mogu biti potrebne radi sprečavanja, smanjenja ili otklanjanja ozbiljne i izravne opasnosti za njihovu obalu ili za interese uz nju vezane, prouzročene onečišćenjem ili prijetnjom od onečišćenja ili drugim opasnim pojavama koje proistječu iz djelatnosti u Zoni ili su njima izazvane.

Članak 143.

Znanstveno istraživanje mora

1. More se u Zoni smije znanstveno istraživati isključivo u miroljubive svrhe i za dobrobit čovječanstva kao cjeline, u skladu s dijelom XIII.

2. Vlast može obavljati znanstveno istraživanje mora i bogatstava u Zoni i u tu svrhu zaključivati ugovore. Vlast promiče i potiče znanstveno istraživanje mora u Zoni te usklađuje i širi rezultate takvih istraživanja i analiza kada su raspoloživi.

3. Države stranke mogu obavljati znanstveno istraživanje mora u Zoni. One promiču međunarodnu suradnju u znanstvenom istraživanju mora u Zoni:

(a) sudjelovanjem u međunarodnim programima i poticanjem suradnje osoblja raznih zemalja i Vlasti u znanstvenom istraživanju mora;

(b) osiguravanjem da se programi razrađuju preko Vlasti ili drugih međunarodnih organizacija, ovisno o prilikama, u korist država u razvoju i tehnološki manje razvijenih država, a u cilju:

(i) jačanja njihovih istraživačkih kapaciteta,

(ii) osposobljavanja njihova osoblja i osoblja Vlasti u metodama istraživanja i u primjeni rezultata istraživanja,

(iii) podupiranja zapošljavanja njihova osposobljenog osoblja u istraživanju Zone;

(c) djelotvornim širenjem rezultata istraživanja i analiza kad su dostupni, preko Vlasti ili drugim međunarodnim kanalima, ovisno o prilikama.

Članak 144.

Prijenos tehnologije

1. Vlast poduzima mjere u skladu s Konvencijom:

(a) radi stjecanja tehnologije i znanstvenih spoznaja, koje se odnose na djelatnosti u Zoni, i

(b) radi promicanja i poticanja prijenosa takve tehnologije i znanstvenih spoznaja državama u razvoju, tako da sve države stranke imaju od toga koristi.

2. Radi toga Vlast i države stranke surađuju na promicanju prijenosa tehnologije i znanstvenih spoznaja koje se odnose na djelatnosti u Zoni, tako da Poduzeće i sve države stranke imaju od toga koristi. Osobito pokreću i promiču:

(a) programe za prijenos tehnologije Poduzeću i državama u razvoju koji se odnose na djelatnosti u Zoni, uključujući, između ostalog, pogodnosti Poduzeću i državama u razvoju za pribavljanje odgovarajuće tehnologije pod povoljnim i umjerenim modalitetima i uvjetima;

(b) mjere usmjerene prema razvoju tehnologije Poduzeća i domaće tehnologije država u razvoju, osobito pružanjem prilika osoblju Poduzeća i iz država u razvoju za usavršavanje u znanosti o moru i morskoj tehnologiji i za njihovo puno sudjelovanje u djelatnostima u Zoni.

Članak 145.

Zaštita morskog okoliša

U skladu s Konvencijom, a u vezi s djelatnostima u Zoni, moraju se poduzeti potrebne mjere radi osiguranja djelotvorne zaštite morskog okoliša od štetnih posljedica koje mogu nastati od tih djelatnosti. U tu svrhu Vlast usvaja odgovarajuća pravila, propise i postupke, između ostalog, radi:

(a) sprečavanja, smanjivanja i nadziranja onečišćenja i drugih opasnosti za morski okoliš, uključujući obalu, i poremećaje ekološke ravnoteže morskog okoliša, poklanjajući naročitu pozornost potrebi zaštite od štetnih posljedica takvih djelatnosti kao što su bušenje, jaružanje, iskopavanje, odlaganje otpadaka, izgradnja, rad i održavanje uređaja, cjevovoda i drugih sprava namijenjenih takvim djelatnostima;

(b) zaštite i očuvanja prirodnih bogatstava Zone i sprečava­nja štete za morsku floru i faunu.

Članak 146.

Zaštita ljudskog života

U vezi s djelatnostima u Zoni, moraju se poduzeti potrebne mjere radi osiguranja djelotvorne zaštite ljudskog života. U tu svrhu Vlast usvaja odgovarajuća pravila, propise i postupke radi dopune postojećega međunarodnog prava sadržanog u relevantnim međunarodnim ugovorima.

Članak 147.

Usklađivanje djelatnosti u Zoni s drugim djelatnostima u morskom okolišu

1. Djelatnosti u Zoni moraju se obavljati s razumnom pozornošću prema drugim djelatnostima u morskom okolišu.

2. Uređaji koji se koriste radi obavljanja djelatnosti u Zoni podvrgnuti su ovim uvjetima:

(a) takvi se uređaji podižu, postavljaju i uklanjaju samo u skladu s ovim dijelom i uz poštovanje pravila, propisa i postupaka Vlasti. Mora se dati propisna obavijest o podizanju, postavljanju i uklanjanju takvih uređaja i moraju se održavati stalna upozoravajuća sredstva o njihovoj prisutnosti;

(b) takvi se uređaji ne smiju postavljati tamo gdje mogu ometati upotrebu priznatih plovidbenih putova bitnih za među­narodnu plovidbu ili u područjima razvijenog ribolova;

(c) radi jamčenja sigurnosti uređaja i plovidbe, oko takvih uređaja ustanovljuju se prikladno označene sigurnosne zone. Konfiguracija i mjesto takvih sigurnosnih zona ne smije stvarati pojas koji priječi brodovima dopušteni pristup u pojedina morska područja ili plovidbu međunarodnim plovidbenim putovima;

(d) takvi se uređaji koriste isključivo u miroljubive svrhe;

(e) takvi uređaji nemaju pravni položaj otoka. Oni nemaju vlastitoga teritorijalnog mora, a njihovo postojanje ne utječe na određivanje granica teritorijalnog mora, isključivoga gospodarskog pojasa ili epikontinentalnog pojasa.

3. Druge djelatnosti u morskom okolišu obavljaju se vodeći razumno računa o djelatnostima u Zoni.

Članak 148.

Sudjelovanje država u razvoju u djelatnostima u Zoni

Djelotvorno sudjelovanje država u razvoju u djelatnostima u Zoni promiče se na način koji je izričito predviđen u ovome dijelu, s dužnom pozornošću prema njihovim posebnim interesima i potrebama, a naročito prema posebnim potrebama neobalnih država i država u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju među njima, da prevladaju prepreke koje potječu iz njihova nepovoljnog položaja, uključujući udaljenost od Zone i teškoće pristupa k njoj i od nje.

Članak 149.

Arheološki i povijesni predmeti

Svi predmeti arheološke i povijesne prirode nađeni u Zoni čuvaju se ili se njima raspolaže radi dobrobiti čovječanstva kao cjeline, uzimajući posebno u obzir prvenstvo prava države ili zemlje porijekla ili države kulturnog porijekla ili države povijesnog i arheološkog porijekla.

Odsjek 3. RAZVOJ BOGATSTVA ZONE

Članak 150.

