Ženevske konvencije i dopunski protokoli

NN 5/1994 (12.5.1994.), Ženevske konvencije i dopunski protokoli

MINISTARSTVO VANJSKIH POSLOVA

Na temelju točke III. Odluke o objavljivanju mnogostranih međunarodnih ugovora kojih je Republika Hrvatska stranka na temelju notifikacija o sukcesiji ("Narodne novine - Međunarodni ugovori", broj 1/92),objavljuju se tekstovi:

1. ŽENEVSKE KONVENCIJE ZA POBOLJŠANJE POLOŽAJA RANJENIKA I BOLESNIKA U ORUŽANIM SNAGAMA U RATU OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949;

2. ŽENEVSKE KONVENCIJE ZA POBOLJŠANJE POLOŽAJA RANJENIKA, BOLESNIKA I BRODOLOMACA ORUŽANIH SNAGA NA MORU OD I2. KOLOVOZA 1949;

3. ŽENEVSKE KONVENCIJE O POSTUPANJU S RATNIM ZAROBLJENICIMA OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949;

4. ŽENEVSKE KONVENCIJE O ZAŠTITI GRAĐANSKIH OSOBA U VRIJEME RATA OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949;

5. DOPUNSKOG PROTOKOLA ŽENEVSKIMKONVENCIJAMA OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949. O ZAŠTITI ŽRTAVA MEĐUNARODNIH ORUŽANIH SUKOBA

(PROTOKOL I), usvojenog 8. lipnja 1977. - pročišćeni tekst s izmijenjenim Prilogom l. koji je budući da je potvrden (ratificiran nakon notifikacije o sukcesiji, već objavljen (Narodne novine - Međunarodni ugovori, broj 17/93);

6. DOPUNSKOG PROTOKOLA ŽENEVSKIM KONVENCIJAMA OD l2. KOLOVOZA 1949. O ZAŠTITI ŽRTAVA MEĐUNARODNIH ORUŽANIH SUKOBA

(PROTOKOL 11J, usvojenog 8. lipnja 1977.)

Na temelju odnosne notifikacije o sukcesiji glede navedenih međunarodnih ugovora, za Republiku Hrvatsku ne vrijede rezerve što ih je stavila i izjave što ih je dala drižava prednica. Republika Hrvatska tom je prilikom dala ovu izjavu “Na temelju stavka 2. članka 90. Protokola I, Republika Hrvatska priznaje ipso facto i bez posebnog sporazuma, prema

svakoj drugoj visokoj stranki ugovornici koja prihvati istu obvezu, nadležnost Međunarodne komisije za utvrđivanje činjenica da istražuje navode druge takve stranke koji se odnose na tešku povredu ili drugo ozbiljno kršenje Ženevskih konvencija iz 1949. ili Protokola I".

Tekstovi navedenih međunarodnih ugovora na engleskom i hrvatskom jeziku glase:

GENEVA CONVENTION FOR THE AMELIORATION OF THE CONDITION OF THE WOUNDED AND SICK IN ARMED FORCES IN THE FIELD OF AUGUST 12, 1949

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, for the purpose of revising the Geneva Convention for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field of 27 July 1929, have agreed as follows:

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1

The High Contracting Parties unde.rtake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.

Article 2

In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peacetime, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, everr if the state of war is not recognized by one of them. '

The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof. ,

Article 3

In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:

(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.

To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b) taking of hostages;

(c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment;

(d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.

The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, ell or part of the other provisions of the present Convention.

The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 4

Neutral Powers shall apply by analogy the provisions of the present Convention to the wounded and sick, and to members of the medical personnel and to chaplains of the armed forces of the Parties to the conflict, received or interned in their territory, as well as to dead persons found.

Article 5

For the protected persons who have fallen into the hands of the enemy, the present Convention shall apply until their final repatriation.

Article 6

In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 10, 15, 23, 28, 31, 38, 37 and 52, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of the wounded and sick, of members of the medical personnel or of chaplains, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.

Wounded and sick, as well as medical parsonnel and chaplains, shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 7

Wounded and sick, as weli as members of the medical personnel and chaplains, may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.

Article 8

The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty iL is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible, the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the presertt Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties. Their activities shall onty be restricted as an exceptional and temporary measure when this is rendered necessary by imperative military necessities.

Article 9

The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of wounded and sick, medical personnel and chaplains, and for their relief.

Article 10

The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on tlie Protecttng Powers by virtue of the Present Convention.

When wounded and sick, or medical personnel and chaplains do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organiza,tion provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organiza.tion, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.

If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the -provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the Iriternational Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.

Any neutral Power, or any organization invited by the Power concerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.

No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.

Whenever, in the present Convention, mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention also applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.

Article 11

In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.

For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, in particular of the authorities responsible for the wounded and sick, members of medical personnel and chaplains, possibly on neutral terr itory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict, a person belonging to a neutral Power or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.

CHAPTER II WOUNDED AND SICK

Article 12

Members of the armed forces and other persons mentioned in the following Article, who are wounded or sick, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances.

They shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religion, political opinions, or any other similar criteria.

Any attempts upon their lives, or violence to their persons, shall be strictly prohibited; in particular, they shall not be murdered or exterminated, subjected to torture or to biologica.l experiments; they shall not wilfully be left witl2out medical assistance and care, nor shall conditions exposing them to contagion or infection be created.

Only urgent medica,l reasons wili authorize priority in the order of treatment to be administered.

Women shall be treated with all consideration due to their sex.

The Party to the conflict which is compelled to abandon wounded or sick to the enemy shall, as far as military considerations permit, leave with them a part of its medical personnel and material to assist in their care.

Article 13

The present Convention shall apply to the wounded and sick belonging to the following ca,tegories:

(1) Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces.

(2) Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or outside their ovn territory, even if this terntory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such organized resistance movements, fulfil the following conditions:

(a) that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;

(b) that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;

(c) that of carrying arms openly;

(d) that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

(3) Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a Government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power.

(4) Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as civil members of military aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors, members of labour units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have received authorization from the armed forces which they accompany.

(5) Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable treatment under any other provisions in international law.

(s) Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the approach of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war.

Article 14

Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the wounded and sick of a belligerent who fall into enemy hands shall be prisoners of war, and the provisions of intPrnational law concerning prisoners of war shall apply to them.

Article 15

At all times, and particularly after an engagement, Parties to the conflict shall, without delay, take all possible measures to search for and collect the wounded and sick, to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment, to ensure their adequate care, and to search for the dead and prevent their being despoiled.

 

Whenever circumstances permit, an armistice or a suspension of fire shall be arranged, or local arrangements made, to permit the removal, wxchange and transport of the wounded left on the battlefield.

Likewise, local arrangements may be concluded between Parties to the conflict for the removal or exchange of wounded and sick from a besieged or encircled area, and for the passage of medical and religious personnel and equipment on their way to that area.

Article 16

Parties to the conflict shall record as soon as possible, in respect of each wounded, sick or dead person of the adverse Party falling into their hands, any particulars which may assist in his identification.

These records should if possible include:

(a) designation of the Power on which he depends;

(b) army, regimental, personal or serial number;

(c) surname;

(d) first name or names;

(e) date of birth;

(f) any other particulars shown on his identity card or disc;

(g) date and place of capture or death;

(h) particulars concerning wounds or illness, or cause of death.

As soon as possible the above mentioned information shall be forwarded to the Information Bureau described in Article 122 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949, which shall transmit this information to the Power on which these persons depend through the intermediary of the Protecting Power and of the Central Prisoners of War Agency.

Parties to the conflict shall prepare and forward to each other throught the same bureau, certificates of death or duly authenticated lists of the dead. They shall'likewise collect and forward through the same bureau one~half of a double identity disc, last wills or other documents of importance to the next of kin, money and in general all articles of an intrinsic or sentimental value, which are found on the dead. These articles, together with unidentified articles, shall be sent in sealed packets, accompanied by statements giving all particulars necessary for the identification of the deceased owners,. as well as by a complete list of the contents of the parcel.

Article 17

Parties to the conflict shall ensure that burial or cremation of the dead, carried out individually as far as circumstances permit, is preceded by a careful examination, if possible by a medical examination, of the bodies, with a view to confirming death, establishing identity and enabling a report to be made. One half of the double identity disc, or the identity disc itself if it is a single disc, should remain on the body.

Bodies shall not be cremated except for imperative reasons of hygiene or for motives based on the religion of the deceased. In case of cremation, the circumstances and reasons for cremation shall be stated in detail in the death certificate or on the authenticated list of the dead.

They shall further ensure that the dead are honourably interred, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged, that their graves are respected, grouped if possible according to the nationality of the deceased, properly maintained and marked so that they may always be found. For this purpose, they shall organize at the commencement of hostilities an Official Graves Registration Service, to allow subsequent exhumations and to ensure the identification of bodies, whatever the site of the

graves, and the possible transportation to the home country. These provisions shall likewise apply to the ashes, which shall be kept by the Graves Registration Service until proper disposal there of in accordance with the wishes of the home country.

As soon as circumstances permit, and at latest at the end of hostilities, these Services shall exchange, through the Information Bureau mentioned in the second paragraph of Article 16, lists showing the exact location and markings of the graves, together with particulars of the dead interred therein.

Article 18

The miiitary authorities may appeal to the charity of the inhabitants voluntarily to collect and care for, under their direction, the wounded and sick, granting persons who have responded to this appeal the necessary protection and facilities. Should the adverse Party take or retake control of the area, he shall likewise grant these persons the same protection and the same facilities.

The military authorities shall permit the inhabitants and relief societies, even in invaded or occupied areas, spontaneously to collect and ca,re for wounded or sick of whatever nationality. The civilian populatfon shall respect these w~_.zded and sick, and in particular abstain from offering them violence. .

No one may ever be molested or convicted for having nursed the wounded or sick.

The provisions of the present Article do not relieve the occupying Power of its obligation to give both physical and moral care to the wounded and sick.

CHAPTER III

MEDICAL UNITS AND ESTABLISHMENTS

Article 19

Fixed establishments and mobile medical units of the Medical Service may in no circumstances be attacked, but shall at all times be respected and protected by the Parties to the conflict. Should they fall into the hands of the adverse Party, their personnel shall be free to pursue their duties, as long as the capturing Power has not itself ensured the necessary care of the wounded and sick found in such establishments and units.

The responsible authorities shall ensure that the said medical establishments and units are, as far as possible, situated in such a manner that atta,cks against military objectives cannot imperil their safety.

Article 20

Hospital ships entitled to the protection of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of I2 August 1949, shall not be attacked from the land.

Article 21

The protection to which fixed establishments and mobile medical units of the Medical Service are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after a due warning has been given, naming, in all appropriate cases, a reasonable time limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.

Article 22

The following conditions shall not be considered as depriving a medical united or establishment of the protection guaranteed by Article 19:

( 1 ) That the personnel of the unit or establishment are armed, and that they use the arms in their own defence, or w that of the wounded and sick in their charge.

(2) That in the absence of armed orderlies, the unit or establishment is protected by a picket or by sentries or by an escort.

(3) That small arms and ammunition taken from the wounded and sick and not yet handed to the proper service, are found in the unit or establishment.

(4) That personnel and material of the veterinary service are found in the unit or establishment, without forming an integral part thereof.

(5) That the humanitarian activities of medical units and establishments or of their personnel extend to the care of civilian wounded or sick.

Article 23

In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties thereto, may establish in their own territory and, if the need arises, in occupied areas, hospital zones and loca.lities so organized as to protect the wounded and sick from the effects of war, as well as the personnel entrusted with the organiza.tion and administration of these zones and localities and with the ca,re of the persons therein assembled.

Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the Parties concerned may conclude agreements on mutual recognition of the hospital zones and localities they have created. They may for this purpose implement the provisions of the Draft Agreement annexed to the present Convention, with such amendments as they may consider necessary.

The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red Cross are invited to lend their good offices in order to facilitate the institution and recognition of these hospital zones and localities.

CHAPTER IV PERSONNEL

Article 24

Medical personnel exclusively engaged in the search for, or the collection, transport or tretment of the wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease, staff exclusively engaged in the administration of medical units and establishments, as well as chaplains attached to the armed forces, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances.

Article 25

Members of the armed forces specially trained for employment, should the need arise, as hospital orderlies, nurses or auxiliary stretcher-bearers, in the search for or the collection, transport or treatment of the wounded and sick shall likewise be respected and protected if they are carrying out these duties at the time when they come into contact with the enemy or fall into his hands.

Article 26

The staff of National Red Cross Societies and that of other Voluntary Aid Societies, duly recognized and authorized by their Governments, who may be employed on the same duties as the personnel named in Article 24, are placed on the same footing as the personnel named in the said Article, provided that the staff of such societies are subject to military laws and regulations.

Each High Contracting Party shall notify to the other, either in time of peace or at the commencement of or during hostilities, but in any case before actually employing them, the names of the societies which it has authorized, under its responsibility, to render assistance to the regular medical service of its armed forces.

Article 27

A recognized Society of a neutral country can only lend the assistance of its medical personnel and units to a

Party to the conflict with the previous consent of its own Government and the authoriza.tion of the Party to the conflict concerned. That personnel and those units shall be placed under the control of the Party to the conflict.

The neutral Government shall notify this consent to the adversary of the State which accepts such assistance. The Party to the conflict who accepts such assistance is bound to notify the adverse Party thereof before making any use of it. '

In no circumstances shall this assistance be considered as interference in the conflict.

The members of the personnel named in the first paragraph shall be duly furnished with the identity ca.rds provided for in Article 40 before leaving the neutral country to which they belong.

Article 28

Personnel designated in Articles 24 and 26 who fall into the hands of the adverse Party, shall be retained only in so far as the state of health, the spiritual needs and the number of prisoners of war require.

Personnel thus retained shall not be deemed prisoners of war. Nevertheless they shall at least benefit by all the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949. Within the framework of the military laws and regulations of the Detaining Power, and under the authority of its competent service, they shall continue to carry out, in accordance with their professional ethics, their medical and spiritual duties on behalf of prisoners of war, preferably those of the armed forces to which they themselves belong. They shall further enjoy the following facilities for ca.rrying out their medical or spiritual duties:

(a) They shall be authorized to visit periodically the prisoners of war in labour units or hospitals outside the camp. The Detaining Power shall put at their disposal the means of transport required.

(b) In each campt the senior medical officer of the highest rank shall be responsible to the military authorities of the camp for the professional activity of the retained medical personel. For this purpose, from the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall agree regarding the corresponding seniority of the ranks of their medical personnel, including those of the societies designated in Article 26. In all questions arising out of their duties, this medical officer, and the chaplains, shall have direct access to the military and medical authorities of the camp who shall grant them the facilities they may require for correspondence relating to these questions. .

(c) Although retained personnel in a camp shall be subject to its internal discipline, they shall not, however, be required to perform any work outside their medical or religious duties.

During hostilities the Parties to the conflict shall make arrangements for relieving where possible retained personnel, and shall settle the procedure of such relief.

None of the preceding provisions shall relieve the Detaining Power of the obiigations imposed upon it with regard to the medical and spiritual welfare of the prisoners of war

Article 29

Members of the personnel designated in Article 25 who have fallen into the hands of the enemy, shall be prisoners of war. but shall be employed on their medicial duties in so far as the need arises

Article 30

Personnel whose retention is not in dispensable by virtue of the provisions of Article 28 shall be returned to the

Party to the conflict to whom they belong, as soon as a road is open for their return and military requirements permit.

Pending their return, they shall not be deemečl prisoners of war. Nevertheless they shall at least benefit by all the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949. They shall continue to fulfil their duties under the orders of the adverse Party and shall preferably be engaged in the care of the wounded and sick of the Party to the conflict to which they themselves belong.

On their departure, they shall take with them the effects, personal belongings, valuables and instruments belonging to them.

Article 31

The selection of personnel for return under Article 30 shall be made irrespective of any consideration of race, religion or politica.l opinion, but preferably according to the chronologica;l order of their ca.pture and their state of health.

As from the outbreak of hostilities, Parties to the conflict may determine by special agreement the percentage of personnel to be retained, in proportion to the number of prisoners and the distribution of the said personnel in the camps.

Article 32

Persons designated in Article 27 who have fallen into the hands of the advers Party may not be detained.

Unless otherwise agreed, they shall have permission to return to their country, or if this is not possible, to the territory of the Party to the conflict in whose service they were, as soon as a route for their return is open and military considerations permit.

Pending their release, they shall continue their work under the direction of the adverse Party; they shall preferably be engaged~in the care of the wounded and sick of the Party to the conflict in whose service they wer~

On their departure, they shall take with them their effects, personal articles and valuables and the instruments, arms and if possible the means of transport belonging to them.

The Parties to the conflict shall secure to this personnel, while in their power, the same food, lodging, allowances and pay as are granted to the corresponding personnel of their armed forces. The food shall in any case be sufficient as regards quantity, quality and variety to keep the said personnel in a normal state of health.

CHAPTER V
BUILDINGS AND MATERIAL

Article 33

The material of mobile medical unites of the armed forces which fall into the hands of the enemy, shall be reserved for the care of wounded and sick.

The buildings, material and stores of fixed medical establishments of the armed forces shall remain subject to the laws of war, but may not be diverted from that purpose as long as they are required for the care of wounded and sick. Nevertheless, the commanders of forces in the field may make use of them, in case of urgent military necessity, provided that they make previous arrangements for the w~elfare of the wounded and sick who are nursed in them.

The material and stores defined in the present Article shall not be intentionally destroyed.

Article 34

The real and personal property of aid societies which are admitted to the privileges of the Convention shall be regarded as private property.

The right of requisition recognized for belligerents by the laws and customs of war shall not be exercised except in case of urgent necessity, and only after the welfare of the wounded and sick has been ensured. '

CHAPTER VI MEDICAL TRANSPORTS

Article 35

Transports of wounded and sick or of medical equipment shall be respected and protected in the same way as mobile medical units.

Should such transports or vehicles fall fnto the hands of the adverse Party, they shall be subject to the laws of war, on condition that the Party to the conflict who captures them shall in all cases ensure the care of the wounded and sick they contain.

The civilian personnal and al means of transport obtained by requisition shall be subject to the general rules of international law.

Article 36

Medical aircraft, that is to say, aircra.ft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and sick and for the transport of medical personnel and equipment, shall not be atacked, but shall be respected by the belligerents, while flying at heights, times and on routes specifically agreed upon between the belligerents concerned.

They shall bear, clearly marked, the distinctive emblem prescribed in Article 38, together with their national colours on their lower, upper and lateral surfaces. They shall be provided with any other markings or means of identification that may be agreed upon between the belligerents upon the outbreak or during the course of hostilities.

Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are prohibited.

Medical aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the event of a landing thus imposed, the the aircraft with its occupants way continue its flight after examination, if any.

In the event of an involuntary landing in enemy or enemyoccupied territory, the wounded and sick, as well as the crew of the aircraft shall be prisoners of war. The medical personnel shall be treated according to Article 24 and the Articles following.

Article 37

Subject to the provisions of the second paragraph, medical aircraft of Parties to the conflict may fly over the territory of neutral PoH~ers, land on it in case of necessity, or use it as a port of call. They shall give the neutral Powers previous notice of their passage over the said territory and obey all summons to alight, on land or water. They will be immune from attack only when flying on routes, at heights and at times specifically agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict and the neutral Power concerned.

The neutral Powers may, however, place conditions or restrictions on the passage or landing of medical aircraft on their memorw Such possible conditions or restrictions shall be applied equalty to all Parties to the conflict.

Unless agreed other-wise between the neutral Power and the Parties to the conflict, the wounded and sick who are disembarked. with the consent of the local authorities, on neutral territon" bv rnedical aircraft, shall be detained by the neutral F'ower, v.here so required by international law, in such a manner that they cannot again take part in operations of v.-ar l he cost of their accommodation and in internment shall be bor ne bv the Power on which they depend.

CHAPTER VII

THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

Article 38

As a compliment t.o Switzerland, the heraldic emblem of the red cross on a white ground, l'ormed by reversing the Federal colours, is retained as the emblem and distinctive sign of the Medical Service of armed forces.

Nevertheless, in the case of countries which already use as emblem, in place of the red cross, the red crescent or the red lion and sun on a white ground, those emblems are also recognized by the terms of the present Conventi01'1.

Article 39

Under the direction of the competent military authority, the emblem shall be displayed on the flags, armlets and on all equipment employed in the Medical Service.