Opća politika djelatnosti u Zoni

Djelatnosti u Zoni obavljaju se, kako je to izričito pred­viđeno u ovome dijelu, na način koji pridonosi zdravom razvoju svjetskog gospodarstva i ujednačenom rastu međunarodne trgovine i koji promiče međunarodnu suradnju radi svestranog razvoja svih zemalja, osobito država u razvoju, i u namjeri da se osigura:

(a) razvoj bogatstava Zone;

(b) pravilno, sigurno i racionalno gospodarenje bogatstvima Zone, uključujući djelotvorno izvođenje djelatnosti u Zoni i, u skla­du s razumnim načelima o očuvanju, izbjegavanje nepotrebnih gubitaka;

(c) širenje mogućnosti za sudjelovanje u takvim djelatnostima, osobito u skladu sa člancima 144. i 148.

(d) sudjelovanje Vlasti u prihodima i prijenos tehnologije Poduzeću i državama u razvoju, kako je to predviđeno Konvencijom;

(e) povećanje mogućnosti dobivanja ruda iz Zone, prema potrebi, povezano s dobivanjem ruda iz drugih izvora, radi osiguranja opskrbe potrošača takvih ruda;

(f) promicanje pravičnih i stabilnih cijena, unosnih za proizvođače i povoljnih za potrošače, za rude dobivene kako iz Zone tako i iz drugih izvora, i promicanje dugoročne ravnoteže između ponude i potražnje;

(g) povećanje mogućnosti za sve države stranke, neovisno o njihovom društvenom i gospodarskom uređenju ili geografskom položaju, da sudjeluju u razvoju bogatstava Zone, te sprečavanje monopoliziranja djelatnosti u Zoni;

(h) zaštita država u razvoju od štetnih posljedica za njihova gospodarstva ili njihove prihode od izvoza zbog smanjenja cijene neke rude ili smanjenja opsega izvoza te vrste rude, u onoj mjeri u kojoj je to smanjenje prouzročeno djelatnostima u Zoni, kako je predviđeno u članku 151.;

(i) razvoj zajedničke baštine radi dobrobiti čovječanstva kao cjeline, i

(j) uvjete pristupa tržištima za uvoz ruda dobivenih iz bogatstava Zone i za uvoz sirovina dobivenih od takvih ruda koji neće biti povoljniji od najpovoljnijih koji se primjenjuju na uvoz iz drugih izvora.

Članak 151.

Politika proizvodnje

1. (a) Ne dirajući u ciljeve izložene u članku 150., a radi ostvarivanja točke (h) toga članka, djelujući kroz postojeća tijela ili nove aranžmane ili sporazume, ovisno o prilikama, u kojima sudjeluju sve zainteresirane stranke, uključujući proizvođače i potrošače, Vlast poduzima mjere potrebne za promicanje rasta, djelotvornosti i stabilnosti tržišta za sirovine dobivene od ruda iz Zone, uz cijene unosne za proizvođače i povoljne za potrošače. Sve države stranke surađuju u tom cilju.

(b) Vlast ima pravo sudjelovati na svakoj konferenciji o sirovinama koja se bavi tim sirovinama i na kojoj sudjeluju sve zainteresirane stranke, uključujući proizvođače i potrošače. Vlast ima pravo postati strankom svakoga aranžmana ili sporazuma koji proistekne iz takvih konferencija. Sudjelovanje Vlasti u bilo kojem organu ustanovljenom na temelju tih aranžmana ili sporazuma odnosi se na proizvodnju u Zoni i u skladu je s relevantnim pravilima tih organa.

(c) Obveze koje potječu iz aranžmana ili sporazuma spomenutih u ovome stavku Vlast izvršava na način koji osigurava jedinstvenu i nediskriminacijsku primjenu glede cjelokupne proizvodnje odgovarajućih ruda u Zoni. Tako postupajući, Vlast djeluje na način koji je u skladu s odredbama postojećih ugovora i odobrenih planova rada Poduzeća.

2. (a) Za vrijeme privremenog razdoblja određenog u stavku 3., komercijalna proizvodnja na temelju odobrenog plana rada ne smije se poduzeti dok izvođač radova ne podnese zahtjev i ne dobije od Vlasti dozvolu za proizvodnju. Dozvola za proizvodnju ne može se tražiti ni izdati prije negoli počne teći rok od pet godina prije planiranog početka komercijalne proizvodnje prema planu rada, osim ako pravilima, propisima i postupcima Vlasti nije propisan drugi rok, s obzirom na prirodu i dinamiku razvoja projekta.

(b) U zahtjevu za dozvolu proizvodnje izvođač radova utvrđuje godišnje količine nikla koje očekuje da će proizvesti prema odobrenom planu rada. Zahtjev obuhvaća i raspored troškova koje će izvođač radova snositi nakon dobivanja dozvole, proračunatih razumno, tako da mu omoguće započeti komercijalnu proizvodnju u planirano vrijeme.

(c) U svrhe navedene u podstavcima (a) i (b), Vlast utvrđuje odgovarajuće proizvodne uvjete u skladu s člankom 17., Priloga III.

(d) Vlast izdaje dozvolu za proizvodnju tražene količine, osim ako ta količina zajedno s već odobrenim količinama premašuje najvišu razinu proizvodnje nikla, izračunatu na temelju stavka 4. u godini izdavanja dozvole, za bilo koju godinu proizvodnje koja pada u privremeno razdoblje.

(e) Odobreni zahtjevi i dozvola za proizvodnju postaju dio odobrenog plana rada.

(f) Ako je zahtjev izvođača radova za dozvolu proizvodnje odbijen na temelju podstavka (d), izvođač radova može u svako vrijeme obnoviti svoj zahtjev Vlasti.

3. Privremeno razdoblje počinje pet godina prije 1. siječnja godine u kojoj je planiran početak najranije komercijalne proizvodnje prema odobrenom planu rada. Ako je najranija komercijalna proizvodnja odgođena nakon godine u kojoj je bila prvobitno planirana, početak privremenog razdoblja i najviša razina proizvodnje, prvobitno izračunati, uslijed toga se prilagođuju. Privremeno razdoblje traje 25 godina ili do kraja revizijske konferencije o kojoj je riječ u članku 155., odnosno do dana kad novi aranžmani ili sporazumi navedeni u stavku 1. stupe na snagu, ovisno o tome što prije nastupi. Vlast će preuzeti ovlaštenja predviđena u ovome članku za preostali dio privremenog razdoblja, ako spomenuti aranžmani ili sporazumi isteknu ili iz bilo kojeg razloga prestanu djelovati.

4. (a) Najviša razina proizvodnje za svaku godinu privremenog razdoblja predstavlja zbroj:

(i) razlike između vrijednosti na koordinati koja predstavlja trend potrošnje nikla, izračunatih na temelju podstavka (b), za godinu koja neposredno prethodi godini prve komercijalne proizvodnje i godinu koja neposredno prethodi početku privremenog razdoblja; i

(ii) šezdeset posto razlike između vrijednosti na koordinati koja predstavlja trend potrošnje nikla, izračunatih na temelju podstavka (b), za godinu za koju je podnesen zahtjev za dozvolu proizvodnje i za godinu koja neposredno prethodi godini prve komercijalne proizvodnje.