Article 40

The personnel designated in Article 24 and in Articles 26 and 27 shasll wear, affixed to the left arm, a waterresistant armlet bearing the distinctive emblem, issued and stamped by the military authority.

Such personnel, in addition to wearing the identity disc mentioned in Article 16, shall also carry a special identity card bearing the distinctive emblem. This card shall be water-resistant and of such size that it can be carried in the pocket. It shall be worded in the national language, and shall mention at least the surname and first names, the date of birth, the rank and the service number of the bearer, and shall state in what capacity he is entitled to the protection of the present Convention. The card shall bear the photograph of the owner and also either his signature or his finger-prints or both. It shall be embossed with the stamp of the military authority .

The identity card shall be uniform throughout the same armed f orces and, as far as possible, of a similar type in the armed forces of the High Contracting Patties. The Parties to the conflict may be guided by the model which is annexed, by way of example, to the present Convention. They shall inform each other, at the outbreak of hostilities, of the model they are using. Identity cards should be made out, if possible, at least in duplicate, one copy being kept by the home country.

In no cicrumstances may the said personnel be deprived of their insignia or identity cards nor of the right to wear the armlet. In case of loss, they shall be entitled to receive duplicates of the cards and the have the insignia replaced

Article 41

The personnel designated in Article 25 shall wear, but only v,-hile carrying out medical duties, a white armlet bearing in its centre th° distinctive sign in miniature; the armlet shall be issued and stamped by the military authority.

Military identity documents to be carried by this type of personnel shall specify what special training they have received, the temporary character of the duties they are engaged upon, and their authority for wearing the armlet.

Article 42

The distinctive flag of the Convention shall be hoisted onl over such medical units and establishments as are entitled to be respected under the Convention, and only with the consent of the military authorities.

ln mobile units, as in fixed establishments, it may be accompanied by the national flag of the Party to the conflict to which the unit or establlshment belongs.

Nevertheless, medical units which have fallen into the hands of the enemy shall not fly any flag other than that of the Convention

The right of requisition recognized for belligerents by the laws and customs of war shall not be exercised except in case of urgent necessity, and only after the welfare of the wounded and sick has been ensured. '

 

Article 43

The medical units belonging to neutral countries, which may have been authorized to lend their services to a belligerent under the conditions laid down in Article 27, shall fly, along with the flag of the Convention, the national flag of that belligerent, wherever the latter makes use of the faculty conferred on him by Article 42.

Subject to orders to the contrary by the responsible military authorities, they may on all occasions fly their national flag, even if they fall into the hands of the adverse Party.

Article 44

With the exception of the cases mentioned in the following paragraphs of the present Article, the emblem of the red cross on a white ground and the words "Red Cross. or .Geneva Cross" may not be employed, either in time of peace or in time of war, except to indicate or to protect the medical units and establishments, the personnel and material protected by the present Convention and other Conventions dealing with similar matters. The same shall apply to the emblems mentioned in Article 38, second paragraph, in respect of the countries which use them. The National Red Crosš Societies and other societies designated in Article 26 shall have the right to use the distinctive emblem conferring the protection of the Convention only within the framework of the present paragraph.

Furthermore, National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies may, in time of peace, in accordance with their national legislation, make use of the name and emblem of the Red Corss for their other activities which are in conformity with the principles laid down by the lnternational Red Cross Conferences. When those activities are carried out in time of war, the conditions for the use of the emblem shall be such that it cannot be considered as conferring the protection of the Convention; the emblem shall be comparatively small in size and may not be placed on armlets or on the roofs of buildings.

The international Red Cross organizations and their duly autohorized personnel shall be permitted to make use, at all times, of the emblem of the red cross on a white ground.

As an exceptional measure, in conf'ormity with national legislation and with the express permission of one of the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies, the emblem of the Convention may be employed in time of peace to identif'y vehicles used as ambulances and to mark the position of aid stations exclusively assigned to the purpose of giving free treatment to wounded or sick.

CHAPTER VIII EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

Article 45

Each Party to the conflict. acting through its Commanders-in-Chief, shall ensure the detailed execution of the preceding Articles, and provide for unforeseen cases, in conformity with the general princ-iples ol the present Convention.

Article 46

Reprisals against the wounded, sick personnel, buildings or equipment protected by the Convention are prohibited.

Article 47

The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population, in particular to the armed fighting forces, the medical personnel and the chaplains.

Article 48

The High Contracting Parties shall eommunicate to one another through the Swiss Federa,l Council and, during hostilities, throught the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.

CHAPTER IX

REPRESSION OF ABUSES AND INFRACTIONS

Article 49

The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article.

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima Pacie case.

Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.

In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 105 and those following of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949.

Article 50

Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.

Article 51

No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.

Article 52

At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shaLf be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention

If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed

Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.

Article 53

The use by individuals, societies, firms or compadies either public or private, other than those entitled thereto under the present Convention, of the emblem or the designation "Red Cross or Geneva Cross. or any sign or designation constituting an imitation thereof, whatever the object of such use, and irrespective of the date of its adoption, shall be prohibited at all times.

By reason of the tribute paid to Switzerland by the adoption of the reversed Federal colours, and of the confusion which may arise between the arms of Switzerland and the distinctive emblem of the Convention, the use by private individuals, societies or firms, of the arms of the Swiss Confederation, or of marks constituting an imitation thereof, whether as trademarks or commercial marks, or as parts of such marks, or for a purpose contrary to commercial honesty, or in circumstances capable of wounding Swiss national sentiment, shall be prohibited at all times.

Nevertheless, such High Contracting Parties as were not party to the Geneva Convention of 27 July 1929, may grant to prior users of the emblems, designations, signs or marks designated in the first paragraph, a time limit not to exceed three years from the coming into force of the present Convention ta discontinue such use, provided that the said use shall not be such as would appear, in time of war, to confer the protection of the Convention.

The prohibition laid down in the first paragraph of the present Article shall also apply, without effect on any rights acquired through prior use, to the emblems and marks mentioned in the second paragraph of Article 38.

Article 54

The High Contracting Parties shall, if their legislation is not already adequate, take measures necessary for the prevention and repression, at all times, of the abuses referred to under Article 53.

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 55

The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic.

The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.

Article 56

The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until 12 February 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on 21 April I949; furthermore, by Powers not represented at that Conference but which are Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 1864, 1906 or 1929 for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in ihe Field.

Article 57

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shatl be deposited at Berne.

A record shalt be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal C:ouncil to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified

Article 58

The present Convention shall come into !'orce six months after not less than two instrurnents of ratification have been deposited.

Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of raGification.

Article 59

The present Convention replaces the Conventions of 22 August 1864, 6 July 1906, and 27 July t929, in relations between the High Contracting Parties.

Article 60

From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention_ has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.

Article 61

Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.

The Swiss Federal Council shall communica.te the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 62

The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.

Article 63

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.

The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notificaton has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with release and repatriation of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.

The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the pubtic conscience

Article 64

The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shail aiso inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denuncrations received by it with respect to the present Convention

In v"itness whereol the undersigned, having deposited their respecitve f'ull powers, have signed the present Convention

Done at C;eneva this twell'th day of August 1949, in the English and French languages The original shall be deposited in the archmes of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transrnit certified copies thereof to each of the Signatoy- and Acceding States.

ANNEX I

DRAFT AGREEMENT RELATING TO HOSPITAL ZONES AND LOCALITIES

Article 1

Hospital zones shall be strictly reserved for the persons named in Article 23 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in the Armed Forces in'the Field of 12 August 1949, and for the personnel entrusted with the organization and administration of these zones and localities, and with the care of the persons therein assembled.

Nevertheless, persons whose permanent residence is within such zones shall have the right to stay there.

Article 2 .

No persons residing, in whatever capacity, in a hospital zone shall perform any work, either within or without the zone, directly connected with military operations or the production of war material.

Article 3

The Power establishing a hospital zone shall take all necessary measures to prohibit access to all persons who have no right of residente or entry therein.

Article 4

Hospital zones sliall fulfil the following conditions:

(a) They shall comprise only a small part of the territory governed by the Power which has established them.

(b) They shall be thinly populated in relation to the possibilities of accommodation.

(c) They shall be far removed and free from all military objectives, or large industrial of administrative establishments.

(d) They shall not be situated in areas which, according to every probability, may become important for the conduct of the war.

Article 5

Hospital zones shall be subject to the following obligations:

(a) The lines of communication and means of transport which they possess shall noL be used for the transport of military personnel or material, even in transit.

(b) They shall in no case be defended by military means.

Article 6

Hospital zones shall be marked by means of red crosses (red crescents, red lions and suns) on a white background placed on the outer precincts and on the buildings. They may be similarly marked at night by means of appropriate illumination.

Article 7

The Powers shall communicate to all the High Contracting Parties in peacetime or on the outbreak of hostilities, a list of the hospital zones in the territories governed by them. They shall also give notice of any new zones set up during hostilities.

As soon as the adverse Party has received the abcve-mentioned notification, the zone shall be regularly constituted.

If, however, the adverse Party considers that the conditions of the present agreement have not been fulfilled, it may refuse to recognize the zone by giving immediate noti ce thereof of the Party responsible for the said zone, o may make its recognition ot such zone dependent upon th institution of the control provided for in i

Article 8

Any Power having recognized one or several hospital zones instituted by the adverse Party shall be entitled to demand control by one or more Special Commissions, for the purpose of ascertaining if the zones fulfil the conditions and obligations stipulated in the present agreement.

For this purpose, the members of the Special Commissions shall at all times have free access to the various zones and may even reside there permanntly. They shall be given all facilities for their duties of inspection.

Article 9

Should the Special Commissions note any facts which they consider contrary to the stipulations of the present agreement, they shall at once draw the attention of the Power governing the said zone to these facts, and shall fix a time limit of five days within which the matter should be rectified. They shall duly notify the Power who has recognized the zone.

If, when the time limit has expired, the Power governing the zone has not complied with the warning, the adverse Party may declare that it is no longer bound by the present agreement in respect of the said zone.

 

Article 10

Any Power setting up one or more hospital zones and localities, and the adverse Parties to whom their existence has been notified, shall nominate or have nominated by neutral Powers, the persons who shall be members of the Special Commissions mentioned in Articles 8 and 9.

Article 11

In no circumstances may hospital zones be the object of attack. They shall be protected and respected at all times by the Parties to the conflict

Article 12

In the case of occupation of a territory, the hospital zones therein shall continue to be respected and utilized as such

Their purpose may, however, be modified by the Occupying Power, on condition that all measures are taken to ensure the safety of' the persons accommodated.

Article 13

The present agreement shall also apply to localities which the Powers may utilize ('or the same purposes as hospital zones

GENEVA CONVENTION FOR THE AMELIORATION OF THE CONDITION OF WOUNDED, SICK AND SHIPWRECKED MEMBERS OF ARMED FORCES AT SEA OF AUGUST 12, 1949

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, for the purpose of revising the Xth Hague Convention of 18 October 1907, for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906, have agreed as follows:

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1

The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.

Article 2

In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peacetime, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.

The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a Party to the present Convention, the Powers who are Parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.

Article 3

In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum the following provisions:

(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.

To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b) taking of hostages;

(c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment;

(d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgement pronounced by a regularly constituted court, aff'ording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2) The wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Commitjee of the fted Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.

The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of the present Convention.

The applica,tion of the preceding provisions shaH not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 4

In case of hostilities between land and naval forces of Parties to the conflict, the provisions of the present Convention shall apply only to forces on board ship.

Forces put ashore shall immediately become subject to the provisions of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

Article 5

Neutral Powers shall apply by analogy the provisions of the present Convention to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, and to members of the medica.l personnel and to chaplains of the armed forces of the Parties to the conflict received or interned in their territory, as well as to dead persons found.

Article 6

In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 10, 18, 31, 38, 39, 40, 43 arid 53, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons of members of the medical personnel or of chaplains, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.

Wounded, sick, and shipwrecked persons as well as medica,l personnel and chaplains, shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as Lhe Convention is applica,ble to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 7

Wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons as well as members of the medical personnel and chaplains, may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Articte, if such there be.

Article 8

The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible the tast of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State where in they carry out their duties. Their activities shall only be restricted as an exceptional and temporary measure wher this is rendered necessary by imperative military necessiti es.

Article 9

The provisions of the present Convention constitute nc obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the Internati

onal Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, medical personnel and chaplains, and for their relief"

Article 10

The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and effica.cy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention.

When wounded, sick and shipwrecked, or medical personnel and chaplains do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by Parties to a conflict.

If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Gommittee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.

Any neutral Power or any organization invited by the Power concerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.

No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.

Whenever, in the present Convention, mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention also applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.

Article 11

In cases where they deem it advisible in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.

For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, in particular of the authorities responsible for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, medical personnel and chaplains, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict, a person belonging to a neutral Power or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.

CHAPTER II

WOUNDED SICK AND SHIPWRECKED

Article 12

Members of the armed forces and other persons mentioned in the following Article, who are at sea and who are

wounded, sick or shipwrecked, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances, it being understood that the term "shipwreck" means shipwreck from any cause and includes forced landings at sea by or from aircraft.

Such persons shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Parties to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religlon, politica,l opinions, or any other similar criteria. Any attempts upon their lives, or violence to their persons, shall be strictly prohibited; in particular, they šhall not be murdered or exterminated, subjected to torture or to biological experiments; they shall not wilfully be left without medical assistance and ca.re, nor shall conditions exposing them to contagion or infection be created.

Only urgent medical reasons will authorize priority in the order of treatment to be administered.

Women shall be treated with all consideration due to their sex.

Article 13

The present Convention shall apply to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked at sea belonging to the following categories:

(1) Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces.

(2) Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organi2ed resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such organized resistance movements, fulfil the following conditions:

(a) that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;

(b) that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;

(c) that of carrying arms openly;

(d) that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war;

(3) Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a Government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power.

(4) Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as civilian members of military aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors, members of labour units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have received authorization from the armed forces which they accompany.

(5) Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable treatment under any other provisions of international law.

(6) Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory who, on the approach of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war.

Article 14

All warships of a belligerent Party shall have the right to demand that the wounded, sick or shipwercked on board military hospital ships, and hopital ships belonging to relief societies or to private individuals, as well as merchant vessels, yachts and other craft shall be surrendered, whatever their nationality, provided that the wounded and sick

are in a fit state to be moved and that the warship can provide adequate facilities for necessary medical treatment.

Article 15

If wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons are ta.ken on board a neutral warship or a neutral military aircraft, it shall be ensured, where so required by international law, that they can take no further part in operations of war.

Article 16

Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of a belligerent who fall into enemy hands shall be prisoners of war, and the provisions of international law concerning prisoners of war shall apply to them. The captor may decide, according to circumstances, whether it is expedient to hold them, or to convey them to a port in the captor: s own country, to a neutral port or even to~ a port in enemy territory. In the last case, prisoners of war thus resturned to their home country may not serve for the duration of the war. .

Article 17

Wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons who are landed in neutral ports with the consent of the local authorities, shall, failing arrangements to the contrary between the neutral and the belligerent Powers, be so guarded by the neutral Power, where so required by international law, that the said persons cannot again take part in operations of war. .

The costs of hospital accomodation and internment shall be borne by the Power on whom the wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons depend.

Article 18

After each engagement, Parties to the conflict shall, without delay, take all possible measures to search for and collect the shipwrecked, wounded and sick, to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment, to ensure their adequate care, and to search for the dead and prevent their being despoiled.

Whenever circumstances permit, the Parties to the conflict shali conclude local arrangements for the removal of the wounded and sick by sea from a besieged or encircled area and for the passage of medical and religious personnel and equipment on their way to that area.

Article 19

The Parties to the conflict shall record as soon as possible, in respect of each shipwrecked, wounded, sick or dead person of the adverse Party falling into their hands, any particulars which may assist in his identification. These records should if possible include:

(a) designation of the Power on which he depends;

(b) army, regimental, personal or serial number;

(c) surname;

(d) first name or names;

(e) date of birth;

(f) any other particulars shown on his identity card or disc;

(g) date and place of capture or death;

(h) particulars concerning wounds or illness, or cause of death.

As soon as possible the above-mentioned information shall be forwarded to the information bureau described in Article t22 of the Geneva convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949, which shall transmit this information to the Power on which these persons depend through the intermediary of the Protecting Power and of the Central Prisoners of War Agencv

Parties to the conflict shall prepare and fon,ard to each other through the same bureau, certil'icates of death

or duly authenticated lists of the dead. They shall likewise collect and forward through the same bureau one half of the double identity disc, or the identity disc itself if it is a single disc, last wills or other documentš of importance to the next of kin, money and in general all articles of &n intrinsic or sentimental value, which are found on the dead. These articles, together with unidentified articles, shall be sent in sealed packets, accompanied by statements giving ali particulars necessary for the identifica.tion of the deceased owners, as well as by a complete list of the contents of the parcel.

Article 20

Parties to the conflict shall ensure that burial at sea of the dead, carried out individually as far as circumstances permit, is preceded by a careful examinition, if possible by a medica,l examination, of the bodies, with a view to confirming death, establishing identity and enabling a report to be made. Where a double identity disc is used, one half of the disc should rEmain on the body.

If dead persons are landed, the provisions of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949, shall be appiica,ble.

Article 21

The Parties to the conflict may appeal to the charity of commanders of neutral merchant vessels, yachts or other craft, to take on board and care for wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons, and to collect the dead.

Vessels of any kind responding to this appeal, and those having of their own accord collected wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons, shall enjoy special protection and facilities to carry out such assitance.

They may, in no case, be captured on account of any such transport; but, in the absence of any promise to the contrary, they shall remain liable to capture for any violations of neutrality they may have committed.

CHAPTER III HOSPITAL SHIPS

Article 22

Military hospital ships, that is to say, ships built of equipped by the Powers specially and solely with a view to assisting the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to treating them and to transporting them, may in no circumstances be attacked or ca.ptured; but shall at all times be respected and protected, on condition that their names and descriptions have been notified to the Parties to the conflict ten days before those ships are employed.

The characteristics which must appear in the notification shall include registered gross tonnage, the lenght from stem to stern and the number of masts and funnels.

Article 23

Establishments ashore entitled to the protection of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949 shall be protected from bombardment or attack from the sea.

Article 24

Hospital ships utilized by National Red Cross Societies, by officially recognized relief societies or by private persons shall have the same protection as military hospital ships and shall be exempt from cu,~ture, if the Party to the conflict on which they depend has given them an official commission and in so far as the.provisions of Articles 22 concerning notification have been complied with.

These ships must be provided with certificates of the responsible authorities, stating that the vessels have been under their control while fitting out and on departure.

Article 25

Hospital ships utilized by NationalRed Cross Societies, officially_ recognized relief societies, or private persons of neutral countries shall have the same protection as military hospital ships ans shall be exempt from capture, on condition that they have placed themselves under the control of one of the Parties to the conflict, with the previous consent of their own governments and with the authorization of the Party to the conflict concerned, in so far as the provisions of Articles 22 concerning notification habe been complied with.

Aritcle 26

The protection mentioned in Articles 22, 24 and 25 shall apply to hospital ships of any tonnage and to their lifeboats, wherever they are operating. Nevertheless, to ensure the maximum comfort and security, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to utilize, for the transport of wounded, sick and shipwrecked over long distances and on the high seas, only hospital of over 2,000 tons gross.

Article 27

Under the same conditions as those provided for in Articles 22 and 24, small craft employed by the State or by the officially recognized lifeboat institutions for coastal rescue operations, shall also be respected and protected, so far as operational requirements permit.

The same shall apply so far as possible to fixed coastal installations used exclusively by these craft for their humanitarian missions.

Article 28

Should fighting occur on board a warship, the sick-bays shali be respected and spared as far as possible. Sick-bays and their equipment shall remain subject to the laws of warf'are, but may not be diverted from their purpose so long as they are required for the wounded and sick. Nevertheless, the commander into whose power they have fallen may, after ensuring the proper care of the wounded and sick who are accommodated therein, apply them to other purposes in case of urgent military necessity.

Article 29

Any hospital ship in a port which falls into hands the enemy shall be authorized to leave the said port.

Article 30

The vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 shall afford relief and assistance to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked without distinction of nationality.

The High Contracting Parties undertake not to use these vessels for any military purpose.

Such vessels shall in no wise hamper the movements of the combatants.

During and after an engagement, they will act at their own risk.

Article 31

The Parties to the conflict shall have the right to control and search the vessels mentioned in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27. They can refuse asistance from these vessels, order them off, make them take a certain course, control the use of their wireless and other means of communication, and even detain them for a period not exceeding seven days from the the time of interception, if the gravity of the circumstances so requires.

They may put a commissioner temporarily on board whose sole task shall be to see that orders given in virtue of the provisions of the preceding paragraph are carried out

As far as possible, the Parties to the conflict shall enter in the log of the hosiptak ship, in a language he can understand, the orders they have given the captain of the vessel

Parties to the conflict may, either unilaterally or by particular agreements, put on board their ships neutral observers who shall verify the strict observation of the provisions contained in the present Convention.

Article 32

Vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 are not classed as warships as regards their stay in a neutral port.

Article 33

Merchant vessels which have been transformed into hospital ships cannont be put to any other use throughout the duration of hosti~ties.

Article 34

The protection to which hospital ships and sick-bays are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humariitarian duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after due warning has been given, naming in all appropriate cases a reasonabIe time limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.

In particular, hospital ships may not possess or use a secret code for their wireless or other mearis of communica.tion. Article 35

The following conditions shall not be considered as depriving hospital ships or sick-bays of vessels of the protection due to them:

(1) The fact that the crews of ships or sick-bays are armed for the maintenance of order, for their own defence or that of the sick and wounded.

(2) The presence on board of apparatus exclusively intended to facilitate navigation or communica,tion.

(3) The discovery on board hospital ships or in sick-bays of portable arms and ammunition taken from the wounded, sick and shipwrecked and not yet handed to the proper service.

(4) The fact that the humanitarian activities of hospital ships and sick-bays of vessels of of the crews extend to the ca.reof wounded, sick or shipwrecked civilians.

(5) The transport of equipment and of personnel intended exclusively for medical duties, over and above the nor-. mal requirements.

CHAPTER IV PERSONNEL

Article 36

The religious, medical and hospital personnel of hospital ships and their crews shall be respected and protected; they may not be captured during the time they are in the service of the hospita2 ship, whether or not there are wounded and sick on board.

Article 37

The religious, medical and hospital personal assigned to the medical or spiritual care of the persons designated in Articles 12 and 13 shall, if they fall into the hands of the enemy, be respected and protected; they may continue to carry out their duties as long as this is necessary for the care of the wounded and sick. They shall afterwards be sent back as soon as the Commander-in-Chief, under whose authority they are, considers it practicable. They may take with them, on leaving the ship, their personal property.

If, however, it proves necessary to retain some of this personnel owing to the medical or spiritual needs of prisoners of war, everything possible shall be done for their earliest possible landing.

Retained personnel shall be subject, on landing, to the provisions of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

 

 CHAPTER V MEDICAL TRANSPORTS

Article 38

Ships chartered for that purpose shall be authorized to transport equipment exclusively intended for the treatment of wounded and sick members of armed forces or for the prevention of disease, provided that the particulars regarding their voyage have been notified to the adverse Power and approved by the latter. The adverse Power shall preserve the right to board the carrier ships, but not to capture them nor to seize the equimpment carried.

By agreement amongst the Parties to the conflict, neutral observers may be placed on board such ships to verify the equipment carried. For this purpose, free access to the equipment shall be given.

Article 39

Medical aircraft, that is to say, aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded, sick and shipwrecked, and for the transport of medica.l personnel and equipment, may not be the object of attack, but shall be respected by the Parties to the conflict, while flying at heights, at times and on routes specifically agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict concerned.

They shall be clearly marked with the distinctive emblem prescribed in Article 41, together with their national colours, on their lower, upper and lateral surfaces. They shall be provided with any other markings or means of identification which may be agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict upon the outbreak or during the course of hostilities.

Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy occupied territory are prohibited.

Medical aircraft shall obey every summons to alight on land or water. In the event of having thus to alight, the aircraft with its occupants may continue its flight after examination, if any.

In the event of alighting involuntarily on land or water in enemy or enemy occupied territory, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, as well as the crew of the aircraft shall be prisoners of war. The medica.l personnel shall be treated according to Articles 36 and 37.

Article 40

Subject to the provisions of the second paragraph, medical aircraft of Parties to the conflict may fly over the territory of neutral Powers, land thereon in case of necessity, or use it as a port of call. They shall give neutral Powers prior notice of their passage over the said territory, and obey every summons to alight, on land or water. They will be immune from attack only when flying on routes, at heights and at times specifically agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict and the neutral Power concerned.

The neutral Powers may, however, place conditions or restrictions on the passage or landing of medical aircraft on their territory. Such possible conditions or restrictions shall be applied equally to all Parties to the conflict.

Unless otherwise agreed between the neutral Powers and the Parties to the conflict, the wounded, sick or shipwrecked who are disembarked with the consent of the local authorities on neutral territory by medical aircraft shall be detained by the neutral Power, where so required by international law, in such a manner that they cannot again take part in operations of war. The cost of their accomodation and internment shall be borne by the Power on which they depend.

CHAPTER VI

THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

Article 41

Under the direction of the competent military authority, the emblem of the red cross on a white ground shall be displayed on the flags, armlets and on all equipment employed in the Medical Service.

Nevertheless, in the case of countries which already use as emblem, in place of the red eross, the red crescent or the red lion and sun on a white ground, these emblems are also recognized by the terms of the present Convention.

Article 42

The personnel designated in Articles 36 and 37 shall wear, affixed to the left arm, a water-resistant armlet bearing the distinctive emblem, issued and stamped by the military suthority.

Such personnel, in addition to wearing the identity disc mentioned in Article 19, shall also ca,rry a special identity card bearing the distinctive amblem. This card shall be water-resistant and of such size that it ca.n be carried in the pocket. It shall be worded in the national language, shall mention at least the surname and first names, the date of birth, the rank and the service number of the bearer, and shall state in what ca.pacity he is entitled to the protection of the present Convention. The ca,rd shall bear the photograph of the owner and also either his signature or his fingerprints or both. It shall be embossed with the stamp of the military authority.

The identitiy ca.rd shall be uniform throughout the same armed forces and, as far as possible, of a smimilar type in the armed forces of the High Contracting Parties. The Parties to the conflict may be guided by the model which is annexed, by way of example, to the present Convention. They shall inform each other, at the outbreak of hostilities, of the model they are using. Identity cards should be made out, if possible, at least in duplicate, one copy being kept by the home country.

In no circumstances may the said personnel be deprived of their insignia or identity ca,rds nor of the right to wear the armlet. In cases of loss they shall be entitled to receive duplicates of the cards and to have the insignia replaced.

Article 43

The ships designated in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 shall be distinctively marked as follows:

(a) All exterior surfaces shall be white.

(b) One or more dark red crosses, as large as possible, shall be painted and displayed on each side of the hull and on the horizontal surfaces, so placed as to afford the greatest possible visibility from the sea and from the air.

All hospital ships shall make themselves known by hoisting their national flag and further, if they belong to a neutral state, the flag of the Party to the conflict whose direction they have accepted. A white flag with a red cross shall be flown at the mainmast as high as possible

Lifeboats of hospital ships, coastal lifeboats and all small craft used by the Medical Service shall be painted white with dark red crosses promminently displayed and shall, in general, comply with the identification system prescribed above for hospital ships.

The above-mentioned ships and craft, which may wish Lo ensure by night and in times of reduced visibility the protection to which they are entitled, must, subject to the assent of the Party to the conflict under whose power they are, take the necessary measures to render their painting and distinctive embtems sufficiently apparent.

Hospital ships which, in accordance with Article 31 are provisionally detained by the enemy, must haul down the flag of the Party, to the conflict in whose service they are or whose direction they have accepted.

Coastal lifeboats, if they continue to operate with the consent of the Occupying Power from a base which is occupied, may be alowed, when away from their base, to continue to fly their own national colours along with a flag carrying a red cross on a white ground, subject to prior notification to all the Parties to the conflict concerned.

All the provisions in this article relating to the red cross shall apply equally to the other emblems mentioned in Article 41.

Parties to the conflict shall at all times endeavour to conclude mutual agreements in order to use most modern methods avalaible to facilitate the identification of hospital ships.

Article 44

The distinguishing signs referred to in Article 43 can only be used, whether in time of peace or war, for indicationg or pro~ecting the ships therein mentioned, except as may be provided in any other international Convention or by agreement between all the Parties to the conflict concerned.

Article 45

The High Contracting Parties shall, if their legislation is not already adequate, take the measures necessary for the prevention and repression, at all times, of any abuse of the distinctive signs provided for under Article 43.

CHAPTER VII EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

Article 46

Each Party to the conflict, acting through its Commanders-in-Chief, shall ensure the detailed execution of the preceding Articles and provide for unforeseen cases, in conformity with the general principles of the present Convention.

Article 47

Reprisals against the wounded, sich and shipwrecked persons, the personnel, the vessels or the equipment protected by the Convention are prohibited.

Article 48

The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population, in particular to the armed fighting forces, the medical personnel and the chaplains.

Article 49

The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regutations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.

CHAPTER VIII

REPRESSION OF ABUSES AND INFRACTIONS

Article 50

The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article.

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to

have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, liand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.

Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.

In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than th~še provided by Article 105 and those following of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949.

Article 51

Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.

Article 52

No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.

Article 53

At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention.

If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire, who wil decide upon the procedure to be followed.

Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 54

The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic.

The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.

Article 55

The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until 12 February 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on 21 April 1949; furthermore, by Powers not represented at the Conference, but which are Parties to the Xth Hague Convention of is October 1907, for the adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906, or to the Geneva Conventions of 1894, 1906 or 1929 for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field.

Article 56

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.

A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrume~t of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 57

The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited.

Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instruments of ratifica.tion.

Article 58

The present Convention replaces the Xth Hague Convention of 18 October 1907, for the adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906, in relations between the High Contracting Parties.

Article 59

From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.

Article 60

Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six month after the date on which they are received.

The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 61

The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Gouncil shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.

Article 62

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.

The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is invoived in a conflict shatl not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with release and repatriation of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.

The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.

Article 63

The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.

In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.

Done at Geneva this twelf'th day of August 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to each of the Signatory and Acceding States.

GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR OF AUGUST 12, 1949

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, for the purpose of revising the Convention concluded at Geneva on 27 July t929, relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, have agreed as follows:

PART I GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1

The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.

Article 2

In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in place-time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.

The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, event if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a Party to the present Convention, the Powers who are Parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and aplies the provisions thereof.

Article 3

In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:

(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including memiJers of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.

To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b) taking of hostages;

(c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment;

(d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the Intern~tional Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.

The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of the present Conventiqn.

The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 4 .

A. Prisoners of war, in the sense of the present Convention, are persons belonging to one of the following categories, who have fallen into the power of the enemy:

(i) Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces.

(2) Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in our outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such organized resistance movements, fulfil the following conditions:

(a) that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;

(b) that of having a fixed distinctive sign recogniza.ble at a distance;

(c) that of ca.rrying arms openly;

(d) that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

(3) Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power.

(4) Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as civilian members of military sircraft crews, war corespondents, supply contractors, members of labour units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have received authorization from the armed forces which they accompany, who shall provide them for that purpose with an identity card similar to the annexed model.

(5) Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable treatment under any other provisions of international law.

(6) Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the aproach of the enemy spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war.

B. The following shall likewise be treated as prisoners of war under the present Convention:

(1) Persons belonging, or having belonged, to the armed forces of the occupied country, if the occupying Power considers it necessary by reason of such allegiance to intern them, even though it has originally liberated them while hostilities were going on outside the territory it occupies, in particular where such persons have made an unsuccessful attempt to rejoin the armed forces to which they belong and which are engaged in combat, or where they fail to comply with a summons made to them with a view to internment.

(2) The persons belonging to one of the categories enumerated in the present Article, who have been received by neutral or non-belligerent Powers on their territory and whom these

Powers are required to intern under international law, without prejudice to any more favourable treatment which these Powers may choose to give and with the exception of Articles 8, l0, 15, 30, fifth paragraph, 58-67, 92, 126 and, where diplomatic relations exist between the Parties to the

conflict and these neutral or non-belligerent Power concerned, those Articles concerning the Protecting Power. Where such diplomatic relations exist, the Parties to a conflict on whom these persons depened shall be allowed to perform towards them the functions of a Protecting Power as provided in the present Convention, without prejudice to the functions which these Parties normally exercise in conformity with diplomatic and consular usage and treaties.

C. This Article shall in no way affect the status of medical personnel and chaplains as provided for in Article 33 of the present Convention.

Article 5

The present Convention shall apply to the persons referred to in Artikle 4 from the time they fall into the power of the enemy and until their final release and repatriation.

Should any doubt arise as to whether persons, having committed a belligerent act and having fallen into the hands of the enemy, belong to any of the categories enumerated in Article a, such persons shall enjoy the protection of the present Convention until such time as their status has been determined by a competent t.ribunal.

Article 6

In addition to the agreernents expressly provided for in Articles 10, 23, 28, 33, 60, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 109, I 10, 118, 119, 122 and 132, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of prisoners of war, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.

Prisoners of war shalt continue to havP tae benefit of such agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 7

Prisoners of war may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.

Article 8

The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible the tast of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Pow~ers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of securities of the State wherein they carry out their duties.

Article 9

The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the Internatinal Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of prisoners of war and for their relief'.

Article 10

The High Contracting Parties may aL any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the'Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention.

When prisoners of war do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, on such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.

If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.

Any neutral Power or any organization invited by the Power concerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Parties to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.

No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.

Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.

 

Article 11

In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation oF the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.

For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in particular of the authorities responsible for prisoners of war, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict a person belonging to a neutral Power, or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.

PART II

GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRISONERS OF WAR

Article 12

Prisoners of war are in the hands of the enemy Power, but not of the individuals or military units who have captured them. Irrespective of the individual responsibilities that may exist, the Detaining Power is responsible for the treatment given them.

Prisoners of war may only be transferred by the Detaining Power to a Power which is a Party to the Convention and after the Detaining PoN~er has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to apply the

Convention. When prisoners of war are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the Convention rests on the Power accepting them whille they are in its custody.

Nevertheless, if that Power fails to carry out the provisions of the Convention in any important respect, the Power by whom the prisoners of war were transferred shall, upon being notified by the Protecting Power, take effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the prisoners of war. Such requests must be cornplied with.

Article 13

Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated. Any unlawful a.ct or ormission by the Detaining Power causing death or seriously endangering the health of a prisoner of war in its custody is prohibited and will be regarded as a serious breach of the present Convention. In particular, no prisoner of war may be subjected to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest.

Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public curiosity.

Measure's of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited.

Article 14

Prisoners of war are entitled in all circumstances to respect for their persons and their honour.

Women shall be treated with all the regard due to their sex and shall in all cases benefit by treatment as favourable as that granted to men.

Prisoners of war shall retain the full civil capacity which they enjoyed at the time of their capture. The Detaining Power may not restrict the exercise, either within or without its own territory, of the rights such capa,'city confers except in so far as the captivity requires.

Article 15

The Power detaining prisoners of war shall be bound to provide free of charge for their maintenance and for the medical attention required by their state of health.

Aricle 16

Taking into consideration the provisions of the present Convention relating to rank and sex, and subject to any privileged treatment which may be accorded to them by reason of their state of health, age or professional qualifications, all prisoners of war shall be treated alike by the Detaining Power, without any adverse distinction based on race, nationality, religious belief or political opinions, or any other distinction founded on similar criteria.

PART III CAPTIVITY

SECTION I BEGINNING OF CAPTIVITY

Article 17

Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is bound to give only his surname, first names and rank, date of birth, and army, regimental, personal or serial number, or failing this, equivalent information.

If he wilfully infringes this rule, he may render himself liable to a restriction of the privileges accorded to his rank or status.

Each Party to a conflict is required to furnish the persons under its jurisdiction who are liable to become prisoners of war, with an identity card showing the owneć s surname, first names, rank, army, regimental, personal or serial number or equivalent information, and date of birth. The identity ca,rd may, furthermore, bear the signature or the fingerprints, or both, of the owner, and may bear, as well, any other iniormation the Party to the conflict may wish to add concerning persons belonging to its armed forces: As far as possible the card shall measure 6.5 x 1o cm. and shall be issued in duplicate. The identity card shall be shown by the prisoner of war upon demand, but may in no case taken away from him.

No physica,l or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind.

Prisoners of war who, owing to their physical or mental condition, are unable to state their identity shall be handed over to the medical service. The identity of such prisoners shall be established by all possible means, subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

The questioning of prisoners of war shall be carried our in a language which they understand.

Article 18

All effects and articles of personal use, except arms, horses, military equipment and military documents, shall remain in the possession of prisoners of war, likewise their metal helmets and gas masks and like articles issued for personal protection. Effects and articles used for their clothing or feeding shall likewise remain in their possession, even if such effects and articles belong to their regulation military equipment.

At no time should prisoners of war be without identity documents. The Detaining Power shall supply such documents to prisoners of war who possess none.

Badges of rank and nationality, decorations and articles having above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken from prisoners of war.

Sums of money carried by prisoners of war may not be taken away from them except by order of an officer, and after the amount and particulars of the owner have been recorded in a special register and an itemized receipt has been given, legibly inscribed with the name, rank and unit of the person issuing the said receipt. Sums in the currency of the Detaining Power, or which are changed into such currency at the prisoner's request, shall be placed to the credit of the prisoner's account as provided in Article 64.

The Detaining Power may withdraw articles of value from prisoners of war only for reasons of security; when such articles are withdrawn, the procedure laid down for sums of money impounded shall apply.

Such objects, likewise the sums taken away in any currency other than that of the Detaining Power and the conversion of which has not been asked for by the owners, shall be kept in the custody of the Detaining Power and shall be returned in their initial shape to prisoners of war at the end of their captivity.

Article 19

Prisoners of war shall be evacuated, as soon as possible after capture, to camps situated in an area far enough from the combat zone for them to be out of danger.

Only those prisoners of war who, owing to wounds or sickness, would run greater risks by being evacuated than by remaining where they are, may be temporarily kept back in a danger zone.

Prisoners of war shall not be unnecessarily exposed to danger while awaiting evacuation from a fighting zone.

Article 20

The evacuation of prisoners of war shall always be effected humanely and in conditions similar to those for the forces of the Detaining Power in their changes of station.

The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who are being evacuated with sufficient food and potable water, and with the necessary clothing and medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety during evacuation, and shall establish as soon as possible a list of the prisoners of war who are evacuated.

If prisoners of war must, during evacuation, pass throught transit camps, their stay in such camps shall be as brif as possible.

SECTION II INTERNMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR

CHAPTER I GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

Article 21

The Detaining Power may subject prisoners of war to internment. It may impose on them the obligation of not leaving, beyond certain limits, the camp where they are interned, or if the said camp is fenced in, of not going outside its perimeter. Subject to the provisions of the present Convention relative to penal and disciplinary sanctions, prisoners of war may not be held in close confinement except where necessary to safeguard their health and then only during the continuation of the circumstances which make such confinement necessary.

Prisoners of war may be partially or wholly released on parole or promise, in so far as is allowed by the laws of the Power on which they depend. Such measures'shall be taken particularly in cases where this may con.tribute to the improvement of their state of health. No prisoner of war shall be compelled to accept liberty on parole or promise.

Upon the outbreak of hostilities, each Party to the conflict shall notify the adverse Party of the laws and regulations allowing or forbidding its own nationals to accept liberty on parole or promise. Prisoners of war who are paroled or who have given their promise in conformity with the laws and regulations so notified, are bound on their personal honour scrupulously to fulfil, both towards the Power on which they depend and towards the Power on which has captured them, the engagements of their paroles or promises. In such cases, the Power on which they depend is bound neither to require nor to accept from them any service incompatible with the parole or promise given.

Article 22

Prisoners of war may be interned only in premises located on land and affording every guarantee of hygiene and hgalthfulness. Except in particular cases which are justified by the interest of the prisoners themselves, they shall not be interned in penitentiaries.

Prisoners of war interned in unhealthy areas, or where the climate is injurious for them, shall be removed as soon as possible to a more favourable climate.

The Detaining Power shall assemble prisoners of war in camps or camp compounds according to their nationality, language and customs, provided that such prisoners shall not be separated from prisoners of war belonging to the armed forces with which they were serving at the time of their capture, except with their consent.

Article 23

No prisoner of war may at any time be sent to, or detained in areas where he may be exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to render certain points of areas immune from military operations.

Prisoners of war shall have shelters againts sir bombardment and other hazards of war, to have extent as the local civilian population. With the exception of those engaged in the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards, they may enter such shelters as soon as possible after the giving of the alarm. Any other protective measure taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them.

Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical loca.tion of prisoner of war camps.

Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner of war camps shall be indicated in the day-time by the letters PW or PG, placed so as to be clearly visible from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. Only prisoner of war ca.mps shall be marked as such.

Article 24

Transit or screening ca,mps of a permanent kind shall be fitted out under conditions similar to those described in the present Section, and the prisoners therein shall have the same treatment as in other ca.mps.

CHAPTER ll

QUARTERS, FOOD AND CLOTHING OF PRISONERS OF WAR

Article 25

Prisoners of war shall be quartered under conditions as favourable as those for the forces of the Detaining Power who are billeted in the same area. The said conditions shatl make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no case be prejudicial to their health.

The foregiong provisions shall apply in particular to the dormitories of prisoners of war as regards both total surface and minimum cubic space, and the general installations, bedding and btankets.

The premises provided for the use of prisonerš of war individually or collectively, shall be entirely protected from dampness and adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. All precautions must be taken against the danger of fire.

In any camps in which women prisoners of war, as well as men, are accommodated, separate dormitories shall be provided for them.

Article 26

The basic daily food rations shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep prisoners of war in good health and to prevent loss of weight or the development of nutritional deficiencies. Account shall also be taken of.the habitua! diet of the prisoners.

The Detaining Power supply prisoners of war who work with such additional rations as are necessary for the labour on which they are employed.

Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to prisoners of war. The use of tobacco shalt be permitted. Prisoners of war shall, as far as possible, be associated

with the preparation of their meals; they may be employed for that purpose in the kitchens. Furthermore, they shall be

given the means of preparing, themselves, the additional food in their possession.

Adequate premises shall be provided for messing. Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited.

Article 27

Clothing, underwear and footwear shall be supplied to prisoners of war in sufficient quantities by the Detaining Power, which shall make allowance for the climate of the region where the prisoners are detained. Uniforms of enemy armed forces captured by the Detaining Power should, if suitable for the climate, be made available to clothe prisoners of war.

The regular replacement and repair of the above articles shall be assured by the Detaining Power. In addition, prisoners of war who work shall receive appropriate clothing, wherever the nature of the work demands.

Article 28

Canteens shall be installed in all camps, where prisoners of war may procure foodstuffs, soap and tobacco and ordinary articles in daily use. The tariff shall never be in excess of local market prices.

The profjts made by camp canteens shall be used for the benefit of the prisoners; a special fund shall be created for this purpose. The prisoners' representative shall have the right to collaborate in the management of the canteen and of this fund.

When a camp in closed down, the credit balance of the special fund shall be handed to an international welfare organization; to be employed for the benefit of prisoners of war of the same nationality as those who have contributed to the fund. In case of a general repatriation, such profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned.

CHAPTER III

AYGIENE AND MEDICAL ATTENTION

Article 29

The Detaining Power shall be bound to take all sanitary measures necessary to ensure the cleanliness and healthfulness of camps, and to prevent epidemics.

Prisoners of war shall have for their use, day and night, conveniences which conform to the rules of hygiene and are maintained in a costant state of cleanliness. In any camps in which women prisoners of war are accommodated, separate conveniences shall be provided for them.

Also, apart from the baths and showers with which the ca,mps shall be furnished, prisoners of war shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their personal toilet and for washing their personal laundry; the necessary installations, facilities and time shall be granted them for that purpose.

Article 30

Every camp shall have an adequate infirmary where prisoners of war may have the attention they require, as well as appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall, if necessary", be set aside for cases of contagious or mental disease.

Prisoners of war suffering from serious disease, or whose condition necessitates special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted to any military or civil medical unit where such treatment can be given, even if their repatriation is contemplated in the near future. Special facilities shall be afforded for the care to be given to the disabled, in particular to the blind, and for their rehabilitation, pending repatriation.

Prisoners of war shall have the attention, preferably, of medical personnel of the Power on which they depend and, if possible, of their nationality. ,

Prisoners of war may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the medica,l authorities for examination. The detaining authorities shall, upon request, issue to every prisoner who has undergone treatment, an official certificate indica,ting the nature of his illness or injury, and the duration and kind of treatment received. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Prisoners of War Agency.

The costs of treatment, including those of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of prisoners of war in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances, and spectacles, shall be borne by the Detaining Power.

Article 31

Medical inspections of prisoners of war shall be made at least once a month. They shall include the checking and the recording of the weight of each prisoner of war. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of prisoners and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria and venereal disease. For this purpose the most efficient methods available shall be employed, e. g. periodic mass miniature radiography for the early detection of tuberculosis.

Article 32

Prisoners of war who, though not attached to the medical service of their armed forces, are physicians, surgeons, dentists, nurses or medical orderlies, may be required by the Detaining Power to exercise their medical functions in the interests of prisoners of war dependent on the same Power. In that case they shall continue to be prisoners of war, but shall receive the same treatment as corresponding medical personnel retained by the Detaining Power. They shall be exempted from any other work under Article 49

CHAPTER IV

MEDICAL PERSONNEL AND CHAPLAINS RETAINED TO ASSIST PRISONERS OF WAR

Article 33

Members of the medical personnel and chaplains while retained by the Detaining Power with a view to assisting prisoners of war, shall not be considered as prisoners of war Thev shall, however, receive as a minimum the benefits and protection of the present Convention, and shall aslo be granted all facilities necessary to provide for the medical care of, and religious ministration to prisoners of war

Z'hey shall continue to exercise their medical and spiritual functions for the benefit of prisoners of war, preferably those belonging to the armed forces upon which they depend. v. ithin the scope of the military laws and regulations of the Detaining Power and under the control of its competent ser-~-ices, in accordance with their professional etiquette rhey shafl also benefit by the f'ollowing facilities in the eaercise of their medical or spiritual functions:

(al They shall be authorized to visit periodically prisoners oC war situated in working detachments or in hospitals ou!side the camp For this purpose, the Detaining Power ;hall place at their disposal the necessary means of transport

(b) The semor medical officer in each camp shall be resp~~n~ible t~ the camp military authorities for everything cor;nPCted mith the activities of retained medical personnei For this purpose. Parties to the conflict shall agree at

the outbreak of hostilities on the subject of the corresponding ranks of the medical personnel, including that of societies mentioned in Article 26 of the Geneva Conventiori for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field od 12 August 1949. This senior medical officer, as well as chaplains, shall have the right to deal with the competent authorities of the ca,mp on all questions relating to their duties. Such authorities shalI afford them all necessary facilities for correspondence relating to these questions.

(c) Although they shall be subject to the internal discipline of the camp in which they are retained, such personnel may not be compelled to carry out any work other than that concerned with their medical or religious duties.

During hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall agree concerning the possible relief of retained personnel and shall settle the procedure to be followed.

None of the preceding provisions shall relieve the Detaining Power of its obligations with regard to prisoners of war from the medical or spiritual point of view.

CHAPTER V

RELIGIOUS, INTELLECTUAL AND PffYSICAL ACTIVITIES

Article 34

Prisonefs of war shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties, including attendance at the service of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the military authorities.

Adequate premises shall be provided where religious services may be held.

 

Article 35

Chaplains who fall into the hands of the enemy Power and who remain or are retained with a view to assisting prisoners of war, shall be allowed to minister to them and to exercise freely their ministry amongst prisonei-s of war of the same religion, in accordance with their religious conscience. They shall be allocated among the various camps and labour detachments containing prisoners of war belonging to the same forces, speaking the same language or practising the same religion. They shall enjoy the necessary facilities, including the means of transport provided for in Article 33 for visiting the prisoners of war outside their camp. They shall be free to correspond, subject to censorhip, on matters concerning their religious duties with the ecclesiastical authorities in the country of detantion and with international religious organiza,tions. Letters and cards which they may send for this purpose shall be in addition to the quota provided for in Article 71.

Article 36

Prisoners of war who are ministers of religion, without having officiated as chaplains to their own forces, shall be at liberty, whatever their denomination, to minister freely to the members of their community. For this purpose, they shall receive the same treatment as the chaplains retained by the Detaining Power. They shall not be obliged to do any other work.

Article 37.

When prisoners of war have not the assistance of a retained chaplain or of a prisoner of war minister of their faith, a minister belonging to the prisoners or a similar denomination, or in his absence a qualified layman, if such a course is feasible from a confessional point of view, shall be appointed at the request of the prisoners concerned, to fill this office. This appointment, subject to the approval of the Detaining Power, shall t~ake place with the agreement of the community of prisoners concerned and, wherever

necessary with the approval of the local religious authorities of the same faith. The person thus appointed shall comply with all regulations established by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and military security.

Article 38

While respecting the individual preferences of every prisoner, the Detaining Power shall encourage the practice of intellectual, educational, and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst prisoners, and shall take the measures necessary to ensure the exercise thereof by providing them with adequate premises and necessary equipment.

Prisoners shall have oppurtunities for taking physical exercise including sports and games and for being out of doors. Sufficient open spaces shall be provided for this purpose in all camps.

CHAPTER VI

DISCIPLINE

Article 39

Every prisoner of war camp shall be put under the immediate authority of a responsible commissioned officer belonging to the regular armed forces of the Detaining Power. Such officer shall have in his possession a copy of the present Convention; he shall ensure that its provisions are known to the camp staff and the guard aild shall be responsible, under the direction of his government, for its application.

Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute and show to all officers of the Detaining Power the external marks of respect provided for by the regulations applying in their own forces.

Officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers of a higher rank of the Detaining Power; they must, however, salute the camp commander regardless of his rank.

Article 40

The wearing of badges of rank and nationality, as well as of decorations, shall be permitted.

Article 41

In every camp the text of the present Convention and its Annexes and the contents of any special agreement provided for in Article 6, shall be posted, in the prisoners' own language in places where a11 may read them. Copies shall be supplied, on request, to the prisoners who cannot have access to the copy which has been posted.

Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind relating to the conduct of prisoners of war shall be issued to them in a language which they understand. Such regulations, orders and publications shall be posted in the manner described above and copies shall be handed to the prisoners' representative. Evey order and command addressed to prisoners of war individually must likewise be given in a language which they understand

Article 42

The use of weapons against prisoners oC war. especially against those who are escaping or attempeing to escape, shall constitute an extreme measure, which shall always be preceded by warnings appropriate Co the circumst.ances

CHAPTER

RANK OF PRISNERS OF WAR

Article 43

Upon Lhe outbrea4< of ho.stilities, the f'arties to t.he conflict shall communicate to cne another the Iitles and ranks of all the persons mentioned in :lrticle a of Ihe present Convention, in order- to ensure eqmuly of lreatment bet

ween prisoners of equivalent rank. Titles and ranks which are subsequently created shall form the subject of similar communications. .

The Detaining Power shall recognize promotions in rank which have been accorded to prisoners of war and ~hich have been duly notified by the Power on which these prisoners depend.

Article 44

Officers and prisoners of equivalent status shall be treated with the regard due to their rank and age.

In order to ensure service in officers' camps, other ranks of the same armed forces who, as far as possibe, speak the same language, shall be assigned in sufficient numbers, account being taken of the rank of officers and prisoners of equivalent status. Such orderlies shall not be required to perform any other work.

Supervision of the mess by the officers Lhemselves shall be facilitated every way.

Article 45

Prisoners of war other than officers and prisoners of equivalent status shall be treated with the regard due to their rank and age.

Supervision of the mess by the prisoners themselves shall be facilitated in every way.

CHAPTER Vlll

TRANSFER OF PRISONERS OF WAR AFI'ER THEIR ARRIVAL IN CAMP

Article 46

The Detaining Power, when deciding upon the transfer of prisoners of war, shall take into account the interests of the prisoners themselves, more especially so as not to increase the difficulty of their repatriation.

The transfer of prisoners of war shall always be effected humanely and in conditions not less favourable than those under which the forces of the Detaining Power are transferred. Account shall always be taken of the climatic conditions to which the prisoners of war are accustomed and the conditions of transfer shall in no case be prejudicial to their health.

The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war during transfer with sufficient food and drinking water to keep them in good health, likewise with the necessary clothing, shelter and medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take adequate precautions specially in case of transport by sea or by air, to ensure their safety during transfer, and shall draw up a complete list of all transferred prisoners before their departure.

Article 47

Sick or wounded prisoners of war shall not be transferred as long as their recovery may be endangered by the journey, unless their safety imperatively demands it.

IC the combat zone draws closer to a camp, the prisoners of v,~ar in the said camp shalf not be transferred unless their transfer can be carried out in adequate conditions of safety. or unless they are exposed to greater risks by remaining on the spot than by being transferred.

Article 48

In the event of transfer, prisoners of war shall be officially advised of their departure and of their new postal address_ Such notifications shall be given in time for them to pack their luggage and inform their next of kin.

Thev shall be allowed to take with them their personal efCects, and correspondence and parcels which have arrived for t.hem The weight of such baggage may be limited,

 

If the conditions of transfer so require, to what each prisoner can reasonably carry, which shall in no case be more than twenty-five kilogrames per head.

Mail and parcels addressed to their former camp 5ha11 be forwarded to them without delay. The camp commander shall take, in agreement with the prisoners' representative, any measures needed to ensure the transport of the prisoners' community property and of the luggage they are unable to take with them in consequence of restrictions imposed by atr~t`rre af Che second paragraph of tfiis article.

 

The costs of transfers shall be borne by the Detaining Power.

SECTION III

LABOUR OF PRISONERS OF WAR

The Detaining Power may utilize the Iabour of prisoners of war who are physically fit, taking into account their age, sex, rank and physical aptitude, and with a view particularly to maintaining them in a good state of physical and mental health.

Non-commissioned officers who are prisoners of war shall only be required to do supervisory work. Those not so required may ask for other suitable work which shall, so far as possible, be found for them.

If officers or persons of equivalent status ask for suitable work, it shall be found for them, so far as possible, but they may in no circumstances be compelled to work.

Article 50

Besides work connected with camp administration, installation or maintenance, prisoners of war may be compelled to do only such work as is included in the following classes:

(a) agriculture;

(b) industries connected with the production or the extraction of raw materials, and manufacturing industries, with the exception of metallurgical, machinery and chemical industries; public works and building operations which have no military character or purpose;

(c) transport and handling of stores which are not military in character or purpose;

(d) commercial business, and arts and crafts;

(e) domestic service;

(f) public utility services having no militan~ character or purpose.

Should the above provisions be infringed, prisoners of war shall be allowed to exercise their right of complaint, in conformity with Article 78.

Article 51

Prisoners of war must be granted suitable working conditions, especially as regards accommodation, food, clothing and equipment; such conditions shall not be inferior to those enjoyed by nationals of the Detaining Power employed in similar work; account shall also be taken of' climatic conditions.

The Detaining Power, in utilizing the labour of prrsoners of war, shall ensure that in areas in which prisoners are employed, the national legislation concerninf; the protection of labour, and, more particularl, the regulations for the safety of workers, are duly applied

Ijrisoners ot war shall receive t.raining and be provided with the means of protection suitable to the work thev will have to do and similar to those accorded to the nationals of the Detaining Power. Subject to the provisions of Article 52, prisoners may be submitted to the norm~l risks run bv these civilian workers.

Conditions of labour shall in no case be rendered more arduous by disciplinary measures.

Article 52

Unless he be a volunteer, no prisoner of war may be employed on labour which is of an unhealthy or dangerous nature.

No prisoner of war shall be assigned to labour which would be looked upon as humiliating for a member of the Detaining Power's own forces.

The removal of mines or similar devices shall be considered as dangerous labour.

Article 53

The duration of the daily labour of prisoners of war, including the time of the journey to and fro, shall not be excessive, and must in no case exceed that permitted for civilian workers in the district, who are nationals of the Detaining Power and employed on the same work.

Prisoners of war must be allowed, in the middie of the day's work, a rest of not less than one hour. This rest will be the same as that to which workers of the Detaining Power are entitled, if the latter is of longer duration. They shall be allowed in addition a rest of twenty-four consecutive hours every week, preferably on Sunday or the day of rest in their couniry of origin. Furthermore, every prisoner who has worked for one year shall be granted a rest of eight consecutive days, during which his working pay shall be paid him.

If methods of labour such as piece work are employed, the lenght of the working period shall not be rendered excessive thereby.

Article 54

The working pay due to prisoners of war shall be fixed in accordance with the provisions of Article 62 of the present Convention_

Prisoners of war who sustain accidents in connection with work, or who contract a disease in the course, or in consequence of their work, shall receive all the care their condition may require. The Detaining Power shall furthermore deliver to such prisoners of war a medical certificate enabling them to submit their claims to the Power on which they depend, and shall send a duplicate to the Central Prisoners of 4~'ar Agency provided for in Article 124.

Article 55

The fitness of prisoners of war for work shall be periodically verified by medical examinations, at least once a month. The examinations shall have perticular regard to the nature of Lhe work which prisoners of war are required to do.

If any prisoner of war considers himself incapable of working, he shall be permitted to appear before the medical authorities of his camp Physicians or surgeons may recommend that the pri.soners who are, in their opinion, unfit for work, be exempted therefrom.

Article 56

The organization and administration of labour detachments shall be similar to those of prisoner of w"ar camps.

Everv labour detachrnent shall rernain under the control of and administram~elv part of a prisoner of war camp. The militarv authonties and the commander of the said camp shall be respon,ible, under the direction of their government, for the observ-ance of the provisions of' Lhe present Convention in labour detachments

The camp commander shall keep an up-to-date record of the labour det<rchments dependent on his camp, and

shah communica,te it to the delegates of the Protecting Power, of the International Committee of the Red Cross, or of other agencies giving relief to prisoners of war, who may visit the camp. '

Article 57

The treatment of prisoners of war who work for private persons, even if the latter are responsible for guarding and protecting them, shall not be inferior to that which is provided for by the present Convention. The Detaining Power, the military authorities and the commander of the camp to which such prisoners belong shall be entirely responsible for the maintenance, care, treatment, and payment of the working pay of such prisoners of war.

Such prisoners of war shall have the right to remain in communication with the prisoners' representative in the camps on which they depend.

SECTION N

FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF PRISONERS OF WAR

Article 58

Upon the outbreak of hostilities, and pending an arrangement on this matter with the Protecting Power, the Detaining Power may determine the maximum amount of money in cash or in any similar form, that prisoners may have jn their possession. Any amount in excess, which was properly in their possession and which has been taken or withheld from them, shall be placed to their account, together with any monies doposited by them, and shall not be converted into any other currency without their consent.

If prisoners of war are permitted to purchase services or commodities outside the ca,mp against payment in cash, such payments shall be made by the prisoner himself or the camp administration who will charge them to the accounts of the prisoners concerned. The Detaining Power will establish the necessary rules in this respect.

Article 59

Cash which was taken from prisoners of war, in accordance with Article 18, at the time of their capture, and which is in the currency of the Detaining Power, shall be placed to their separate accounts, in accordance with the provisions of Article 64 of the present Section.

The amounts, in the currency of the Detaining Power, due to the conversion of sums in other currencies that are taken from the prisoners of war at the same time, shall also be credited to their separate accounts.

Article 60

The Detaining Power shall grant all prisoners of war a monthly advance of pay, the amount of which shall be fixed by conversion, into the currency of the said Power, of the following amounts:

Category I: Prisoners ranking below sergeants: eight Swiss francs.

Category II: Sergeants and other non-commissioned officers, or prisoners of equivalent rank: twelve Swiss francs.

Category III: Warrant officers and commissioned officers below the rank of major or prisoners of equivalent rank: fifty Swiss francs.

Category IV: Majors, lieutenant-colonels, colonels or prisoners of equivalent rank: sixty Swiss francs.

Category V: General officers or prisoners of war of equivalent rank: seventy-five Swiss francs

However, the Parties to the conflict concerned may by special agreement modify the amount of advances of pay due to prisoners of the preceding categories

Furthermore, if the amounts indicated in the first paragraph above would be unduly high compared with the pay of the Detaining Power's. armed forces or would, for any reason, seriously embarrass the Detaining Power, then, pending the conclusion of a special agreement with the Power on which the prisoners depend to vary the amounts indica,ted above, the Detaining Power.

(a) shall continue to credit the accounts of the prišoners with the amounts indicated in the first paragraph above;

(b) may temporarily limit the amount made available from the to sums which are reasonable,.but which, for Category I, shall never be inferior to the amount that the Detaining Power gives to the members of its own armed forces.

The reasons for any limitations will be given without delay to the Protecting Power.