(b) U svrhe podstavka (a):

(i) vrijednosti na koordinati upotrebljene za izračunavanje najviše razine proizvodnje nikla jesu one godišnje vrijednosti potrošnje nikla na koordinati izračunate u godini u kojoj je izdana dozvola za proizvodnju. Koordinata se dobiva linearnom regresijom logaritama stvarne potrošnje nikla za posljednje petnaestogodišnje razdoblje za koje su takvi podaci dostupni, pri čemu je vrijeme neovisna promjenjiva veličina. Ova koordinata se označava kao početna koordinata,

(ii) ako je godišnja stopa rasta na početnoj koordinati manja od 3 posto, onda će umjesto nje koordinata za određivanje količina spomenutih u podstavku (a) biti ona koja presijeca početnu koordinatu kod vrijednosti za prvu godinu odgovarajućeg petnaestogodišnjeg razdoblja i raste po stopi od 3 posto godišnje. Međutim, najviša razina proizvodnje utvrđena za bilo koju godinu privremenog razdoblja ne može ni u kojem slučaju biti veća od razlike između vrijednosti na početnoj koordinati za tu godinu i vrijednosti na početnoj koordinati za godinu koja neposredno prethodi početku privremenog razdoblja.

5. Vlast rezervira Poduzeću za njegovu početnu proizvodnju količinu od 38.000 metričkih tona nikla od dane najviše razine proizvodnje izračunate na temelju stavka (4).

6. (a) Izvođač radova smije u svakoj godini proizvesti manje od količine godišnje proizvodnje minerala iz polimetalnih grumena naznačene u njegovoj dozvoli za proizvodnju ili do 8 posto više od te količine, pod uvjetom da cjelokupna količina proizvodnje ne premaši onu naznačenu u dozvoli. O svakom prekoračenju između 8 i 20 posto u bilo kojoj godini, ili o svakom prekoračenju u prvoj i sljedećim godinama nakon dvije uzastopne godine u kojima je već bilo došlo do prekoračenja, pregovara se s Vlašću, koja može zahtijevati od izvođača radova da dobije dozvolu za dodatnu proizvodnju.

(b) Zahtjeve za dozvole za dodatnu proizvodnju Vlast će razmatrati tek nakon što razmotri sve neriješene zahtjeve izvo­đača radova koji još nisu dobili dozvolu za proizvodnju i pošto uzme u obzir druge moguće podnositelje zahtjeva. Vlast se vodi načelom da se ne premaši cjelokupna proizvodnja koja je dopuš­tena na temelju najviše razine proizvodnje u svakoj godini privremenog razdoblja. Ona neće odobriti proizvodnju na temelju plana rada koji se odnosi na količinu koja prelazi 46.500 metričkih tona nikla godišnje.

7. Razina proizvodnje drugih metala kao što su bakar, kobalt i mangan, izvađenih iz polimetalnih grumena koji su dobiveni na temelju dozvole za proizvodnju, ne bi smjela biti viša od one koja bi bila dostignuta da je izvođač radova proizveo najveću količinu nikla iz tih grumena u skladu s ovim člankom. Vlast će usvojiti pravila, propise i postupke na temelju članka 17., Priloga III., radi ostvarivanja ovoga stavka.

8. Prava i obveze koje se odnose na nelojalnu gospodarsku praksu, a koji su utemeljeni u relevantnim mnogostranim trgovinskim sporazumima, primjenjivat će se na istraživanje i iskoriš­tava­nje ruda u Zoni. U rješavanju sporova nastalih na temelju ove odredbe, države stranke koje su stranke tih mnogostranih trgovinskih sporazuma primjenit će postupke rješavanja sporova pred­viđene u tim sporazumima.

9. Vlast je ovlaštena ograničiti razinu proizvodnje ruda u Zoni, drukčijih od onih iz polimetalnih grumena, primjenjujući prikladne uvjete i metode na temelju propisa koje će usvojiti u skladu sa stavkom 8., članka 161.

10. Na preporuku Vijeća, zasnovanu na mišljenju Ekonomsko-planske komisije, Skupština ustanovljuje sustav naknade ili poduzima druge mjere pomoći u gospodarskom prila­gođavanju, uključujući suradnju sa specijaliziranim ustanovama i drugim međunarodnim organizacijama, radi pružanja pomoći državama u razvoju koje trpe ozbiljne štetne posljedice u svojem gospodarstvu ili prihodima od izvoza zbog smanjenja cijene neke rude ili smanjenja opsega izvoza te vrste rude, u onoj mjeri u kojoj je to smanjenje uzrokovano djelatnostima u Zoni. Ako se od nje to zatraži, Vlast pokreće proučavanje problema onih država koje će, vjerojatno, biti najozbiljnije ugrožene, u namjeri da se njihove teškoće svedu na najmanju mjeru i da im se pomogne u njihovom gospodarskom prilagođavanju.

Članak 152.

Ostvarivanje ovlaštenja i zadaća Vlasti

1. Vlast ne dopušta diskriminaciju u ostvarivanju svojih ovlaštenja i zadaća, uključujući pružanje mogućnosti za djelatnosti u Zoni.

2. Dopuštena je, međutim, posebna pozornost prema državama u razvoju, a među njima, naročita pozornost prema neobalnim državama i državama u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju, kako je to posebno predviđeno u ovome dijelu.

Članak 153.

Sustav istraživanja i iskorištavanja

1. Vlast organizira, obavlja i nadzire djelatnosti u Zoni u ime čovječanstva kao cjeline u skladu s ovim člankom, s drugim relevantnim odredbama ovoga dijela i priloga, koji se na njega odnose, te s pravilima, propisima i postupcima Vlasti.

2. Djelatnosti u Zoni obavljaju, kako je propisano u stavku 3.:

(a) Poduzeće, i

(b) udruživanjem s Vlašću, države stranke, ili državna poduzeća, ili fizičke ili pravne osobe koje imaju državljanstvo država stranaka, ili su pod njihovim stvarnim nadzorom, ili pod nadzorom njihovih državljana, kada te države stranke jamče za njih, ili svaka skupina navedenih subjekata koja ispunjava uvjete predviđene u ovome dijelu i Prilogu III.

3. Djelatnosti u Zoni obavljaju se u skladu sa službenim pisanim planom rada, sastavljenim u skladu s Prilogom III, koji je, nakon razmatranja u Pravnoj i tehničkoj komisiji, odobrilo Vijeće. Ako djelatnosti u Zoni obavljaju, na temelju odobrenja Vlasti, subjekti navedeni u stavku 2. (b), plan rada ima oblik ugovora u skladu sa člankom 3., Priloga III. Takvim se ugovorima mogu predvidjeti zajednički aranžmani u skladu sa člankom 11., Priloga III.

4. Vlast nadzire djelatnosti u Zoni radi osiguranja poštovanja relevantnih odredaba ovoga dijela i priloga koji se na njega odnose, te pravila, propisa i postupaka Vlasti i planova rada odobrenih u skladu sa stavkom 3. Države stranke pomažu Vlasti poduzimanjem svih mjera potrebnih da se osigura to poštovanje u skladu sa člankom 139.

5. Vlast ima pravo u svako doba poduzeti sve mjere predviđene u ovome dijelu radi osiguranja poštovanja njegovih odredaba te obavljanja zadaća nadzora i pravnog uređivanja, koje ima u skladu s ovim dijelom ili na temelju nekog ugovora. Vlast ima pravo pregledati sve uređaje u Zoni koji se koriste u vezi s djelatnostima u njoj.

6. Svaki ugovor zaključen u skladu sa stavkom 3. predviđa pravnu sigurnost ugovaratelja. Ugovor se, prema tome, ne smije izmijeniti, obustaviti ni raskinuti, osim u skladu sa člancima 18. i 19., Priloga III.

Članak 154.

Periodično preispitivanje

Svakih pet godina od stupanja na snagu Konvencije, Skupština poduzima opće i sustavno preispitivanje načina na koji se u praksi provodi međunarodni režim Zone ustanovljen Konvencijom. Na temelju toga preispitivanja, Skupština može poduzeti ili preporučiti drugim organima da poduzmu mjere u skladu s odredbama i postupcima ovoga dijela i priloga koji se na njega odnose, a koje će pridonijeti poboljšanju provedbe režima.