Article 61

The Detaining Power shall accept for distribution as supplementary pay to prisoners of war sums which the Power on which the prisoners depend may forward to them, on condition that the sums to be paid shall be the same for each prisoner of the same category, shall be payable to all prisoners of that category depending on that Power, and shall be placed in their separate accounts, at the earliest opportunity, in accordance with the provisions of Article 64. Such supplementary pay shall not relieve the Detaining Power of any obligation under this Convention.

Article 62

Prisoners of war shall be paid a fair working rate of pay by the detaining authorities direct. The rate shall be fixed by the said authorities, but shall at no time be less than one-fourth of one Swiss franc for a full working day. The Detaining Power shall inform prisoners of war, as well as the Power on which they depend, through the intermediary of the Protecting Power, of the rate of daily working pay that it has fixed.

Working pay shall likewise be paid by the detaining authorities to prisoners of war permanently detail8d to duties or to a skilled or semi-skilled occupation in connection with the administration, installation or maintenance of ca.mps, and to the prisoners who are required to carry out spiritual or medical duties on behalf of their comrades.

The working pay of the prisoners' representative, of his advisers, if any, and of his assistants, shall be paid out of the fund maintained by canteen profits. The scale of this working pay shall be fixed by the prisoners' representative and approved by the camp commander If there is no such fund, the detaining authorities shall pay these prisoners a fair working rate of pay.

Article 63

Prisoners of war shall be permitted to receive remittances of money addressed to them individually or collectively.

Every prisoner of war shall have at his disposal the credit balance of his account as provided for in the following Article, within the limits fixed by the Detaining Power, which shall make such payments as are requested. Subjeet to financial or monetary restrictions which the Detaining Power regards as essential, prisoners of war may also have payments made abroad. In this case payments addressed by prisoners of war to dependents shall be given priority.

In any event, and subject to the consent of the Power on which they depend. prisoners may have payments made in their own country, as follows. the Detaining Power shall send to the aforesaid Power through the Protecting Power. a notification giving aff the necessary particulars concerning the prisoners of mar, the beneficiaries of the payments, and the amount of the sums to be paid, expressed in the

 

Detaining Power's currency. The said notification shall be signed by the prisoners and countersigned by the camp commander. The Detaining Power shall debit the prisonerš account by a corresponding amount; the sums tnus debited shall be placed by it to the credit of the Power on which the prisoners depend.

To apply the foregoing provisions, the Detaining Power may usefully consult the Model Regulations in Annex V of the present Convention.

Article 64

The Detaining Power shall hold an account for each prisoner of war, showing at least the following.

(1) The amounts due to the prisoner or received by him as advances of pay, as working pay or derived from any other source; the sums in the currency of the Detaining Power which were taken from him, the sums taken from him and converted at his request into the currency of the said Power.

(2) The payments made to the prisoner in cash, or in any other similar form; the payments made on his behalf and at his request; the sums transferreci under Article 63, third paragraph.

Article 65

Every item entered in the account of a prisoner of war shall be countersigned or initialled by him, or by the prisoners' representative acting on his behalf.

Prisoners of war shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities for consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts, which may likewise be inspected by the representatives of the P~otecting Powers at the time of visits to the camp.

When prisoners of war are transferred from one camp to another, their personal accounts will follow them. In case of transfer from one Detaining Power to another, the monies which are their property and are not in the currency of the Detaining Power will follow them. They shall be given certificates for any other monies stading to the credit of their accounts.

The Parties to the conflict concerned may agree to notify to each other at specific intervals through the Protecting Power, the amount of the accounts of the prisoners of war.

Article 66

On the termination of captivity, through the release of a prisoner of war or his repatriation, the Detaining Power shall give him a statement, signed by an authorized officer of that Power, showing the credit balance then due to him. The Detaining Power shall also send through the Protecting Power to the government upon which the prisoner of war depends, lists giving all appropriate particulars of all prisoners of war whose captivity has been terminated by repatriation, release, escape, death or any other means, and showing the amount of their credit balances. Such lists shall be certified on each sheet by an authorized representative of the Detaining Power.

Any of the above provisions of this Article may be varied by mutual agreement between any two Parties to the conflict.

The Power on which the prisoner of war depends shall be responsible for settling with him any credit balance due to him from the Detaining Power on the termination of his captivity.

Article 67

Advances of pay, issued to prisoners of war in conformity with Article 60, shall be considered as made on behalf of the Power on which they depend. Such advances of pay. as well as all payments made by the said Power under Article 63, third paragraph, and Article 68, shall form the subject of arrangements between the Powers concerned, at the close of hostilities. ,

Article 68

Any claim by a prisoner of war for compensation in respect of any injury or other disability arising out of work shall be referred to the Power on which he depends, through the Protecting Power. In accordance with Article 54, the Detaining Power will, in all cases, provide the prisoner of war concerned with a statement showing the nature of the injury or disability, the circumstances in which it arose and particulars of medical or hospital treatment given for it. This statement will be signed by a responsible officer of the Detaining Power and the medical particulars certified by a medical officer.

Any claim from a prisoner of war for compensation in respect of personal effects, monies or valuables impounded by the Detaining Power under Article t8 and not forthcoming on his repatriation, or in respect of loss alleged to be due to the fault of the Detaining Power or any of its servants, shall likewise be referred to the Power on which he depends. Nevetheless, any suc,h personal effects required for use by the prisoners of war whilst in captivity shall be replaced at the expense of the Detaining Power. The Detaining Power will, in all cases, provide the prisoner of war with a statement, signed by a responsible officer, showing all available information regarding the reasons why such effects, monies or valuables have not been restored to him. A copy of this statement will be forwarded to the Power on which he depends through the Central Agency for Priso= ners of War provided for in Article 123.

SECTION V

RELATIONS OF PRISONERS OF WAR WITFI THE EXTERIOR

Article 69

Immediately upon prisoners of war falling into its power, the Detaining Power shall inform them and the Powers on which they depend, through the Protecting Power, of the measures taken to carry out the provisions of the present Section. They shall likewise inform the parties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such measures.

Article 70

Immediately upon capture, or not more than one week after arrival at a camp, even if it is a transit camp, every prisoner of war shall be enabled to write direct to his family, on the one hand, and to the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, on the other hand, a card similar, if possible, to the model annexed to the present Convention, informing his relatives of his capture, address and state of health. The said cards shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible and may not be delayed in any manner.

Article 71

Prisoners of war shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards. It the Detaining Power deems it necessary to limit the number of letters and cards sent by each prisoner of war, the said number shall not be less than two letters and four cards monthly, exclusive of the capture ca.rds provided for in Article 70, and conforming as closely as possible to the models annexed to the present Convention. Further limitations may be imposed only if the Protecting Power is satisfied that it would be in the interests of the prisoners of war concerned to do so owing to difficulties of translation ca.used by the Detaining Power's inability to find sufficient qualified linguists to ca,rry out the necessary censorship. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence addressed to prisoners of war, they may be ordered only by the Power on which the prisoners depend, possibly at the request of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed by the most rapid method at the disposal of the Detaining Power; they may not be delayed or retained for disciplinary reasons.

Prisoners of war who have been without news for a long period, or who are unable to receive news from their next of kin or to give them news by the ordinary postal route, as well as those who are at a great distance from their homes, shall be permitted to send telegrams, the fees being charged against the prisoners of war's accounts with the Detaining Power or paid in the currency at their disposal. They shall likewise benefit by this measure in cases of urgency.

As a general rule, the correspondence of prisoners of war shall be written in their native language. The Parties to the conflict may allow correspondence in other languages.

Sacks containing prisoner of war mail must be securely sealed and labelled so as clearly to indicate their contents, and must be addressed to offices of destination.

Article 72

Prisoners of war shall be allowed to receive by post or by any other means individual parcels or collective shipments containing, in particular, foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies and articles of a religious, educational or recreational character which may meet their needs, including books, devotional articies, scientific equipment, examination papers, musical instruments, sports outfits and materials allowing prisoners of war to pursue their studies or their cultural activities.

Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue of the present Convention.

The only limits which may be placed on these shipments shall be those proposed by the Protecting Pawer in the interest of the prisoners themseives, or by the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization giving assistance to the prisoners, in respect of their own shipments only, on account of exceptional strain on transport or communications.

The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective relief shall, if necessary, be the subject of special agreements between the Powers concerned, which may in no case delay Lhe receipt by the prisoners of relief supplies. Books may not be included in parcels of clothing and foodstuffs. Medical supplies shall, as a rule, be sent in coliective parcels.

Article 73

In the absence of special agreements between the Powers concerned on the conditions for the receipt and distribution of collective relief shipments, the rules and regulations concerning collective shipments, which are annexed to the present Convention, shall be applied

The special agreements referred to above shall in no case restrict the right of prisoners' representatives to take possession of collective relief shipments intended for prisoners of war, to proceed to their distribution or to dispose of them in the interest of the prisoners

Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of the Protecting Power, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization giving assistance to prisoners of war and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments, to supervise their distribution to the recipients.

Article 74

All relief shipments for prisoners of war shall be exempt from import, customs and other dues. Correspondence, relief shipments and authorized remittances of money addressed to prisoners of war or despatched by them through the post office, either direct or through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 122 and the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, shall be exempt from any postal dues, both in the countries of origin and destination, and in intermediate countries.

If relief shipments intended for prisoners of war ca,nnot be sent through the post office by reason of weight or for any other cause, the cost of transportation shall be borne by the Detaining Power in all the territories under its control. The other Powers party to the Convention shall bear the cost of transport in their respective territories.

In the absence of special agreements between the Parties concerned, the costs connected with transport of such shipments, other than costs covered by the above exemption, shall be charged to the senders.

The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far as possible, the rates charged for telegrams sent by prisoners of war, or addressed to them.

Article 75

Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from fulfilling their obligatin to assure the transport of the shipments referred to in Articles 70, 71, 72 and 77, the Protecting Powers concerned, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization duly approved by the Parties to the conflict may undertake to ensure the conveyance of such shipments by suitable means,(railway wagons, motor vehicles, vessels or aircraft, etc.)~ For this purpose, the High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to~ supply them with such transport and to allow its circulation, especially by granting the necessary safe-conducts.

Such transport may also be used to convey:

(a) correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central Information Agency referred to in Article 123 and the National Bureaux referred to in Article 122.

(b) correspondence and reports relating to prisoners of war which the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other body assisting the prisoners, exchange either with their own delegates or with the Parties to the conflict

These provisions in no way detract from the right of any Party to the conflict to arange other means of transport, if it should so prefer, nor preclude the granting of safe-conducts, under mutually agreed conditions, to such means of transport.

In the absence of special agreements, the costs occasioned by the use of such means of transport shall be borne proportionally by the Parties to the conflict whose nationals are benefited therebv

Article 76

The censoring of correspondence addressed to prisoners of war or despatched by them shall be done as quickly as possible Mail shall be censored only by the despatching State and the receiving State, and once only by each.

The examination of consignments intended for prisoners of war shall not be carried out under conditions that signed by the prisoners and countersigned by the camp commander. The Detaining Power shall debit the prisonerš account by a corresponding amount; the sums tnus debited shall be placed by it to the credit of the Power on which the prisoners depend.

To apply the foregoing provisions, the Detaining Power may usefully consult the Model Regulations in Annex V of the present Convention.

Article 64

The Detaining Power shall hold an account for each prisoner of war, showing at least the following.

(1) The amounts due to the prisoner or received by him as advances of pay, as v~iorking pay or derived from any other source; the sums in the currency of the Detaining Power which were taken from him, the sums taken from him and converted at his request into the currency of the said Power.

(2) The payments made to the prisoner in cash, or in any other similar form; the payments made on his behalf and at his request; the sums transferrecT under Article 63, third paragraph.

Article 77

The Detaining Powers shall provide all facilities for the transmission, through the Protecting Power or the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, of instruments, papers or documents intended for prisoners of war or despatched by them, especially powers of attorney and wills.

In all cases they shall facilitate the preparation and execution of such documents on behalf of prisoners of war; in particular, they shall allow them to consult a lawyer and shall take what measures are necessary for the authentication of their signatures.

SECTION VI

RELATIONS BETWEEN PRISONERS OF WAR AND THE AUTHORITIES

CHAPTER I

COMPLAINTS OF PBISONERS OF WAR RESPECTING THE CONDITIONS OF CAPTIVITY

Article 78

Prisoners of war shall have the right to make known to the military authorities in whose power they are, their requests regarding the conditions of captivity to which they are subjected.

They shall also have the unrestricted right to apply to the representatives of the Protecting Powers either through their prisoners' representative or, if they consider it necessary, direct, in order to draw their attention to any points on which they may have complaints to make regarding their conditions of captivity.

'These requests and complaints shall not be limited nor considered to be a part of the correspondence quota referred to in Article 71. They must be transmitted immediately Even if they.are recognized to be unfounded, they may not give rise to any punishment.

Prisoners' representatives may send periodic reports on the situation in the camps and the needs of the prisoners of war to the representatives of the Protecting Powers.

CHAPTER ll

PRISONERS OF WAR REPRESENTATIVES

Article 79

In all places where there are prisoners of war, except in those where there are officers, the prisoners shall freely elect by secret ballot, every six months, and also in case of vaca.ncies, prisoner's representatives entrusted with representing them before the military authorities, the Protecting Powars, the International Committee of the Red Cross and any other organization which may assist them These prisoners' representatives shall be eligible for re-election

In the camps for officers and persons of equivalent status or in mixed camps, the senior officer among the prisoners of war shall be recognized as the camp prisoners representative. In camps for officers, he shall be assisted by one or more advisers chosen by the officers: in mixed camps, his assistants shall be chosen from among the prisoners of war who are not officers and shall be elected by them.

Officer prisoners of war of the same nationality shall be stationed in labour camps for prisoners of war, for the purpose of carrying out the camp administration duties for which the prisoners of war are responsible. These officers may be elected as prisoners' representatives under the first para,graph of this Article. In such a case the assistants to the prisoners' representatives shall be chosen from among those prisoners of war who are not officers.

Every representative elected must be approved by the Detaining Power before he has the right to commence his duties. Where the Detaining Power refuses to approve a prisoner of war elected by his fellow prisoners of war, it must inform the Protecting Power of the reason for such refusal.

In all cases the prisoners' representative must have the same nationality, language and customs as the prisoners of war whom he represents. This, prisoners of war distributed in different sections of a camp, according to their nationality, language or customs, shall have for each section their own prisoners' representative, in accordance with the foregoing paragraphs.

Article 80

Prisoners' representatives shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being of prisoners of war. In particular, where the prisoners decide to organize

amongst themselves a system of mutual assistance, this organization will be within the province of the prisoners' representative, in addition to the special duties entrusted to him by other provisions of the present Convention.

Prisoners' representatives shall not be held responsible, simply by reason of their duties, for any offences committed by prisoners of war.

Article 81

Prisoners' representatives shall not be required to perform any other work, if the accomplishment of their duties is thereby made more difficult.

Prisoners' representatives may appoint from amongst the prisoners such assistants as they may require. All material facilities shall be granted them, particularly a certain freedom of movement necessary for the accomplishment of their duties (inspect.ions of labour detachjnents, receipt of suplies, etc.)

Prisoners' representatives shall be permitted to visit premises where prisoners of war are detained, and every prisoner of war shall have the right to consult freely his prisoners' representative

All facilities shall likewise be accorded to the prisoners' representatives for communication by post and telegraph with the detaining authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and their delegates, the Mixed Medical Commissions and with the bodies which give assistance to prisoners of war. Prisoners' represenatatives of labour detachments shall enjoy the same facilities for communication with the prisoners' representatives of the principal camp. Such communications shall not be restricted, nor considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article ~ I

Prisoners' representatives who are transferred shall be allowed a reasonable time to acquaint their successors with current affairs.

In case of dismissal, the reasons therefore shall be communicated to the Protecting Power

 

 

CHAPTER lll

PENAL AND DISCIPLINARY SANCTIONS

1. General Provisions

Article 82

A prisoner of war shall be subject to the laws, regulations and orders in force in the armed forces of the Detaining Power; the Detaining Power shall be justified in taking judicial or disciplinary measures in respect of any offence committed by a prisoner of war against such laws, regulations or orders. However, no proceedings or punishments contrary to the provisions of this Chapter shall be allowed.

If any law, regulation or order of the Detaining Power shall declare acts committed by a prisoner of war to be punishabte, whereas the same acts would not be punishable if committed by a member of the forces of the Detaining Power, such acts shall entail disciplinary punishments only.

Article 83

In deciding whether proceedings in respect of an offence alleged to have been committed by a prisoner of war shall be judicial or disciplinary, the Detaining Power shall ensure that the competent authorities exercise the greatest leniency and adopt, wherever possible, disciplinary rather than judicial measures.

Article 84

A prisoner of war shall be tried only by a military court, unless the existing laws of the Detaining Power expressly permit the civil courts to try a member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power in respect of the particular offence alleged to have been committed by the prisoner of war.

. In no circumstances whatever shall a prisoner of war be tried by a court of any kind which does not offer the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality as generally recognized, and, in particular, the procedure of which does not afford the accused the rights and means of defence provided for in Article t05.

Article 85

Prisoners of war prosecuted under the laws of the Detaining Power for acts committed prior to capture shall retain, even if convicted, the benefits of the present Convention.

Article 86

No prisoner of war may be punished more than once for the same act or on the same charge.

Article 87

Prisoners of war may not be sentenced by the military authorities and courts of the Detaining Power to any penalties except those provided for in respect of members of the armed forces of the said Power who have committed the same acts.

When fixing the penalty, the courts or authorities of the Detaining Power shall take into consideration, to the widest extent possible, the fact that the accused, not being a national of the detaining Power, is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance, and that he is in its power as the result of circumstances independent of his own will. The said courts or authorities shall be at liberty to reduce the penaly provided for the violation of which the prisoner of war is accused, and shall therefore not be bound to apply the minimum penalty prescribed.

Collective punishment of individual acts, corporal punishments, imprisonment in premises without daylight and, in general, any form of torture or cruelty, are forbidden.

No prisoner of war may be deprived of his rank by the Detaining Power, or prevented from wearing his badges.

Article 88 " Officers, non-commissioned officers and men who are prisoners of war undergoing a disciplinary or judicial punisRment, shall not be subjected to more severe treatment than that applied in respect of the same punishment to members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power of equivalent rank.

A woman prisoner of war shall not be awarded or sentenced to a punishment more severe, or treatad whilst undergoing punishment more severely, than a woman member of the armed forces of the detaining Power dealt with for a similar offence.

In no case may a woman prisoner of war be awarded or sentenced to a punishment more severe, or treated whilst undergoing punishment more severely, than a male member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power dealt with for a similar offence.

Prisoners of war who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences may not be treated differently from other prisoners of war.

II. Disciplinary Sanctions

Article 89

The disciplinary punishments applicable to prisoners of war are the following;

(1) A fine which shall not exceed 5o per cent of the advances of pay and working pay which the prisoners of war would otherwise receive under the provisions of Articles 60 and 62 during a period of not more than thirty days

(2) Discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the treatment provided for by the present Convention. (3) Fatigue duties not exceeding two hours daily.

(4) Confinement

The punishment referred to under (3) shall not be applied to officers.

In no case shall disciplinary punishments be inhuman, brutal or dangerous to the health of prisoners of war.

Article 90

The duration of any single punishment shall in no case exceed thirty days. Any period of confinement awaiting the hearing of a disciplinary offence or the award of disciplinary punishment shall be ded'ucted from an award pronounced against a prisoner of war

The maximum of thirty days provided above may not be exceeded, even if the prisoner of war is answerable for several acts at the same time when he is awarded punishment, whether such acts are related or not.

The period between the pronouncing of an award of disciplinary punishment and its execution shall not exceed one month.

When a prisoner of war is awarded a further disciplinary punishment, a period of at least three days shall elapse between the execution of any two of the punishments, if the duration of one of these is ten davs or more

Article 91

The escape of a prisoner of war shall be deemed to have succeeded when:

(1) he has joined the armed forces of t.he Power on which he depends, or those of an allied Power,

(2) he has left the territory under the control of the Detaining Power, or of an ally of the said Power,

 

(3) he has joined a ship flying the flag of the Power on which he depends, or of an allied Power, in the territorial waterš of the Detaining Power, the said ship not being under the control of the last named Power.

Prisoners of war who have made good their escape in the sense of this Article and who are recaptured, shall not be liable to any punishment in respect of their previous esca,pe.

Article 92

A prisoner of war who attempts to escape and is recaptured before having made good his escape in the sense of Article 91 shall be liable only to a disciplinary punishment in respect of this act, even if it is a repeated offence.