Članak 155.

Revizijska konferencija

1. Petnaest godina nakon 1. siječnja godine u kojoj je počela prva komercijalna proizvodnja na temelju odobrenog plana rada, Skupština će sazvati konferenciju radi revizije onih odredaba ovoga dijela i priloga koji se na njega odnose, kojima je uređen sustav istraživanja i iskorištavanja bogatstava Zone. Revizijska konferencija će potanko razmotriti, u svjetlosti iskustva stečenog u spomenutom razdoblju:

(a) jesu li odredbe ovoga dijela, kojima je uređen sustav istraživanja i iskorištavanja bogatstava Zone, postigle svoje ciljeve u svakom pogledu, uključujući pitanje jesu li koristile čovječanstvu kao cjelini;

(b) jesu li, za vrijeme petnaestogodišnjeg razdoblja, rezervirana područja Zone bila iskorištavana na djelotvoran i ujednačen način u usporedbi s nerezerviranim područjima;

(c) jesu li se razvoj i upotreba Zone i njezinih bogatstava provodili na način koji pridonosi zdravom razvoju svjetskog gospodarstva i ujednačenom rastu međunarodne trgovine;

(d) je li se spriječilo monopoliziranje djelatnosti u Zoni;

(e) je li ostvarena politika predviđena člancima 150. i 151.

(f) je li se sustavom postigla pravična raspodjela dobrobiti dobivenih djelatnostima u Zoni, uzimajući posebno u obzir interese i potrebe država u razvoju.

2. Revizijska konferencija osigurava održavanje načela zajedničke baštine čovječanstva, međunarodnog režima ustanovljenog radi osiguranja pravičnog iskorištavanja bogatstava Zone u korist svih zemalja, posebno država u razvoju, i Vlasti, koja organizira, obavlja i nadzire djelatnosti u Zoni. Konferencija, isto tako, osigurava održavanje načela sadržanih u ovome dijelu, koja se odnose na zabranu postavljanja zahtjeva ili ostvarivanja suverenosti na bilo kojem dijelu Zone, na prava država i njihovo opće ponašanje u odnosu na Zonu i njihovo sudjelovanje u djelatnostima u Zoni u skladu s Konvencijom, na sprečavanje monopoliziranja djelatnosti u Zoni, na upotrebu Zone isljučivo u miroljubive svrhe, na gospodarske aspekte djelatnosti u Zoni, na znanstveno istraživanje mora, na prijenos tehnologije, na zaštitu morskog okoliša, na zaštitu ljudskog života, na prava obalnih država, na pravni položaj voda iznad Zone i pravni položaj zračnog prostora iznad tih voda i na usklađivanje djelatnosti u Zoni s drugim djelatnostima u morskom okolišu.

3. Postupak donošenja odluka koje će se primijeniti na revizijskoj konferenciji bit će jednak onome na Trećoj konferenciji Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora. Konferencija će učiniti svaki napor da se suglasnost o svakoj izmjeni postigne konsenzusom i ne bi se trebalo glasovati o takvim pitanjima dok svi napori radi postizanja konsenzusa ne budu iscrpljeni.

4. Ako ni nakon pet godina od početka revizijske konferencije ne bude postignuta suglasnost o sustavu istraživanja i iskorištavanja bogatstava Zone, ona može u sljedećih 12 mjeseci, tročetvrtinskom većinom država stranaka, usvojiti i podnijeti državama strankama na ratifikaciju ili pristupanje takve izmjene kojima se mijenja ili prilagođava sustav, onako kako sama odredi da je potrebno i prikladno. Takve izmjene stupaju na snagu za sve države stranke 12 mjeseci od dana polaganja isprave o ratifikaciji ili pristupu tri četvrtine država stranaka.

5. Izmjene koje revizijska konferencija usvoji u skladu s ovim člankom ne diraju u prava stečena na temelju postojećih ugovora.

Odsjek 4. VLAST

Pododsjek A. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 156.

Ustanovljenje Vlasti

1. Ustanovljuje se Međunarodna vlast za morsko dno, koja djeluje u skladu s ovim dijelom.

2. Sve su države stranke ipso facto članice Vlasti.

3. Promatrači na Trećoj konferenciji Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora koji su potpisali Završni akt, a na koje se ne odnosi stavak 1 (c), (d), (e) ili (f), članka 305., imaju pravo sudjelovati u radu Vlasti kao promatrači, u skladu s njenim pravilima, propisima i postupcima.

4. Sjedište Vlasti je u Jamajki.

5. Radi obavljanja svojih zadaća Vlast može osnivati regionalne centre ili urede kakve smatra potrebnima.

Članak 157.

Priroda i temeljna načela Vlasti

1. Vlast je organizacija preko koje države stranke, u skladu s ovim dijelom, organiziraju i nadziru djelatnosti u Zoni, posebno radi upravljanja bogatstvima Zone.

2. Vlast ima ona ovlaštenja i zadaće koji su joj izričito povjereni Konvencijom. Vlast ima ona uzgredna ovlaštenja, koja su u skladu s Konvencijom, a proistječu iz tih ovlaštenja i zadaća vezanih uz djelatnosti u Zoni i potrebna su za njihovo ostvarivanje.

3. Vlast se temelji na načelu suverene jednakosti svih svojih članova.

3. Svi članovi Vlasti moraju u dobroj vjeri ispunjavati obveze koje su preuzeli u skladu s ovim dijelom, sa svrhom da se svakome od njih osiguraju prava i koristi koje proistječu iz članstva.

Članak 158.

Organi Vlasti

1. Kao glavni organi Vlasti ustanovljuju se: Skupština, Vijeće i Tajništvo.

2. Ustanovljuje se Poduzeće, kao organ preko kojega Vlast ostvaruje zadaće iz stavka 1., članka 170.

3. U skladu s ovim dijelom mogu se ustanoviti pomoćni organi za koje se ukaže potreba.

4. Svaki glavni organ Vlasti i Poduzeće odgovara za ostvarivanje ovlaštenja i zadaća koji su mu povjereni. U ostvarivanju tih ovlaštenja i zadaća svaki se organ suzdržava od poduzimanja bilo koje radnje koja može ugroziti ili otežati ostvarivanje posebnih ovlaštenja i zadaća povjerenih drugom organu.

Pododsjek B. SKUPŠTINA

Članak 159.

Sastav, postupak i glasovanje

1. Skupština se sastoji od svih članova Vlasti. Svaki član ima u Skupštini jednog predstavnika, kojega mogu pratiti zamjenici i savjetnici.

2. Skupština se sastaje na redovita godišnja zasjedanja i na takva izvanredna zasjedanja koje ona odluči sazvati, ili ih sazove glavni tajnik na zahtjev Vijeća ili većine članova Vlasti.

3. Zasjedanja se održavaju u sjedištu Vlasti, osim ako Skupština odluči drukčije.

4. Skupština donosi svoj poslovnik. Na početku svakoga redovitog zasjedanja bira svoga predsjednika i potreban broj drugih dužnosnika. Oni obavljaju dužnost dok se novi predsjednik i drugi dužnosnici ne izaberu na sljedećem redovitom zasjedanju.

5. Većina članova Skupštine čini kvorum.

6. Svaki član Skupštine ima jedan glas.

7. Odluke o pitanjima postupka, uključujući i odluke o sazivanju izvanrednih zasjedanja Skupštine, usvajaju se većinom članova koji su nazočni i glasuju.

8. Odluke o meritornim pitanjima usvajaju se dvotrećinskom većinom članova koji su nazočni i glasuju, pod uvjetom da takva većina obuhvaća većinu članova koji sudjeluju na tome zasjedanju. Ako postoji dvojba je li neko pitanje meritorno, postupa se kao da je meritorno pitanje, osim ako Skupština odluči drukčije većinom potrebnom za odlučivanje o meritornim pitanjima.

9. Kad se meritorno pitanje prvi puta treba staviti na glasovanje, Predsjednik može odgoditi odluku o pristupanju glasovanju o takvom pitanju za vrijeme koje nije duže od pet kalendarskih dana, a dužan je tako postupiti na zahtjev najmanje jedne petine članova Skupštine. Ovo se pravilo može primijeniti na određeno pitanje samo jednom, a ne smije se primijeniti tako da se o pitanju ne glasuje do završetka zasjedanja.

10. Na pisani zahtjev upućen Predsjedniku, koji je podržala najmanje jedna četvrtina članova Vlasti, da se zatraži savjetodavno mišljenje o suglasnosti s Konvencijom nekog prijedloga koji se pred Skupštinom u bilo kojem predmetu, Skupština traži savjetodavno mišljenje od Vijeća za sporove o morskom dnu Međunarodnog suda za pravo mora i odgađa glasovanje o tome prijedlogu dok ne dobije savjetodavno mišljenje Vijeća. Ako se savjetodavno mišljenje ne dobije do posljednjeg tjedna zasjedanja u tijeku kojega je zatraženo, Skupština odlučuje kada će se sastati radi glasovanja o odgođenom prijedlogu.

Članak 160.

Ovlaštenja i zadaće

1. Budući da je jedini organ Vlasti koji se sastoji od svih članova, Skupština se smatra vrhovnim organom Vlasti kojemu su ostali glavni organi odgovorni na način izričito predviđen u Konvenciji. Skupština je ovlaštena utvrđivati opću politiku u bilo kojem pitanju ili predmetu u nadležnosti Vlasti, u skladu s odgovarajućim odredbama Konvencije.

2. Pored navedenoga, ovlaštenja i zadaće Skupštine jesu:

(a) izbor članova Vijeća u skladu sa člankom 161.;

(b) izbor glavnog tajnika između kandidata koje predloži Vijeće;

(c) na preporuku Vijeća, izbor članova Upravnog odbora Poduzeća i generalnog  direktora Poduzeća;

(d) ustanovljenje takvih pomoćnih organa koje smatra potrebnim za obavljanje svojih zadaća u skladu s ovim dijelom. Prilikom određivanja sastava pomoćnih organa s dužnom se pozornošću vodi računa o načelu pravične geografske zastupljenosti i o posebnim interesima, kao i o potrebi da članovi budu osposobljeni i stručni u tehničkim pitanjima kojima se takvi organi bave;

(e) određivanje visine doprinosa članova za upravni proračun Vlasti u skladu s usvojenom skalom razreza, zasnovanoj na skali koja se koristi za redovni proračun Ujedinjenih naroda, dok Vlast ne bude raspolagala s dovoljno prihoda iz drugih izvora za podmirenje upravnih troškova;

(f) (i) na preporuku Vijeća, razmatranje i odobravanje pravila, propisa i postupaka o pravičnoj raspodjeli financijskih i drugih ekonomskih dobrobiti dobivenih od djelatnosti u Zoni i od plaćanja i doprinosa predviđenih člankom 82., posebno vodeći računa o interesima i potrebama država u razvoju i naroda koji nisu stekli punu neovisnost ili drugi samoupravni položaj. Ako Skupština ne odobri preporuke Vijeća, ona ih vraća Vijeću na ponovno razmatranje u svjetlu gledišta izraženih u Skupštini,

(ii) razmatranje i odobravanje pravila, propisa i postupaka Vlasti i svih njihovih izmjena koje je Vijeće privremeno usvojilo prema stavku 2. (o)(ii), članka 162. Ta se pravila, propisi i postupci odnose na ispitivanje, istraživanje i iskorištavanje Zone, financijsko poslovanje i unutrašnju upravu Vlasti, a prema preporuci Upravnog odbora Poduzeća, i na prijenos fondova od Poduzeća na Vlast;

(g) odlučivanje o pravičnoj raspodjeli financijskih i drugih ekonomskih dobrobiti dobivenih od djelatnosti u Zoni, u skladu s Konvencijom i pravilima, propisima i postupcima Vlasti;

(h) razmatranje i odobravanje prijedloga godišnjeg proračuna Vlasti koji podnosi Vijeće;

(i) razmatranje periodičnih izvješća Vijeća i Poduzeća i posebnih izvješća zatraženih od Vijeća ili od bilo kojega drugog organa Vlasti;

(j) pokretanje proučavanja i davanje preporuka radi promicanja međunarodne suradnje u vezi s djelatnostima u Zoni i poticanja progresivnog razvoja međunarodnog prava na tom području i njegove kodifikacije;

(k) razmatranje problema opće naravi u vezi s djelatnostima u Zoni, koji nastaju posebno za države u razvoju, a isto tako i problema u vezi s djelatnostima u Zoni koji nastaju za neke države zbog njihova geografskog položaja, naročito neobalnih država i država u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju;

(l) na preporuku Vijeća, zasnovanu na mišljenju Ekonomsko-planske komisije, ustanovljenje sustava naknade ili poduzimanje drugih mjera pomoći u gospodarskom prilagođavanju, predviđenih u stavku 10., članka 151.;

(m) obustavljanje, na temelju članka 185., ostvarivanja članskih prava i povlastica;

(n) raspravljanje o bilo kojem pitanju ili predmetu iz djelokruga Vlasti i donošenje odluke o tome koji će organ Vlasti razmatrati takvo pitanje ili predmet koji nije izričito povjeren nekom određenom organu, u skladu s podjelom ovlaštenja i zadaća među organima Vlasti.

Pododsjek C. VIJEĆE

Članak 161.

Sastav, postupak i glasovanje

1. Vijeće se sastoji od 36 članova Vlasti koje bira Skupština, sljedećim redom:

(a) četiri člana među onim državama strankama koje su u posljednjih pet godina za koje su dostupne statistike, trošile više od 2 posto od cjelokupne svjetske potrošnje ili čiji je čisti uvoz bio viši od 2 posto od cjelokupnog svjetskog uvoza sirovina dobivenih od onih vrsta ruda koje će se dobivati iz Zone, s tim da je najmanje jedna država iz istočnoeuropske (socijalističke) regije, kao i da je među njima država koja je najveći potrošač;

(b) četiri člana među osam država stranaka koje su najviše uložile u pripreme i obavljanje djelatnosti u Zoni, bilo izravno bilo putem svojih državljana, uključujući najmanje jednu državu iz istočnoeuropske (socijalističke) regije;

(c) četiri člana među državama strankama koje su, prema proizvodnji na području pod njihovom jurisdikcijom, glavni čisti izvoznici onih vrsta ruda koje će se dobivati iz Zone, uključujući barem dvije države u razvoju čiji izvoz takvih ruda ima značajan utjecaj na njihova gospodarstva;

(d) šest članova među državama strankama u razvoju koje predstavljaju posebne interese. Posebni interesi koji trebaju biti predstavljani uključuju interese država s brojnim stanovništvom, neobalnih država i država u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju, država koje su glavni uvoznici onih vrsta ruda koje će se dobivati iz Zone, država koje su potencijalni proizvođači takvih ruda i najmanje razvijenih država;

(e) osamnaest članova izabranih na temelju načela koje osigurava pravičnu geografsku raspodjelu svih mjesta u Vijeću, uz uvjet da svaka geografska regija bude predstavljena s barem jednim članom izabranim na temelju ovoga podstavka. U tu svrhu, geografske regije su ove: Afrika, Azija, Istočna Europa (soci­jalistička), Latinska Amerika i Zapadna Europa i ostale države.