A prisoner of war who is recaptured shall be handed over without delay to the competent military authority. Article 88, fourth paragraph, notwithstanding, priso

ners of war punished as a result of an unsuccessful esca,pe may be subjected to special surveillance. Such surveillance must not affect the state of their health, must be undergone in a prisoner of war ca,mp, and must not entail the suppression of any of the safeguards granted them by the present Convention.

Article 93

Escape or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated offence, shall not be deemed an aggravating circumstance if the prisoner of war is subjected to trial by judicial proceedings in respect of an offence committed during his escape or attempt to escape.

In conformity with the principle stated in Article 83, offences committed by prisoners of war with the sole intention of facilitating their esca,pe and which do not entail any violence against life or limb, such as offences against public property, theft without intention of self-enrichment, the drawing up or use of false papers, the wearing of civilian clothing, shall occasion disciplinary punishment only.

Prisoners of war who sid or abet an escape or an attempt to escape shall be liable on the count to disciplinary punishment only.

Article 94

If an escaped prisoner of war is recaptured, the Power on which be depends shall be notified thereof in the manner defined in Article 122, provided notification of his escape has been made.

Article 95

A prisoner of war accused of an offence against discipline shall not be kept in confinement pending the hearing unless a member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power would be so kept if he were accused of a similar offence, or it it is essential in the interests of camp order and discipline.

Any period spent by a prisoner of war in confinement awaiting the disposal of an offence against discipline shalt be reducted to an absolute minimum and shall not exceed fourteen days.

The provisions of Articles 97 and 98 ot this Chapter shall apply to prisoners of war who are in confinement awaiting the disposal of offences against discipline.

Article 96

Acts which constitute offences against discipline shall be investigated immediately".

Without prejudice to the competence of courts and superior military authorities, disciplinary punishment may be ordered only by an officer having disciplinary powers in his capacity as camp commander, or by a responsible officer who replaces him or to whom he has delegated his disciplinary powers.

In no case may such powers be delegated to a prisoner of war or be exercised by a prisoner of war.

Before any disciplinary award is pronounced, the accused shall be given precise information regarding the offences of which he is accused, and given an opportunity of explaining his conduct and of defending himself. He shall be permitted, in particular, to all witnesses and to have recourse, if necessary, to the services of a qualified interpreter. The decision shall be announced to the accused prisoner of war and to the prisonerš representative.

A record of disciplinary punishments shall be maintained by the camp commander and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power.

Article 97

Prisoners of war shall not in any case be transferred to penitentiary establishments (prisons, penitentiaries, convict prisons, etc.) to undergo disciplinary punishment therein.

All premises in which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall conform to the sanitary requirements set forth in Article 25. A prisoner of war undergoing punishment shall be enabled to keep himself in a state of cleanliness, in conformity with Article 29.

Officers and persons of equivalent status shall not be lodged in the same quarters as non-commissioned officers or men.

Women prisoners of war undergoing disciplinary punishment shall be confined in separate quarters from male prisoners of war and shall be under the immediate supervision of women.

Article 98

A prisoner of war undergoing confinement as a disciplinary punishment, shall continue to enjoy the benefits of the provisions of thie Convention except in so far as these are necessarily rendered inapplicable by the mere ~'act that he is confined. In no case may he be deprived of the benefits of the provisions of Articles 78 and I26.

A prisoner of war awarded disciplinary punishment may not be deprived of the prerogatives attached to his rank.

Prisoners of war awarded disciplinary punishment shall be alowed to exercise and to stay in the openair at least two hours daily.

They shall be allowed, on their request, to be present at the daily medica.l inspections. They shall receive the attention which their state of health requires and, if necessary, shall be removed to the camp infirmary or to a hospital.

They shall have permission to read and write, likewise to send and receive letters. Parcels and remittances of money however, may be witheld from them until the completion of the punishment; they shall meanwhile be entrusted to the prisoners' representative, who will hand over to the infirmary the perishable goods contained in such parcels

III. Judicial Proceedings

Article 99

No prisoner of war may be tried or sentenced for an act which is not forbidden by the law of the Detaining Power or by International Law, in force at the time the said act was committed.

No moral or plysical coercion may be exerted on a pri soner of war in order to induce him to admit himself guiltv of the act of v,~hich he is accused.

No prisoner of war may be convicted without havin had an opportunity to present his defence and the assistan ce of a qualified advocate or counsel

Article 100

Prisoners of war and the Protecting Powers shall be informed, as soon as possible, of the offences which are punishable by the death sentence under the laws of the Detaining Power. '

Other offences shall not thereafter be made punishable by the death penalty without the concurrence of the Power upon which the prisoners of war depend.

'The death sentence cannot be pronounced on a prisoner of war unless the attention of the court has, in accordance with Article 87, second paragraph, been particularly called to the fact that since the accused is not a national of the Detaining Power, he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance, and that he is in its power as the result of circumstances independent of his own will.

Article 101

If the death penalty is pronounced on a prisoner of war, the sentence shall not be executed before the expiration of a period of at least six months from the date when the Protecting Power receives, at an indicated address, the detailed communication provided for in Article t07.

Article 102

A prisoner of war can be validly sentenced only if the sentence has been pronounced by the same courts according to the same procedure as in the case of members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power, and if, furthermore, the provisions of the present Chapter have been observed.

Article 103

Judicial investigations relating to a prisoner of war shall be conducted as rapidly as circumstances permit and so that his trial shall take place as soon as possible. A prisoner of war shall not be confined while awaiting trial unless a member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power would be so confined if he were accused of a similar offence, or if it is essential to do so in the interests of national security. In no circumstances shall this confinement exceed threee months.

Any period spent by a prisoner of war in confinement awaiting trial shall be deducted from any sentence of imprisonment passed upon him and taken into account in fixing any penalty.

The provisions of Articles 97 and 98 of this Chapter shall apply to a prisoner of war whilst in confinement awaiting trial.

Article 104

In any case in which the Detaining Power has decided to institute judicial proceedings against a prisoner of war, it shall notify the Protecting Power as soon as possible and at least three weeks before the opening of the trial. This period of three weeks shall run as from the day on which such notification reaches the Protecting Power at the address previously indicated by the latter to the Detaining Power.

The said notification shall contain the following information:

(1) Surname and first names of the prisoner of war, his rank, his army, regimental, personal or serial number, his date of birth, and his profession or trade, if any.

(2) Place of internment of confinement.

(3) Specification of the charge or charges on which the prisoner of war is to be arraigned, giving the legal provisions applicable.

(4) Designation of the court which will try the case, likewise the date and place fixed for the opening of the trial.

The same communica,tion shall be made by the Detaining Power to the prisonerš representative.

If no evidence is submitted, at the opening o/' a trial, that the notification referred to above was received by the Protecting Power, by the prisoner of war and by the prisoners' representative concerned, at least three weeks before the opening of the trial, then the latter ca.nnot take place and must be adjourned.

Article 105

The prisoner of war shall be entitled to assistance by one of his prisoner comrades, to defence by a qualified advocate or counsel of his own choice, to the ca.lling of witnesses and, if he deems necessary, to the services of a competent interpreter. He shall be advised of these rights by the Detaining Power in due time before the trial.

Failing a choice by the prisoner of war, the Protecting Power shall find him an advocate or counsel, and shall have at least one week at its disposal for the purpose. The Detaining Power shall deliver to the said Power, on request, a list of persons qualified to present the defence. Failing a choice of an advocate or counsel by the prisoner of war or the Protecting Power, the Detaining Power shall appoint a competent advocate or counsel to conduct the defence.

The advocate or counsel conducting the defence of behalf of the prisoner of war shall have at his disposal a period of two weeks at least before the opening of the trial, as well as the necessary facilities to prepare the defence of the accused. He may, in particular, freely visit the accused and interview him in private. He may also confer with any witnesses for the defence, including prisoners of war. He shall have the benefit of these facilities until the term of appeal or petition has expired.

Particulars of the charge or charges on whicht the prisoner of war is to be arraigned, as well as the documents which are generally communicated to the accused by virtue of the laws in force in the armed forces of the Detaining Power, shall be communicated to the accused prisoner of war in a language which he understands, and in good time before the opening of the trial. The same communication in the same circumstances shall be made to the advocate or counsel conducting the defence of behalf of the prisoner of war.

The representatives of the Protecting Power shall be entitled to attend the trial of the case, unless, exceptionally, this is held in camera in the interest of State security. In such a case the Detaining Power shall advise the Protecting Power accordingly.

Article 106

Every prisoner of war shall have, in the same manner as the members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power, the right of appeal or petition from any sentence pronounced upon him, with a view to the quashing or revising of the sentence or the re-opening of the trial. He shall be fully informed of his fight to appeal or petition and of the time limit within which he may do so.

Article l07

Any judgment and sentence pronounced upon a prisoner of war shall be immediately reported to the Protecting Power in the form of a summary communication, which shall also indicate whether he has the right of appeal with a view to the quashing of the sentence of the re-opening of the trial. This communication shall likewise be sent to the prisoners' representative concerned. It shall also be sent to the accused prisoner of wac in a language he understands, if the sentence was not pronounced in his presence The Detaining Power shall also immediately corilmunic<ite to the Protecting Power the decision of the prisoner of war to use or to waive his right of appeal. Furthermore, if a prisoner of war is finally convicted or if a sentence pronounced against a prisoner of war in the first instance is a death sentence, the Detaining Power shall as soon as possible address to the Protecting Powar a detailed communication containing:

(1) the precise wording of the finding and sentence; (2) a summarized report of any preliminary investigation and of the trial, emphasizing in particular the elements of the prosecution and the defence;

(3) notification, where applicable, of the establishment where the sentence will be served.

The communications provided for in the foregoing subparagraphs shall be sent to the protecting Power at the address previously made known to the Detaining Power.

Article 108

Sentences pronounced of prisoners of war after a conviction has become duly enforceable, shall be served in the same establishments and under the same conditions as in the case of members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power. These conditions shall in all cases conform to the requirements of health and humanity.

A woman prisoner of war on whom such a sentence has been pronounced shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the supervision of women.

In any case, prisoners of war sentenced to a penalty depriving them of their liberty shall retain the benefit of the provisions of Articles 78 and 126 of the present Convention. Furthermore, they shall be entitled to receive and despatch correspondence, to receive at least one relief parcel monthly, to take regular exercise in the open air, to have the medical care required by their state of health, and the spiritual assistance they may desire. Penalties to which they may be subjected shall be in accordance with the provisions of Article 87, third paragraph.

PART IV TERMINATION OF CAPTIVITY

SECTION I

DIRECT REPATRIATION AND ACCOMMODATION IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES

Article 109

Subject to the provisions of the third paragraph of this Article, Parties to the conflict are bound to send back to their own country, regardless of number or rank, seriously wounded and seriously sick prisoners of war, after having cared for them until they are fit to travel, in accordance with the first paragraph of the following Article.

Throughout the duration of hostilities, Parties to the conflict shall endeavour, with the cooperation of the neutral Powers concerned, to make arrangements for the accommodation in neutral countries of the sick and wounded prisoners of war referred to in the second paragraph of the following Article. They may, in addition, conclude agreements with a view to the direct repatriation or internment in a neutral country of able-bodied prisoners of war who have undergone a long period of captivity.

No sick or injured prisoner of war who is eligible for repatriation under the first paragraph of this Article, may be repatriated against his will during hostilities.

Article 110

The following shall be repatriated direct:

(1) Incurably wounded and sick whose mental or physical fitness seems to have been gravely diminished.

(2) Wounded and sich who, according to medical opinion, are not likely to recover within one year, whose conditi on requires treatment and whose mental or physical fitness seems to have been gravely diminished.

(3) Wounded and sick who have recovered, but whose mental or physical fitness seems to have gravely and permanently diminished.

The following may be accommodated in a neutral country:

(t) Wounded and sick whose recovery may be expected within one year of the date of the wound or the beginning of the illness, if treatment in a neutral country might increase the prospects of a mor~ certain and speedy recovery.

(2) Prisoners of war whose mental or physical health, according to medical opinion, is seriously threatened by continued captivity, but whose accommodation in a neutral country might remove such a threat.

The conditions which prisoners of war accommodated in a neutral country must fulfil in order to permit their repatriation shall be fixed, as shall likewise their status, by agreeement between the Powers concerned. In general, prisoners of war who have been accommodated in a neutral country, and who belong to the following categories, should be repatriated:

(1 ) Those whose state of health has deteriorated so as to fulfil the conditidns laid down for direct repatriation;

(2) Those whose mental or physical powers remain, even after treatment, considerably impaired.

If no special agreements are concluded between the Parties to the conflict concerned, to determine the cases of disablement or sickness entailing direct repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country, such cases shall be settled in accordance with the principles laid down in the Model Agreement concerning direct repatriation and accommodation in neutral countries of wounded and sick prisoners of war and in the Regulations concerning Mixed Medical Commissions annexed to the present Convention.

Article 111

The Detaining Power, the Power in which the prisoners of war depend, ahd a neutral Power agreed upon by these two Powers, shall endeavour to conclude agreements which will enable prisoners of war to be interned in the territory of the said neutral Power until the close of hostilities.

Article 112

Upon the outbreak of hostilities, Mixed Medical Commissions shall be appointed to examine sick and wounded prisoners of war, ant to make all appropriate decisions regarding them. The appointment, duties and funcitioning of these Commissions shall be in conformity with the provisions of the Regulations annexed to the present Convention

However, prisoners of war who, in the opinion of the medical authorities of the Detaining Power, are manifestly seriously injured or seriously sick, may be repatriated without having to be examined by a Mixed Medical Commission.

Article 113

Besides those who are designated by the medical authorities of the Detaining Power, wounded or sick prisoners of war belonging to the categories listed below shall be entitled to present themselves for examination by the Mixed Medical Commissions provided for in the foregoing Article:

(1) Wound,ed and sick proposed by a physician or surgeon who is of the same nationality, or a national of a Party to the conflict allied with the Power on which the said prisoners depend, and who exercises his functions in the camp.

(2) Wounded and sick proposed by their prisoner's representative; (3) Wounded and sick proposed by the Power on which they depend, or by an organization duly recognized by the said Power and giving assistance to the prisoners.

Prisoners of war who do not belong to one of tlie there foregoing categories may nevertheless present themselves for examination by Mixed Medical Commissions, but shall be examined only after those belonging to the said categories.

The physician or surgeon of the same nationality as the prisoners who present themselves for examination by the Mixed Medica.l Commission, likewise the prisoners representative of the said prisoners, shall have permission to be present at the examination.

Article 114

Prisoners of war who meet with accidents shall, unless the injury is self-inflicted, have the benefit of the provisions of this Convention as regards repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country.

Article 115

No prisoner of war on whom a disciplinary punishment has been imposed and who is elegible for repatriation or for accommodation in a neutral country, may be kept back on the plea that he has not undergone his punishment.

Prisoners of war detained in connection with a judicial prosecution or conviction and who are designated for repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country, may benefit by such measures before the end of the proceedings or the completion of the punischment, if the Detaining Power consents.

Parites to the conflict shall communicate to each other the names of Lhose who will be detained until the end of the proceedings or the completion of the punishment.

Article 116

The costs of repatriating prisoners of war or of transporting them to a neutral country shall be borne, from the frontiers of the Detaining Power, by the Power on which the said prisoners depend.

Article 117

No repatriated person may be employed on active military service.

SECTION II

RELEASE AND REPATRIATION OF PRISONERS OF WAR AT THE CLOSE OF HOSTILITIES

Article 118

Prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities.

In the absence of stipulations to the above effect in any agreement concluded between the Parties to the conflict with a view to the cessation of hostilities, or failing any such agreement, each of the Detaining Powers shall itself establish and execute without delay a plan of repatriation in conformity with the principle laid down in the foregoing paragraph.

In either case, the measures adopted shall be brought to the knowledge of the prisoners of war.

The costs of repatriation of prisoners of war shall in all cases be equitably apportioned between the Detaining Power and the Power on which the prisoners depend. This apportionment shall be carried out on the following basis:

(a) If the two Powers are contiguous, the Power on which the prisoners of war depend shall bear the costs of repatriation from the frontiers of the Detaining Power. (b) If the two Powers are not contiguous, the Detaining Power shall bear the costs of transport of prisoners of war over its own territory as far as its frontier or its port of embarkation nearest to the territory of the Power on which the prisoners of war depend. The Parties concerned shall agree between themselves as to the equitable apportionment of the remaining costs of the repatriation. The conclusion of this agreement shall in no circumstances justify any delay in the repatriation of the prisoners of war.

Article 119

Repatriation shall be effected in conditions similar to those laid down in Articles 46 to 48 inclusive of the present Convention for the transfer of prisoners of war, having regard to the provisions of Article 1 I8 and to those of the following paragraphs.

On repatriation, any articles of value impounded from prisoners of war under Article 18, and any foreign currency which has not been converted into the currency of the Detaining Power, shall be restored to them. Articles of value and foreign currency which, for any reason whatever, are not restored to prisoners of war on repatriation, shall be despatched to the Information Bureau set up under Article 122.

Prisoners of war shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and any correspondence and parcels which have arrived for them. The weight of such baggage may be limited, if the conditions of repatriation so require, to what each prisoner can reasonably carry. Each prisoner shall in all cases be authorized to carry at least twenty-five kilogrammes.

The other personal effects of the repatriated prisoner shall be left in the charge of the Detaining Power which shall have them forwarded to him as soon as it has concluded an agreement to this effect, regulating the conditions of transport and the payment of the costs involved, with the Power on which the prisoner depends.

Prisoners of war against whom criminal proceedings for an indictable offence are pending may be detained until the end of such proceedings, and, if necessary, until the completion of the punishment. The same shall apply to prisoners of war already convicted for an indictable offence.

Parties to the conflict shall communicate to each other names of any prisoners of war who are detained until the end of proceedings or until punishment has been completed.

By agreement between the Parties to the conflict, commissions shall be established for the purpose of searching for dispersed prisoners of war and of assuring their repatriation with the least possible delay.

SECTION III

DEATH OF PRISONERS OF WAR

Article 120

Wills of prisoners of war shall be drawn up so as to satisfy the conditions of validity required by the legislation of their country of origin, which will take steps to inform the Detaining Power of its requirements in this respect. At the request of the prisoner of war and, in all cases, after death, the will shall be transmitted without delay to the Protecting Power; a certified copy shall be sent to the Central Agency.

Death certificates, in the form annexed to the present Convention, or lists certified by a responsible officer, of all persons who die as prisoners of war shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible to the Prisoner of War Information Bureau established in accordance with Article 122. The death certificates or certified lists shall show particulars of identity as set out in the thirs paragraph of Article 17, and also the date and place of death, the cause of death, the date and place of burtal and all particulars necessary to identify the graves.

The burtal or cremation of a prisoner of war shall be preceded by a medical examination of the body with a view to confirming death and enabling a report to be made and, where necessary, establishing identity.

The detaining authorities shall ensure that prisoners of war who have died in captivity are honourably buried, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged, and that their graves are respected, suitably maintained and marked so as to be found at any time. Wherever possible, deceased prisoners of war who depended on the same Power shall be interred in the same place.

Deceased prisoners of war shall be burted in individual graves unless unavoidable circumstances require the use of collective graves. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of the rel~gion of the deceased or in accordance with his express wish to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the reasons given in the death certifica.te of the deceased.

In order that graves may always be found, all particulars of burials and graves shall be recorded with a Graves Registration Service established by the Detaining Power. Lists of graves and particulars of the prisoners of war interred in cemeteries and elsewhere shall be transmitted to the Power on which such prisoners of war depended. Responsibility for the ca,re of these graves and for records of any subsequent moves of the bodies shall rest on the Power controlling the territory, if a Party to the present Convention. These provisions shall also apply to the ashes which shall be kept by the Graves Registration Service until proper disposal thereof in accordance with the wishes of the home country.

Article 121

Every death or serious injury of a prisoner of war caused or suspected to have been ca,used by a sentry, another prisoner of war, or any other person, as well as any death the cause of which is unknown, shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining Power.

A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the Protecting Power. Statements shall be taken from witnesses, especially from those who are prisoners of war, and a report including such statements shall be forwarded to the Protecting Power.

If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the Detaining Power shall take all measures for the prosecution of the person or persons responsible.

PART V

INFORMATION BUREAUX AND RELIEF SOCIETIES FOR PRISONERS OF WAR

Article 122

Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of occupation, each of the Parties to the conflict shall institute an official Information Bureau for prisoners of war who are in its power. Neutral or non-belligerent Powers who may have received within their territory persons belonging to one of the categories referred to in Article 4, shall take the same action with respect to such persons. The Power concerned shall ensure that the Prisoners of War Information Bureau is provided with the necessary accommodation, equipment and staff to ensure its efficient working. It shall be at liberty to employ prisoners of war in such a Bureau under the conditions laid down in the Section of the present Convention dealing with work by prisoners of war. Within the shortest possible period, each of the Parties to the conflict shall give its Bureau the information referred to in the fourth, fifth and sixth paragraphs of this Article regarding any enemy person belonging to one of the categories referred to in Article 4, who has fallen into its power. Neutral or non-belligerent Powers shall take the same action with regard to persons belonging to such categories whom they have received within their territory.

The Bureau shall immediately forward such information by the most rapid means to the Powers concerned through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers and likewise of the Central Agency provided for in Article 123.

This information shall make it possible quickly to advise the next of kin concerned. Subject to the provisions of Article t7, the information shall include, in so far as available to the Information Bureau, in respect of each prisoner of war, his surname, first names, rank, army, regimental, personal or serial number, place and full date of birth, indication of the Power on which he depends, first name of the father and maiden name of the mother, name and address of the person to be informed and the address to which correspondence for the prisoner may be sent.

The Information Bureau shall receive from the va~ious departments concerned information regarding transfers, releases, repatriations, escapes, admissions to hospital, and deaths, and shall transmit such information in the manner described in the third paragraph above.

Likewise, information regarding the state of health of prisoners of war who are seriously ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regularly, every week if possible.

The Information Bureau shall also be responsible for replying to all enquiries sent to it concerning prisoners of war, including those who have died in captivity; it will make any enquiries necessary to obtain the information which is aksed for if this is not in its possession.

All written communications made by the Bureau shall be authenticated by a signature or a seal.

The Information Bureau shall furthermore be charged with collecting all personal valuables, including sums in currencies other than that of the Detaining Power and documents of importance to the next of kin, left by prisoners of war who have been repatriated or released, or who have escaped or died, and shall forward the said valuables to the Powers concerned. Such articles shall be sent by the Bureau in sealed packets which shall be accompanied by statements giving clear and full particulars of the identity of the person to whom the articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the parcel. Other personal effects of such prisoners of war shall be transmitted under arrangements agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict concerned.

Article 123

A Central Prisoners of War Information Agency shall be created in a neutral country. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall, if it deems necessary, propose to the Powers concerned the organization of such an Agency.

The function of the Agency shall be to collect all the information it may obtain through official or private channels respecting prisoners of war, and to transmit it as rapidly as possible to the country of origin of the prisoners of war or to the Power on which they depend. It shall receive from the Parties to the conflict all facilities for effecting such transmissions.

The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals benefit by the services of the Central Agency, are requested to give the said Agency the financial aid it may require.

The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting the hurrianitarian activities of the Inter national Committee of the Red Cross, or of the relief Societies provided for in Article 125.

Article 124

The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall enjoy free postage for mail, likewise all the exemptions provided for in Article 74, and further, so far as possible, exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced rates.

Article 125

Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider essential to ensure their security or tc meet any other reasonable need, the represenatives of religious organizations, relief societies, or any other organization assisting prisoners of war, shall receive from the said Powers, for themselves and their duly accredited agents, all necessary facilities for visiting the prisoners, distributing relief supplies and material, from any source, intended for religious, education or recreative purposes, and for assisting them in organizing their leisure time within the camps. Such societies or organizations may be constituted in the territory of the Detaining Power or in any other country, or they may have an international character.

'The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and organizations whose delegates are allowed to carry out their activities in its territory and under its supervision, on condition, however, that such limitation shall not hinder the effective operation of adequate relief to all prisoners of war.

The special position of the International Committee of the Red Cross in this field shall be recognized and respected at all times.

As soon as relief supplies or material intended for the abovementioned purposes are handed over to prisoners of war, or very shortly afterwards, receipts for each consignment, signed by the prisoners' representative, shall be forwarded to the relief society or organization making the shipment. At the same time, receipts for these consignments shall be supplied by the administrative authorities responsible for guarding the prisoners.

PART VI EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

SECTION I GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 126

Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go to all places where prisoners of war may be, particularly to places of internment, imprisonment and labour, and shall have access to all premises occupied by prisoners of war, they shall also be allowed to go to the places of departure, passage and arrival of prisoners who are being transferred. They shall be able to interview the prisoners, and in particular the prisoners' representatives, without witnesses, either personally or through an interpreter.

Representatives and delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have full liberty to select the places they wish to visit. The duration and frequency of these visits shall not be restricted. Visits may not be prohibited except of imperative military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure.

The Detaining Power and the Power on which the said prisoners of war depend may agree, if necessary that compatriots of these prisoners of war be permitted to participate in the visits. The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall enjoy the same prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the approval of the Power detaining the prisoners of war to be visited.

Article 127

The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possihle in their respective countries, and in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to all their armed forces and to the entire population.

Any military or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of prisonersof war,must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its provisions.

Article 128

The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.

Article 129

The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convetnion defined in the following Article.

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.

Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.

In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 105 and those following of the present Convention.

Article 130

Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed agains persons or property protected by the Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, compelling a prisoner of war to serve in the forces of the hostile Power, or wilfully depriving a prisoner of war of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in this Convention.

Article 131

No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.

Article 132

At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed.

Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall reprešs it with the least possible delay.

SEGTION II FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 133

The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic.

The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.

Article 134

The present Convention replaces the Convention of 27 July 1929, in relations between the High Contracting Parties.

Article 135

In the relations between the Powers which are bound by the Hague Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, whether that of 29 July 1899, or that of 18 October 1907, and which are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be complementary to Chapter II of the Regulations annexed to the above-mentioned Conventions of the Hague.

Article 136

The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is opet to signature until 12 February 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on 21 April 1949; furthermore, by Powers not represented at that Conference, but which are Parties to the Convention of 27 July 1929.

Article 137

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Bern.

A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 138

The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited.

Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contacting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.

Article 139

From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.

Article 140

Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.

The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the acenrcinnc cessions to all the 1'owers in whose namete ttie l;onveniion has been signed or whose accession has been notified.

Article 141

The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessi ons notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after ' the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.

Article 142

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.

The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with release and repatriation of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.

The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.

Article 143

The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.

!n witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.

Done at Geneva this twelfth day of August 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to each of the Signatory and Acceding States.

ANNEX I

MODEL AGREEMENT CONCERNING DIRECT REPATRIATION AND ACCOMMODATION IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES OF WOUNDED AND SICK PRISONERS OF WAR

(see Article 110)

  1. PRINCIPLES FOR DIRECT REPATRIATION AND ACCOMMODATION IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES

A. Direct repatriation

The following shall be repatriated direct:

(1) All prisoners of war suffering from the following disabilities as the result of trauma: loss of a limb, paralysis, articular or other disabilities, when this disability is at least the loss of a hand or a foot, or the equivalent of the loss of a hand or a foot. Without prejudice to a more generous interpretation, the following shall be considered as equivalent to the loss of a hand or a foot:

(a) Loss of hand or of all the fingers, or of the thumb and forefinger of one hand; loss of a foot, or of all the toes and metatarsals of one foot.

(b) Ankylosis, loss of osseous tissue, cicatricial contracture preventing the functioning of one of the large articulations or of all the digital joints of one hand;

(c) Pseudarthrosis of the long bones. (d) Deformities due to fracture or other injury which seriously interfere with function and weight-bearing power.

(2) All wounded prisoners of war whose condition has become chronic, to the extent that prognosis appears to exclude recovery - in spite of treatment - within one year from the date of the injury, as, for example, in c~se of:

(a) projectile in the heart, even if the Mixed Medical Commission should fail at the time of their examination,. to detect any serious disorders.

(b) Metallic splinter in the brain or the lungs, even if the Mixed Medica.l Commission ca,nnot, at the time of examination, detect any local or general reaction.

(c) Osteomyelitis, when recovery cannot be foreseen in the course of the year following the injury, and which seems likely to result in ankylosis of a joint, or other impairments equivalent to the loss of a hand or a foot.

(d) Perforating and suppurating injury to the large joints.

(e) Injury to the skull, with loss or shifting of bony tissue.

(f) Injury of burning of the face with loss of tissue and functional lesions.

(g) Injury to the spinal cord.

(h) Lesion of the peripheral nerves, the sequelae of which are equivalent to the loss of a hand or foot, and the cure of which requires more than a vear from the date of injury, for example: injury to the brachial or lumbosacral plexus, the median or sciatic nerves, likewise combined injury to the radial and cubital nerves or to the lateral popliteal nerve (N. peroneus communis) and medial popliteal nerve (N. tibialis); etc. The separate injury of the radial (musculo-spiral), cubital, lateral or medial popliteal nerves shall not, however, warrant repatriation except in cases of contractures or of serious neurotrophic disturbance.

(i) Injury the urinary system, with incapacitating results.

(3) All sick prisoners of war whose condition has become chronic to the extent that prognosis seems'to exclude recovery - in spite of treatment - within one year from the conception of the disease, as, for example, in cases of:

(a) Progressive tuberculosis of any organ which, according to medical prognosis, cannot be cured, or at least considerably improved, by treatment in a neutral country.

(b) Exudate pleurisy.

(c) Serious diseases of the respiratory organs of nontubercular etiology, presumed incurable, for example: serious pulmonary emphysema, with or without bronchitis; chronic asthma`; chronic bronchitis* lasting more than one year in captivity; bronchiectasis" etc.;

(d) Serious chronic affections of the circulatory system, for example: valvular lesions and myocarditis'` which have shown signs of circulatory failure during captivity, even though the Mixed Medical Commission cannot detect any such signs at the time of examination; affections of the pericardium and the vessels (Buerger's disease, aneurisms of the large vessels); etc.

(e) Serious chronic affections of the digestive organs, tor example: gastric or duodenal Icer; sequelae of gastric operations performed in captivity; chroriic gastritis, enteri

' i'he decision of the Mixed Medical Commission shall be based and Co a great extent on the records kept by camp physicians and surgeons of the same nationalny as the prisoners of war, or on an examination by medical specialists of the Detaining Power. tis or colitis, having lasted more than one year and seriously affecting the general condition; cirrhosis of the liver; chronic cholecystopathy*; etc .

(f) Serious chronic affections of the genito-uririary organs, for example: chronic diseases of the kidney with consequent disorders; nephrectomy because of a tubercular kidney; chronic pyelitis or chronic cystitis; hydronephrosis or pyonephrosis; chronic grave gynaecologica.l conditions; normal pregnancy and obstretrica,l disorder, where it is impossible to accommodate in a neutral country; etc.

(g) Serious chronic diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, for example: all obvious psychoses and psychoneuroses, such as serious hysteria, serious captivity psychoneurosis, etc., duly verified by a specialist*; any epilepsy duly verified by the camp physician*; cerebral arteriosclerosis; chronic neuritis lasting more than one year; atc.

(h) Serious chronic diseases of the neuro-vegetative system, with considerable diminution of mental or physical fitness, noticeable loss of weight and general asthenia.

(i) Blindness of both eyes, or of one eye when the vision of the other is less than I in spite of the use of corrective glasses; diminution of visual acuity in cases where it is imposisible to restore it dy correction to an acuity of 1/2 in at least one eye*; other grave ocular affections, for example: glaucoma, iritis, choroiditis trachoma; etc.

(k) Auditive disorders, such as total unilateral deafness, if the other ear does not discern the ordinary spoken word at a distance of one metre*; etc.

(1) Serious affections.of metabolism, for example: diabetes mellitus requiring insulin treatment; etc.

(m) Serious disorders of the endocrine glands, for example: thyrotoxicosis; hypotyrosis; Addison's disease; Simmonds' cachexia; tetany; etc.

(n) Grave and chronic disorders of the blood-forming organs.

(o) Serious cases of chronic intoxication, for example: lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, morphinism, cocainism, alcoholism; gas or radiation poisoning; etc.

(p) Chronic affections of locomotion, with obvious functional disorders, for example: arthritis deformans; primary and secondary progressive chronic polyarthritis; rheumatism with serious clinical symptoms; etc.

(q) Serious chronic skin diseases, not amenable to treatment.

(r) Any malignant growth.

(s) Serious chronic infectious diseases, persisting for one year after their inception, for example: malaria with decided organic impairment, amoebic or bacillary dysentery with grave disordes; tertiary visceral syphilis resistant to treatment; leprosy; etc.

(t) Serious avitaminosis or serious inanition.

B. Accommodation in neutral countries

The following shall be eligible for accommodation in a neutral country:

(I) All wounded prisoners of war who are not likely to recover in captivity, but who might be cured or whose condition might be considerably improved by accommodation in a neutral country.

' The decision of the Mixed Medical Commission shall be based and to a great extent on the records kept by camp physicians and surgeons of the same nationality as the prisoners of war, or on en examination by medical specialists of the Detaining Power. (2) Prisoners of war suffering from any form of tuberculosis of whatever organ, and whose treatment in a neutral county would be likely to lead to recovery or at least to considerable improvement, with the exception of primary tuberculosis cured before captivity.

(3) Prisoners of war suffering from affections requiring treatment of the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous, sensory, genito-urinary, cutaneous, locomotive organs, etc:, if such treatment would clearly have better results in a neutral country than in'captivity.

(a) Prisoners of war who have undergone a nephrectomy in ca,ptivity for a non-tubercular renal affection; cases of osteomyelitis, on the way to recovery or latent; diabetes mellitus not requiring insulin treatment; etc.

(5) Prisoners of war suffering from war or captivity neuroses. Cases of captivity neurosis which are not cured after three months of accommodation in a neutral country, or which after that length of time are not clearly on the way to complete cure, shall be repatriated.

(6) All prisoners of war suffering from chronic intoxication (gases, metals, alkaloids, etc.), for whom the prospects of cure in a neutral country are especially favourable.

(7) All women prisoners of war who are pregnant or mothers with infants and smal children.

The following cases shall not be eligible for accommodation in a neutral country.

(1) All duly verified chronic psychoses.

(2) All organic or functional nervous affections considered to be incurable.

(3) All contagious diseases durign the period in which they are transmissible, with the exception of tuberculosis.

II. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

(1) The conditions given shall, in a general way, be interpreted and applied in as broad a spirit as possible. Neuropathic and prychopathic conditions caused by war or captivity, as well as cases of tuberculosis in all atages, shall above all benefit by such liberal interpretation. Prisoners of war who have sustained several wounds, none of which, considered by itself, justifies repatriation, shall be examined in the same spirit, with due regard for the psychic traumatism due to the number of their wounds.

(2) All unquestionable cases giving the right to direct repatriation (amputation, total blindness or deafness, open pulmonary tuberculosis, mental disorder, malignant growth, etc.) shall be examined and repatriated as soon as possible by the camp physicians or by military medical commissions appointed by the Detaining Power.

(3) Injuries and diseases which existed before the war and which have not become worse, as well as war injuries which have not prevented subsequent military service, shall not entitle to direct repatriation.

(4) The provisions fo this Annex shall be interpreted and applied in a similar manner in all countries party to the conflict 'I'he Powers and authorities concerned shall grant to Mixed Medical Commissions all the facilities necessar'y fot the accomplishment of their task.

(5) The examptes quoted under (I) above represent only typical cases Cases which do not correspond exactly to ihese prov"isions shall be judged in the spirit of the provisions of Article ~ i0 of the present Convention, and of the principles embodied in the present Agreement.

ANNEX III

REGULATIONS CONCERNING COLLECTIVE RELIEF

(see Article 73)

Article 1

Prisonerš representatives shall be allowed to distribute collective relief shimpents for which they are responsible, to all prisoners of war administered by their camp, including those who are in hospitals, or in prisons or other penal establishments.

Article 2

The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be effected in accordance with the instructions of the donors and with a plan drawn up by the prisoners' representatives. The issue of medical stores shall, however, be made for preference in agreement with the senior medical officers, and the latter may, in hospitals and infirmaries, waive the said instructions, if the needs of their patients so demand. Within the limits thus defined, the distribution shall always be carried out equitably

Article 3

The said prisoners' representatives or their assistants shall be allowed to go to the points of arrival of relief supplies near their camps, so as to enable the prisoners' representatives or their assistants to verify the quality as well as the quantity of the goods received, and to make out detailed reports thereon for the donors

Article 4

Prisoners' representatives shall be given the facilities necessary for verifying whether the distribution of collective relief in all sub-divisions and annexes of their camps has been carried out in accordance wuth their instructions.

Article 5

Prisoners' representatives shall be allowed to fill up, and cause to be filled up by the pr rsoners' representatives of labour detachments or by the senior medical officers of infirmaries and hospitals, fonns or questionnaires intended for the donors, relating to cullecove relief supplies (distribution, requirements, quantities, etc ) Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed, shdll be forw~arded to the donors without delay

Article 6

In order to secure the regular issue of collective relief to the prisoners of war in their camp, and to meet any needs that may arise from the arrival of new contingents of prisoners, prisoners' representatives shall be allOwed to build up and maintain adequate reserve stocks of collective relief. For this purpose, they shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each warehouse shall be provided with two locks, the prisoners' representative holding the keys of one lock and the camp commander the keys of the other.

Article 7

When collective consignments of clothing are available, each prisoner of war shall retain in his possession at least one complete sef of clothes. If a prisoner has more than one set of clothes, te prisoners' representative shall be permitted to withdraw excess clothing from those with the largest number of sets, or particular articles in excess of one, if this is necessary in order to supply prisoners who are less well provided. He shall not, however, withdraw second sets of underclothing, socks or footwear, unless this is the only means of providing for prisoners of war with none.

Article 8

The High Conctracting Parties, and the Detainining Powers in particular, shall authorize, as far as possible and subject to the regulations governing the supply of the population, all purchases of goods made in their territories for the distribution of of collective relief to prisoners of war They shall similarly facilitate the transfer of funds and other financial measures of a tehnical or administrative nature taken for the purpose of making such purchases.

Article 9

The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to the right of prisoners of war to receive collective relief before their arrival in a camp or in the course of stransfer, nor to the possibility of representatives of the Protecting PoH~er, the International Committee of the Red Cross, or any other body giving assistance to prisoners, which may be rasponsible for the forwarding of such supplies, ensuring the distribution thereof to the addressees by any other means that they may deem useful.

GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE PROTEGTION OF CIVILIAN PERSONS IN TIME OF WAR OF AUGUST 12, 1949

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference hetd at Generva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, for the purpose of establishing a Convention for the Protection of Civilians in Time of War, have agreed as follows:

PART I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1

The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.

Article 2

In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peace-time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.

The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutuat relations. They shall futhermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.

Article 3

In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:

(i) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, inciuding members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.

To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b) taking of hostages;

(c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment;

(d) the passing of sentences and the ca,rrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.

The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of the present Convention. The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 4

Persons protected by the Convention are those who, at a given moment and in any manner whatsoever, find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation, in the hands of a Party to the conflict or Occupying Power of which they are not nationals.

Nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not protected by it. Nationals of a neutral State who find themselves in the territory of a belligerent State, and nationals of a co-belligerent State, shall not be regarded as protected persons while the State of which they are nationals has normal diplomatic representation in the State in whose hands they are.

The provisions of Part II are, however, wider in application, as defined in Article 13.

Persons protected by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949, or by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of 12 August 1949, or by the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949, shall not be considered as protected persons within the meaning of the present Convention.

Article 5

Where in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter is satisfied that an individual protected person is definitely suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the State, such individual person shall not be entitleds to claim such rights and privileges under the present Convention as would, if exercised in the favour of such individual person, be prejudicial to the security of such State.

Where in occupied territory an individual protected person is detained as a spy or saboteur, or as a person under definite suspicion of activity hostile to the security of the Occupying Power, such person shall, in those cases where absolute military security so requires, be regarded as having forfeited rights of communication under the present Convention.

In each case, such persons shall nevertheless be treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed by the present Convention. They shall also be granted the full rights and privileges of a protected person under the present Convention at the earliest date consistent with the security of the State or Occupying Power, is the case may be.

Article 6

The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2.

In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the general close of military operations.

In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military operations; however, the Occupying Power shall be bound, for the duration of the occupation, to the extent that such Power exercises the functions of government in such territory, by the provisions of the following Articles of the present Convention: t to 12, 27, 29 to 34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 59, 61 to 77, 143.

Protected persons whose release, repatriation or re-establishment may take place after such dates shall meanwhile continue to benefit by the present Convention.