2. Prilikom izbora članova Vijeća u skladu sa stavkom 1., Skupština osigurava:

(a) da su neobalne države i države u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju predstavljene u broju koji je približno razmjeran njihovoj zastupljenosti u Skupštini;

(b) da su obalne države, osobito države u razvoju, koje ne ispunjavaju uvjete iz stavka 1.(a), (b), (c) ili (d) predstavljene u broju koji je približno razmjeran njihovoj zastupljenosti u Skupštini;

(c) da je svaka grupa država stranaka koja mora biti zastupljena u Vijeću predstavljena s onim članovima, ako ih ima, koje je ta grupa predložila.

3. Izbori se provode na redovitim zasjedanjima Skupštine. Svaki se član Vijeća bira na četiri godine. Međutim, prilikom prvog izbora članova Vijeća polovina članova iz svake od grupa navedenih u stavku 1. bira se na dvije godine.

4. Članovi Vijeća mogu se ponovno birati; međutim, s dužnom se pozornošću treba odnositi prema poželjnosti rotacije u članstvu.

5. Vijeće djeluje u sjedištu Vlasti i sastaje se toliko često koliko poslovi Vlasti zahtijevaju, ali najmanje tri puta godišnje.

6. Većina članova Vijeća čini kvorum.

7. Svaki član Vijeća ima jedan glas.

8. (a) Većinom članova koji su nazočni i glasuju usvajaju se odluke o pitanjima postupka.

(b) Dvotrećinskom većinom članova koji su nazočni i glasuju, pod uvjetom da takva većina obuhvaća većinu članova Vijeća, usvajaju se odluke o meritornim pitanjima koja se postavljaju u vezi s odredbama u podstavcima (f), (g), (h), (i), (n), (p), (v), stavka 2., članka 162. i u članku 191.

(c) Tročetvrtinskom većinom članova koji su nazočni i glasuju, pod uvjetom da takva većina obuhvaća većinu članova Vijeća, usvajaju se odluke o meritornim pitanjima koja se postavljaju u vezi s odredbama u članku 162., stavku 1.; članku 162., stavku 2., podstavcima (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (l), (q), (r), (s), (t); članku 162., stavku 2., podstavku (u), kad ugovaratelj ili država koja jamči ne poštuje propise; članku 162., stavku 2., podstavku (w), s tim da naređenja izdana na temelju te odredbe ne mogu obvezivati duže od 30 dana, osim ako su potvrđena odlukom usvojenom u skladu s podstavkom (d); članku 162., stavku 2., podstavcima (x), (y), (z); članku 163., stavku 2.; članku 174., stavku 3; članku 11., Priloga IV.

(d) Konsenzusom se usvajaju odluke o meritornim pitanjima koja se postavljaju u vezi s odredbama u podstavcima (m) i (o), stavka 2., članka 162., i u vezi s izmjenama dijela XI.

(e) U svrhe podstavaka (d), (f) i (g), “konsenzus” znači odsustvo bilo kakvog formalnog protivljenja. U roku od 14 dana od podnošenja prijedloga Vijeću, predsjednik Vijeća utvrđuje da li bi bilo formalnog protivljenja usvajanju prijedloga. Ako predsjednik utvrdi da bi takvog protivljenja bilo, on će u roku od tri dana nakon tog svog zaključka ustanoviti i sazvati odbor za mirenje, sastavljen od najviše devet članova Vijeća, s predsjednikom Vijeća kao predsjedajućim, radi uklanjanja razlika i pronalaženja prijedloga koji će se moći usvojiti konsenzusom. Odbor djeluje brzo i podnosi izvješće Vijeću u roku od 14 dana od njegova ustanovljenja. Ako odbor nije u stanju preporučiti prijedlog koji će se moći usvojiti konsenzusom, on će u svome izvješću iznijeti razloge na kojima se temelji protivljenje prijedlogu.

(f) Odluke o pitanjima koja naprijed nisu navedena, a koja je Vijeće ovlašteno usvojiti na temelju pravila, propisa i postupaka Vlasti ili na bilo kojem drugom temelju, usvajaju se prema podstavcima ovog stavka koji su naznačeni u tim pravilima, propisima i postupcima ili, ako u njima nisu naznačeni, na temelju podstavka koji će odrediti Vijeće konsenzusom, po mogućnosti unaprijed.

(g) Kada je sporno pripada li neko pitanje podstavcima (a), (b), (c) ili (d), smatrat će se da pitanje spada u onaj podstavak u kojemu se zahtijeva veća ili najveća većina ili konsenzus, ovisno o slučaju, osim ako Vijeće takvom većinom ili konsenzusom odluči drukčije.

9. Vijeće utvrđuje postupak prema kojemu član Vlasti koji nije zastupljen u Vijeću može uputiti predstavnika da bude nazočan sjednici Vijeća kada taj član to zahtijeva, ili ako Vijeće razmatra predmet koji je za njega osobito važan. Predstavnik takvog člana ovlašten je sudjelovati u raspravama, ali nema pravo glasa.

Članak 162.

Ovlaštenja i zadaće

1. Vijeće je izvršni organ Vlasti. U skladu s Konvencijom i općom politikom koju utvrđuje Skupština, Vijeće je ovlašteno utvrđivati posebnu politiku koju Vlast provodi u svakom pitanju ili predmetu u nadležnosti Vlasti.

2. Pored toga, Vijeće:

(a) nadgleda i usklađuje primjenu odredaba ovoga dijela u svim pitanjima i predmetima u nadležnosti Vlasti i upozorava Skupštinu na slučajeve nepoštovanja propisa;

(b) predlaže Skupštini popis kandidata za izbor glavnog tajnika;

(c) preporučuje Skupštini kandidate za izbor članova Upravnog odbora Poduzeća i generalnog direktora Poduzeća;

(d) ustanovljava pomoćne organe, ovisno o prilikama i vodeći računa o ekonomičnosti i efikasnosti, koje smatra potrebnima za obavljanje svojih zadaća u skladu s ovim dijelom. Pri određivanju sastava pomoćnih organa, pozornost se posebno poklanja potrebi da članovi budu osposobljeni i stručni u tehničkim pitanjima kojima se takvi organi bave, s tim da se s dužnom pozornošću vodi računa o načelu pravične geografske zastupljenosti i o posebnim interesima;

(e) donosi svoj poslovnik, u kojem utvrđuje i način izbora svoga predsjednika;

(f) zaključuje u ime Vlasti i u okvirima njene nadležnosti sporazume s Ujedinjenim narodima i drugim međunarodnim organizacijama, uz uvjet odobrenja Skupštine;

(g) razmatra izvješća Poduzeća i dostavlja ih Skupštini sa svojim preporukama;

(h) podnosi Skupštini godišnja izvješća i posebna izvješća koja ona zatraži;

(i) daje upute Poduzeću u skladu sa člankom 170.;

(j) odobrava planove rada u skladu sa člankom 6., Priloga III. Vijeće uzima u postupak svaki plan rada u roku od 60 dana nakon što ga je Pravna i tehnička komisija podnijela zasjedanju Vijeća, u skladu s ovim postupkom:

(i) ako Komisija preporuči odobrenje plana rada, pretpostavlja se da ga je Vijeće odobrilo ako nijedan član Vijeća ne podnese u roku od 14 dana obrazloženo pisano protivljenje predsjedniku, u kojemu je navedeno neudovoljavanje uvjetima iz članka 6., Priloga III. Ako ima protivljenja, primjenjuje se postupak za mirenje predviđen u podstavku (e), stavka 8., članka 161. Ako, nakon što je postupak za mirenje okončan, protivljenje odobrenju plana rada i dalje postoji, smatrat će se da je Vijeće odobrilo plan rada, osim ako ga je Vijeće odbilo konsenzusom svojih članova, isključujući državu ili države koje su podnijele zahtjev ili jamče za podnositelja zahtjeva,

(ii) ako Komisija preporuči da se plan rada ne odobri ili ako ne dade nikakvu preporuku, Vijeće može odobriti plan rada tročetvrtinskom većinom članova koji su nazočni i glasuju, pod uvjetom da takva većina obuhvaća većinu članova koji sudjeluju na tome zasjedanju;

(k) odobrava planove rada koje podnosi Poduzeće u skladu sa člankom 12., Priloga IV., primjenjujući mutatis mutandis postupke predviđene u podstavku (j);

(l) nadzire djelatnosti u Zoni u skladu sa stavkom 4., članka 153. i pravilima, propisima i postupcima Vlasti;

(m) poduzima, na temelju preporuke Ekonomsko-planske komisije, potrebne i prikladne mjere u skladu s točkom (h), članka 150., radi zaštite država u razvoju od štetnih gospodarskih posljedica koje se navode u toj odredbi;

(n) daje preporuke Skupštini, na temelju mišljenja Ekonomsko-planske komisije, za sustav naknade ili za poduzimanje drugih mjera pomoći u gospodarskom prilagođavanju, predviđenih u stavku 10., članka 151.;

(o) (i) preporuča Skupštini pravila, propise i postupke o pravičnoj raspodjeli financijskih i drugih ekonomskih dobrobiti dobivenih od djelatnosti u Zoni i od plaćanja i doprinosa na temelju članka 82., uzimajući posebno u obzir interese i potrebe država u razvoju i naroda koji nisu stekli punu neovisnost ili drugi samoupravni položaj.

(ii) usvaja i privremeno primjenjuje, dok ih Skupština ne odobri, pravila, propise i postupke Vlasti i sve njihove izmjene, uzimajući u obzir preporuke Pravne i tehničke komisije ili drugog pomoćnog nadležnog organa. Ta se pravila, propisi i postupci odnose na ispitivanje, istraživanje i iskorištavanje Zone, financijsko poslovanje i unutrašnju upravu Vlasti. Prednost će se dati usvajanju pravila, propisa i postupaka za istraživanje i iskorištavanje polimetalnih grumena. Pravila, propisi i postupci za istraživanje i iskorištavanje drugih bogatstava koja nisu polimetalni grumeni usvojit će se u roku od tri godine od dana podnošenja zahtjeva Vlasti od strane bilo kojeg njezinog člana da usvoji pravila, propise i postupke koji se odnose na takva bogatstva. Sva se pravila, propisi i postupci primjenjuju privremeno, dok ih ne odobri Skupština ili ih Vijeće ne izmijeni prema gledištima koje je izrazila Skupština;

(p) nadgleda sva plaćanja koja treba izvršiti od strane Vlasti ili u njezinu korist u vezi s radovima poduzetim u skladu s ovim dijelom;

(q) obavlja izbor među podnositeljima zahtjeva za dozvole proizvodnje prema članku 7., Priloga III. u slučaju predviđenom tim člankom;

(r) podnosi Skupštini na odobrenje prijedlog godišnjeg proračuna Vlasti;

(s) daje preporuke Skupštini o politici u bilo kojem pitanju ili predmetu u nadležnosti Vlasti;

(t) daje preporuke Skupštini o obustavljanju, na temelju članka 185., ostvarivanja članskih prava i povlastica;

(u) u ime Vlasti pokreće postupke pred Vijećem za sporove o morskom dnu zbog nepoštovanja propisa;

(v) priopćuje Skupštini odluku Vijeća za sporove o morskom dnu u postupku koji je pokrenut na temelju podstavka (u) i daje preporuke koje smatra prikladnima glede mjera koje treba poduzeti;

(w) izdaje naloge u hitnim slučajevima, koji mogu uključivati naloge za obustavljanje ili prilagođavanje radova, kako bi se spriječilo nanošenje velike štete morskom okolišu uzrokovane djelatnostima u Zoni;

(x) odbija ugovarateljima ili Poduzeću iskorištavanje određenih područja kad ozbiljni razlozi ukazuju na opasnosti nanošenja velike štete morskom okolišu;

(y) osniva pomoćni organ za izradu nacrta financijskih pravila, propisa i postupaka koji se odnose na:

(i) financijsko poslovanje u skladu sa člancima 171. i 175., i

(ii) financijske aranžmane u skladu sa člankom 13. i postav­kom (c), stavka 1., članka 17., Priloga III.;

(z) ustanovljuje odgovarajuće strukture radi upravljanja i nadgledanja osoblja inspektora koji će nadzirati djelatnosti u Zoni, kako bi utvrdili poštuju li se odredbe ovoga dijela i pravila, propisi i postupci Vlasti, te modaliteti i uvjeti bilo kojega ugovora zaključenog s Vlašću.

Članak 163.

Organi Vijeća

1. Ustanovljavaju se ovi organi Vijeća:

(a) Ekonomsko-planska komisija;

(b) Pravna i tehnička komisija.

2. Svaka se komisija sastoji od 15 članova, koje bira Vijeće među kandidatima koje su predložile države stranke. Međutim, ako je potrebno, Vijeće može odlučiti da se poveća sastav bilo koje od komisija, vodeći računa o ekonomičnosti i djelotvornosti.

3. Članovi komisije imaju odgovarajuću osposobljenost za područje njezine nadležnosti. Države stranke predlažu kandidate najviše stručnosti i poštenja, osposobljene u relevantnim strukama, radi osiguravanja djelotvornog rada komisije.

4. Prilikom izbora članova komisija s dužnom se pozornošću vodi računa o potrebi pravične geografske zastupljenosti i predstavljanju posebnih interesa.

5. Nijedna država stranka ne može predložiti više od jednog kandidata za istu komisiju. Nitko ne može biti izabran u više od jedne komisije.

6. Članovi komisija biraju se na pet godina. Oni mogu biti birani za još jedan mandat.

7. U slučaju smrti, nesposobnosti ili ostavke člana komisije prije isteka njegova mandata, Vijeće bira za ostatak mandata člana iz iste geografske regije ili vrste interesa.

8. Članovi komisija ne smiju imati nikakvih financijskih interesa u bilo kakvoj djelatnosti vezanoj uz istraživanje i iskorištavanje u Zoni. Ovisno o njihovoj odgovornosti komisiji čiji su članovi, oni ne smiju otkrivati, čak ni nakon prestanka svojih zadaća, nikakve industrijske tajne ili podatke koji su industrijsko vlasništvo, preneseno Vlasti u skladu sa člankom 14., Priloga III., ili druge povjerljive informacije koje su saznali uslijed svojih dužnosti u Vlasti.

9. Svaka komisija obavlja svoje zadaće u skladu sa smjernicama i uputama koje usvoji Vijeće.

10. Svaka komisija sastavlja i podnosi Vijeću na odobrenje pravila i propise koji su potrebni radi djelotvornog ispunjavanja zadaća komisije.

11. Postupci donošenja odluka komisije utvrđuju se pravilima, propisima i postupcima Vlasti. Uz preporuke Vijeću, kad je to potrebno, prilaže se sažetak različitih mišljenja izraženih u komisiji.

12. Svaka komisija u pravilu djeluje u sjedištu Vlasti i sastaje se toliko često koliko je to potrebno radi djelotvornog obavljanja svojih zadaća.

13. U obavljanju svojih zadaća svaka se komisija može, kad je to potrebno, savjetovati s drugom komisijom ili bilo kojim nadležnim organom Ujedinjenih naroda i njihovih specijaliziranih ustanova, ili s bilo kojom međunarodnom organizacijom koja je stručna u predmetu o kojemu je potrebno savjetovanje.

Članak 164.

Ekonomsko-planska komisija

1. Članovi Ekonomsko-planske komisije moraju imati odgovarajuće kvalifikacije u područjima kao što su: rudarstvo, upravljanje djelatnostima u vezi s rudnim bogatstvima, među­narodna trgovina ili međunarodna ekonomija. Vijeće nastoji osigurati da ukupno članstvo Komisije ima kvalifikacije u svim tim područjima. Komisija mora imati najmanje dva člana iz država u razvoju čiji izvoz onih vrsta ruda koje će se dobivati iz Zone ima važan utjecaj na njihova gospodarstva.

2. Komisija:

(a) predlaže, na zahtjev Vijeća, mjere za provedbu odluka koje se odnose na djelatnosti u Zoni poduzete u skladu s Konvencijom;

(b) preispituje trendove i čimbenike koji utječu na ponudu, potražnju i cijene ruda koje se mogu dobiti iz Zone, uzimajući u obzir kako interese država uvoznica, tako i država izvoznica, a među njima posebno država u razvoju;

(c) ispituje svaku situaciju koja može izazvati štetne posljedice spomenute u točki (h), članka 150. na koju joj skrenu pozornost zainteresirana država stranka ili države stranke, i daje odgovarajuće preporuke Vijeću;

(d) predlaže Vijeću, prema stavku 10., članka 151., radi podnošenja Skupštini, sustav naknade ili druge mjere pomoći u gospodarskom prilagođavanju država u razvoju koje trpe štetne posljedice uzrokovane djelatnostima u Zoni. Komisija daje preporuke Vijeću, koje su u određenim slučajevima potrebne za primjenu sustava ili drugih mjera koje je usvojila Skupština.

Članak 165.

Pravna i tehnička komisija

1. Članovi Pravne i tehničke komisije moraju imati odgovarajuće kvalifikacije u područjima, kao što su: istraživanje, iskorištavanje i prerada rudnih bogatstava, oceanologija, zaštita morskog okoliša ili ekonomski ili pravni predmeti vezani uz dubokomorsko rudarstvo i u drugim bliskim područjima. Vijeće nastoji osigurati da ukupno članstvo Komisije ima kvalifikacije u svim tim područjima.

2. Komisija:

(a) na zahtjev Vijeća, daje mu preporuke koje se tiču ostvarivanja zadaća Vlasti;

(b) razmatra službene pisane planove rada za djelatnosti u Zoni u skladu sa stavkom 3., članka 153. i podnosi odgovarajuće preporuke Vijeću. Komisija svoje preporuke temelji isključivo na odredbama Priloga III. i o tome u cijelosti izvještava Vijeće;

(c) na zahtjev Vijeća, nadgleda djelatnosti u Zoni, kad je to prikladno, u dogovoru i u suradnji sa svakim subjektom koji obavlja takve djelatnosti, ili sa zainteresiranom državom ili državama, i izvještava Vijeće;

(d) priprema procjene posljedica djelatnosti u Zoni na okoliš;

(e) daje preporuke Vijeću o zaštiti morskog okoliša, uzimajući u obzir gledišta priznatih stručnjaka u tom području;

(f) sastavlja i podnosi Vijeću pravila, propise i postupke iz stavka 2. (o), članka 162., uzimajući u obzir sve relevantne čimbenike, uključujući procjene posljedica djelatnosti u Zoni na okoliš;

(g) povremeno preispituje ta pravila, propise i postupke i preporučuje Vijeću takve izmjene koje smatra potrebnima ili poželjnima;

(h) daje preporuke Vijeću o ustanovljavanju programa promatranja prema kojemu se redovito prate, mjere, vrednuju i analiziraju priznatim znanstvenim metodama rizici ili posljedice onečišćenja morskog okoliša, uzrokovanog djelatnostima u Zoni, osigurava da postojeći propisi budu prikladni i da se poštuju te usklađuje primjenu programa promatranja kojeg je Vijeće odobrilo;

(i) preporučuje Vijeću da u ime Vlasti pokrene postupak pred Vijećem za sporove o morskom dnu, u skladu s ovim dijelom i relevantnim prilozima, posebno vodeći računa o članku 187.;

(j) na temelju odluke Vijeća za sporove o morskom dnu, u postupku koji je pokrenut na temelju podstavka (i), daje preporuke Vijeću o mjerama koje treba poduzeti;

(k) preporučuje Vijeću izdavanje naloga u hitnim slučaje­vima, koji mogu uključivati naloge za obustavljanje ili prilago­đavanje radova, kako bi se spriječilo nanošenje velike štete morskom okolišu uzrokovane djelatnostima u Zoni. Takvim preporukama Vijeće daje prvenstvo u razmatranju;

(l) preporučuje Vijeću da odbije ugovarateljima ili Poduzeću iskorištavanje određenih područja kad ozbiljni razlozi ukazuju na opasnosti nanošenja velike štete morskom okolišu;

(m) daje preporuke Vijeću o upravljanju i nadgledanju osoblja inspektora koji će nadzirati djelatnosti u Zoni kako bi utvrdili poštuju li se odredbe ovoga dijela i pravila, propisi i postupci Vlasti, te modaliteti i uvjeti bilo kojega ugovora zaključenog s Vlašću;

(n) izračunava najvišu razinu proizvodnje i izdaje dozvole za proizvodnju u ime Vlasti prema stavcima 2. do 7., članka 151., nakon izbora kojeg obavlja Vijeće, ukoliko je to potrebno, među podnositeljima zahtjeva za dozvolu za proizvodnju u skladu s člankom 7., Priloga III.

3. Na zahtjev svake države stranke ili druge zainteresirane stranke, članove Komisije prilikom obavljanja njihovih zadaća nadgledanja i pregleda prati predstavnik te države stranke ili druge zainteresirane stranke.

Pododsjek D. TAJNIŠTVO

Članak 166.

Tajništvo

1. Tajništvo Vlasti se sastoji od glavnog tajnika i Vlasti potrebnog osoblja.

2. Glavnog tajnika bira Skupština, među kandidatima koje predlaže Vijeće, na četiri godine i može se ponovno birati.

3. Glavni tajnik je najviši službenik Vlasti, djeluje u tome svojstvu na svim sastancima Skupštine, Vijeća i pomoćnih organa i obavlja druge upravne zadaće koje mu povjere ti organi.

4. Glavni tajnik podnosi Skupštini godišnje izvješće o radu Vlasti.

Članak 167.

Osoblje Vlasti

1. Osoblje Vlasti se sastoji od kvalificiranog znanstvenog, tehničkog i drugog osoblja, potrebnog za obavljanje upravnih zada