Article 7

In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 11, 14, 15, 17, 36, 108, 109, 132, 133 and 149, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agrdement shall adversely affect the situation of protected persons, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.

Protected persons shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been ta.ken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 8

Protected persons may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.

Article 9

The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under -the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent posssible the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties.

Article 10

The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of civilian persons and for their relief.

Article 11

The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an international organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention,

When persons protected by the present Convention do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter foĆ what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.

If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention. Any neutral Power or any organization invited by the Power concerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflicf on which persons procected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.

No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.

Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention applies to substitute organiza,tions in the sense of the present Article.

The provisions of this Article shall extend and be adapted to cases of nationals of a neutral State who are in occupied territory or who find themselves in the territory of a belligerent State in which the State of which they are nationals has not normal diplomatic representation.

Article 12

In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.

For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in particular of the authorities responsible for protected persons, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this ~urpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict a person belonging to a neutral Power, or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.

PART II

GENERAL PROTECTION OF POPULATIONS AGAINST CERTAIN CONSEQUENCES OF WAR

Article 13

The provisions of Part II cover the whole of the populations of the countries in conflict, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, nationality, religion or political opinion, and are intended to alleviate the sufferings caused by war.

Article 14

In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties thereto, may establish in their own territory and, if the need arises, in occupied areas, hospital and safety zones and localities so organized as to protect from the effects of war, wounded, sick and aged persons, children under fifteen, expectant mothers and mothers of children under seven.

Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the Parties concerned may conclude agreements on mutual recognition of the zones and localities they have created. They may for this purpose implement the provisions of the Draft Agreement annexed to the present Convention, with such amendments as they may consider necessary. The Protecting Powers and the International Commitee of the Red Cross are invited to lend their good offices in order to facilitate the institution and recognition of these hospital and safety zones and localities.

Article 15

Any Party to the conflict may, either direct or through a neutral State or some humanitarian organization, propose to the adverse Party to establish, in the regions where fighting is taking place, neutralized zones intended to shelter from the effects of war the following persons, without distinction:

(a) wounded and sick combatants or non-combatants; (b) civilian persons who take no part in hostilities~ and who, while they reside in the zones, perform no work of a military character.

When the Parties concerned have agreed upon the geographical position, administration, food supply and supervision of the proposed neutralized zone, a written agreement shall be concluded and signed by the representatives of the Parties to the conflict. The agreement shall fix the beginning and the duration of the neutralization of the zone.

Article 16

The wounded arid sick, as well as the infirm, and expectant mothers, shall be the object of particular protection and respect.

As far as military considerations allow, each Party to the conflict shall facilitate the steps taken to search for the killed and wounded, to assist the shipwrecked and other persons exposed to grave danger, and to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment.

Article 17

The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas, of wounded, sich, infirm, and aged persons, children and maternity cases, and for the passage of ministers of all religions, medical personnel and medical equipment on their way to such areas.

Article 18

Civilian hospitals organized to give care to the wounded and sick, the infirm and maternity cases, may in no circumstances be the object of attack but shall at all times be respected and protected by the Parties to the conflict.

States which are Parties to a conflict shall provide all civilian hospitals with certificates showing that they are civilian hospitals and that the buildings which they occupy are not used for any purpose which would deprive these hospitals of protection in accordance with Article 19.

Civilian hospitals shall be marked by means of the emblem provided for in article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Filed of 12 August 1949, but only if so authorized by the State.

The Parties to the conflict shall, in so far as military considerations permit, take the necessary steps to make the distinctive emblems indicating civilian hospitals clearly visible to the enemy land, air and naval forces in order to obviate the possibility of any hostile action.

In view of the dangers to which hospitals may be exposed by being close to military objectives, it is recommended that such hospitals be situated as far as possible from such objectives.

Article 19

The protection to which civilian hospitals are entitled shall not cease urSless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after due warning has been given, naming, in all appropriate cases, a reasonable time limit and after such warning has remained unheeded.

The fact that sick or wounded members of the armed forces are nursed in these hospitals, or the presence of small arms and ammunition taken from such combatants which have not yet been handed to the proper service, shall not be considered to be acts harmful to the enemy.

Article 20

Persons regularly and solely engaged in the operation and administration of civilian hospitals, including the personnel engaged in the search for, removal and transporting of and caring for wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases shall be respected and protected.

In occupied territory and in zones of military operations, the above personnel shall be recognizable by means of an identity card certifying their status, bearing the photograph of the holder and embossed with the stamp of the responsible authority, and also by means of a stamped, water-resistant armlet which they shall wear on the left arm while carrying out their duties. This armlet shall bez issued by the State and shall bear the emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

Other personnel who are engaged in the operation and administration of civilian hospitals shall be entitled to respect and protection and to wear the armlet, as provided in and under the conditions prescribed in this Article, while they are employed on such duties. The identity card shall state the duties on which they are employed.

The management of each hospital shall at all times hold at the disposal of the competent national or occupying authorities an upto-date list of such personnel.

Article 21

Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land or specially provided vessels on sea, conveying wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected and protected in the same manner as the hospitals provided for in Article 18, and shall be marked, with the consent of the State, by the display of the distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

Article 22

Aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases or for the transport of medical personnel and equipment, shall not be attacked, but shall be respected while flying at heights, times and on routes specifically agreed upon between all the Parties to the conflict concerned.

They may be marked with the distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy occupied territory are prohibited.

Such aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the event of a landing thus imposed, the aircraft with its occupants may continue its flight after examination, if any.

Article 23

Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended only for civilians of another High Contracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary. It shall likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity cases. ,

The obligation of a High Contracting Party to allow the free passa.ge of the consignments indicated in the preceding paragraph is subject to the condition that this Party is satisfied that there are no serious reasons for fearing:

(a) that the consigments may be diverted from their destination,

(b) that the control may not be effective, or

(c) that a definite advantage may accrue to the military efforts or economy of the enemy through the substitution of the above-mentioned consignments for goods which would otherwise be provided or produced by the enemy or through the release of such materijal, services or facilities as would otherwise be required for the production of such goods.

The Power which allows the passage of the consignments indicated in the first paragraph of this Article may make such permission conditional on the distribution to the persons benefited thereby being made under the local supervision of the Protecting Powers.

Such consignments shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible, and the Power which permits their free passage shall have the right to prescribe the technical arrangements under which such passage is allowed.

Article 24

The Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures to ensure that children under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of the war, are not left to their own resources, and that their maintenance, the exercise of their religion and their education are facilited in all circumstances. Their education shall, as far as possible, be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural tradition.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of such children in a neutral country for the duration of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards for the observance of the principles stated in the first paragraph.

They shall, furthermore, endeavour to arrange for all children under twelve to be identified by the wearing of identity discs, or by some other means.

Article 25

All persons in the territory of a Party to ther conflict, or in a territory occupied by it, shall be enabled to give news of a strictly personal nature to members of their families, wherever they may be, and to receive news from them. This correspondence shall be forwarded speedily and without undue delay. '

If, as a result of circumstances, it becomes difficult or impossible to exchange family correspondence by the ordinary post, the Parties to the conflict concerned shall apply to a neutral intermediary, such as the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, and shall decide in consultation with it how to ensure the fulfilment of their obligations under the best possible conditions, in particular with the cooperation of the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies.

If the Parties to the conflict deem it necessary to restrict family correspondence, such restrictions shall be confined to the compulsory use of standard forms containing twenty-five freely chosen words, and to the limitation of the number of these forms despatched to one each month.

Article 26

Ea,ch Party to the conflict shall facilitate enquiries made by members of families dispersed owing to the w~r, with the object of renewing contact with one another and of meeting, if possible. It shall encourage, in particular, the work of organiza.tions engaged on this task provided they are acceptable to it and conform to its securtty regulations.

PART Ilf

STATUS AND TREATMENT OF PROTECTED PERSONS

SECTION I

PROVISIONS COMMON TO THE TERRITORIES OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT AND TO OCCUPIED TERRITORIES

Article 27

Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to respect for their persons, their honour, their family rights, their religious convictions and practices, and their manners and customs. They shall at all times be humanely treated, and shall be protected especially against all acts of violence or threats thereof and against insults and pubtic curiosity.

Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honour, in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault.

Without prejudice to the provisions relating to their state of health, age and sex, all protected persons shall be treated with the same consideration by the Party to the conflict in whose power they are, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, religion or political opinion.

However, the Parties to the conflict may take ~4uch measures of control and security in regard to protected persons as may be necessary as a result of the war.

Article 28

The presence of a protected person may not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations.

Article 29

The Party to the conflict in whose hands protected persons may be, is responsible for treatment accorded to them by its agents, irrespective of any individual responsibility which may be incurred.

Article 30

Protected persons shall have every facility for making application to the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the National Red Cross (Red Crescent Red Lion and Sun) Society of the country where they may be, as well as to any organiza,tion that might assist them.

These several organizations shall be granted all facilities for that purpose by the authorities, within the bounds set by military or security considerations.

Apart from the visits of the delegates of the Protecting Powers and of the International Committee of the Red Cross, provided for by Article 143, the Detaining or Occupying Powers shall facilitate, as much as possible, visits to protected persons by the representatives of other organizations whose object is to give spiritual aid or material relief to such persons.

Article 31

No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against protected persons, in particular to obtain information from them or from third parties.

Article 32 ,

The High Contracting Parties specifically agree that each of them is prohibited from taking any measure of such a character as to cause the physical suffering or extermination of protected persons in their hands. This prohibition applies not only to murder, torture, corporal punishments, mutilation and medical or scientific experiments not necessitated by the medica.l treatment of a protected person, but also to any other measures of brutality whether applied by civilian or military agents.

Article 33

No protected person may be punished for an offance he or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.

Pillage is prohibited.

Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.

Article 34

The taking of hostages is prohibited.

SECTION II

ALIENS IN THE TERRITORY OF A PARTY TO THE CONFLICT

Article 35

All protected persons who may desire to leave the territory at Lhe outset of, or during a conflict, shall be entitled to do so, unless their departure is contrary to the national interests of the State. The applications of such persons to leave shall be decided in accordance with regularly established procedures and the decision shall be taken as rapidly as possible. Those persons permitted to leave may provide themselves with the necessary funds for their journey and take with them a reasonable amount of their effects and articles of personal use.

If any such person is refused permission to leave the territory, he shall be entitled to have refusal reconsiderad, as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose.

Upon request, representatives of the Protecting Power shall, unless reasons of security prevent it, or the persons concerned object, be furnished with the reasons for refusal of any request for permission to leave the territory and be given, as expeditiously as possible, the names of all persons who have been denied permission to leave.

Article 36

Depar tures permitted under the foregoing Article shall be carried out in satisfactory conditions as regards safety, hygiene, sanitation and food. All costs in connection therewith, from the point of exit in the territory of the Detaining Power, shall be borne by the country of destination, or, in the case of accommodation in a neutral country, by the Power w~hose nationals are benefited. The practical details of such movements may, if necessary, be settled by special a~;reements between the Powers concerned.

The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as mav be concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the ekchange and repatriation of their nationttls in enernv hands

Article 37

Protected persons who are confined pending proceedings or subject to a sentence involving loss of liberty, shall during their confinement be humanely treated.

As soon as they are released, they may ask to leave the territory in conformity with the foregoing Articles.

Article 38

With the exception of special measures authorized by the present Convention, in particularly by Article 27 and 4I thereof, the situation of protected persons shall continue to be regulated, in principle, by the provisions concerning aliens in time of peace. In any case, the following rights shall be granted to them:

(1) they shall be enabled to receive the individual or collective relief that may be sent to them.

(2) they shall, if their state of health so requires, recieve medical attention and hospital treatment to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.

(3) they shall be allowed to practise their religion and to receive spiritual assistance from ministers of their faith. (4) if they reside in an area particularly exposed to the

dangers-of war, they shall be authorized to move from that area to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.

(5) children under fifteen years, pregnant women and mothers of children under seven years shall benefit by any preferential treatment to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.

Article 39

Protected persons who, as a result of the war, have lost their gainful employment, shall be granted the opportunity to find paid employment. That opportunity shall, subject to security considerations and to the provisions of Article 40, be equal to that enjoyed by the nationals of the Power in whose territory they are. ,

Where a Party to the conflict applies to a l3rotected person methods of control which result in his being unable to support himself, and especially if such a person is prevented for reasons of security from finding paid employment on reasonable conditions, the said Party shall ensure his support and that of his dependents.

Protected persons may in any case receive allowances from their home country, the Protecting Power, or the reli~ ef societies referred to in Article 30.

Article 40

Protected persons may be compelled to work only to the same extent as nationals of the Party to the conflict in whose territory they are.

If protected persons are of enemy nationality, they may only be compelled to do work which is normally necessary to ensure the feeding, sheltering, clothing, transport and health of human beings and which is not directly related to the conduct of military operations.

In the cases mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs, protected persons compelled to work shall have the benefit of the same working conditions and of the same safe- ' guards as national workers, in particular as regards wages, hours of labour, clothing and equipment, previous training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases.

If the above provisions are infringed, protected persons shall be allowed to exercise their right of complaint in accordance with Article 30.

Article 41

Shouid the Power, in whose hands protected persons may be, consider the measures of Control mentioned in thepresent Convention to be inadequate, it may not have recourse to any other measure of control more severe than that of assigned residence or internment, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 42 and 43.

In applying the provisions of Article 39, second paragraph, to the cases of persons required to leave th~ir usual places of residence by virtue of a decision placing them in assigned residence, by virtue of a decision placing them in assigned residence, elsewhere, the Detaining Power shall be guided as closely as possible by the standards of welfare set forth in Part III, Section IV of this Convention.

Article 42

The internment or placing in assigned residence of protected persons may be ordered only if the security of the Detaining Power makes it absolutely necessary.

If any person, acting through the representatives of the Protecting Power, voluntarily demands internment, and if his situation renders this step necessary, he shall be interned by the Power in whose hands he may be.

Article 43

Any protected person who has been interned or placed in assigned residence shall be entitled to have such action reconsidered as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board designated by the Detaining Power foir that purpose. If the internment or placing in assigned residence in maintained, the court or administrative board shall periodically, and at least twice yearly, give consideration to his or her case, with a view to the favourable amendment of the initial decision, if circumstances permit.

Unless the protected persons concerned object, the Detaining Power shall, as rapidly as possible, give the Protecting Power the names of any protected persons who have been interned of subjected to assigned residence, or who have been released from internment or assigned residence. The decisions of the courts or boards mentioned in the first paragraph of the present Article shall also, subject to the same conditions, be notified as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power.

Article 44

In applying the measures of control mentioned in the present Convention, the Detaining Power shall not treat as enemy aliens exclusively on the basis of their nationality de jure of an enemy State, refugees who do not, in fact, enjoy the protection of any government.

Article 45

Protected persons shall not be transferred to a Power which is not a Party to the Convention.

This provision shall in no way constitute an obstacle to the repatriation of protected persons, or to their return to their countrv of residence after the cessation of hostilities.

Protected persons may be transferred by the Detaining Power only to a Power which is a party to the present Convention and after the Detaining Power has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to applay the present Convention. If protected persons are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the present Convention rests on the Power accepting them, while they are in its custody. Nevertheless, if that Power fails to carry out the provisions of the present Convention in any important respect, the Power by which the protected persons were transferred shall, upon being so notified by the Protecting Power, take effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the protected persons Such request must be complied withIn no circumstances shall a protected person be transferred to a country where he or she may have reason to fear persecution'for his or her political opinions or neligious beliefs.

The provisions of this Article do not constitute an obstacle to the extradition, in pursuance of extradition treaties concluded before the outbreak of hostilities, of protected persons accused of offences against ordinary criminal law.

Article 46

In so far as they have not been previously withdrawn, restrictive measures taken regarding protected persons shall be ca.ncelled as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.

Restrtctive measures' affecting their property shall be cancelled, in accordance with the law of the Detaining Power, as soon as possible after the close of hostilites.

SECTION III

OCCUPIED TERRITORIES

Article 47

Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. .

Article 48

Protected persons who are not nationals of the Power whose terntory is occupied, may avail themselves of the right to leave the territory subject to the provisions of Article 35, and decisions thereon shall be taken in ac~,ordance with the procedure which the Occupying Power shall establish in accordance with the said Article.

Aritcle 49

Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.

Nevertheless, the Occupying Power may undertake total or partial evacuation of a given area if the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand. Such evacuations may not involve the displacement of protected persons outside the bounds of the occupied territory except when for material reasons it is impossible to avoid such displacement. Persons thus evacuated shall be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased.

The Occupying Power undertaking such transfers or evacuations shall ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, that proper accommodation is provided to receive the protected persons, that the removals are effected in satisfactory conditions of hygiene, health, safety and nutrition, and that members of the same family are noL separated.

The Protecting Power shall be informed of any transfers and evacuations as soon as they have taken place. The Occupying Power shall not detain protected per

sons in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of war unless the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand.

The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies

Article 50

The Occupying Power shall, with the cooperation of the national and local authorities, facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and educa,tion of children. w

The Occupying Power shall take ali necessary steps to facilitate the identification of children and the regištration of their parentage. It may not, in any case, change their personal status, nor enlist them in formations or organizations subordinate to it.

Should the local institutions be inadequate for the ~urpose, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements for the maintenance and education, if possible by persons of their own nationality, language and religion, of children who are orphaned or separated from their parents as a re-. sult of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for by a near relative or friend.

A special section of the Bureau set up in accordance with Article 138 shall be responsible for taking all necessary steps to identify children whose identity is in doubt. Particulars of their parents or other near relatives should always be recorded if available.

The Occupying Power not hinder the application of any preferential measures in regard to food, medical care and protection againet the effects of war which may have been adopted prior to the occupation in favour of children under fifteen years, expectant mothers, and mothers of children under seven yeras.

Article 51

The Occupying Power may not compeT protected persons to serve in its armed or auxiliary forces, No pressure or propaganda which sims aL securing volunta .ry enlistment is permitted.

The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to work unless they are over eighteen years of age, and then only on work which is necessary either for the needs of the army of occupation, or for the public utility services, or for the feeding, sheltering, clothing, transportation or health of the population of the occupied country. Protected persons may not be compelled to undertake any work which would involve them in the obligation of taking part in military operations. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to employ forcible means to ensure the security of the installations where they are performing compulsory labour.

The work shall be carried out only in the occupied territory where the persons whose services have been requistioned are. Every such person shall, so far as possible, be kept in his usual place of employment. Workers shall be paid a fair wage and the work shall be proportionate to their physical and int~llectual capacities. 'lfie legislation in force in the occupied country concerning working conditions, and safeguards as regards, in particular, such matters as wages, hours of work, equipment, preliminary training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases, shall be applicable to the protected persons assigned to the work referred to in this Article.

In no case shall requisition of labour lead to a mobilization of workers in an organization of a military or semi-military character.

Article 52

No concract, agreement or regulation shall impair the right of any worker, whether voluntary or not and wherever he may be, to apply to the representatives of the Protecting Power in order to request the said Power's intervention.

All measures aiming at creating unemployment or at restricting the opportunities offered to workers in an occu pied territory, in order to induce them to work for the Occupying Power, are prohibited.

Article 53

Any destruction by the Occupying Power of rea? or personal property belonging individually or collectively to private persons, or to the State, or to other public authorities, or to social or cooperative organizations, is prohibited, except where such destruction is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations.

Article 54

The Occupying Power may not alter the status of public officials or judges in the occupied territories, or in any way apply sanctions to or take any measures of coercion or discrimination against them, should they abstain from fulfilling their functions for reasons of conscience.

This prohibition does not prejudice the application of the second paragraph of Article 5l. It does not affect the right of the Occupying Power to remove public officials from their posts.

Article 55

To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring the food and medical supplies of the population; it should, in particular, bring in the necessary foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources of the occupied territory are inadequate.

The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or medical supplies available in the occupied terntory, except for use by the occupation forces and administration personnel, and then only if the requirements of the civilian population have been taken into account. Subject to the provisions of other international Conventions, the Occupying Power shall make arangements to ensure that fair value is paid for any requisitioned goods.

The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at l~berty to verify the state of the food and medical supplies in occupied territories, except where temporary restrictions are made necessary by imperative military requirements.

 

Article 56

To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring and maintaining, with the cooperation of national and local authorities, the medical and hospital establishments and services, public health and hygiene in the occupied territory, with particular reference to the adoption and application of the prophylactic and preventive measures necessary to combat the spread of contagious diseases and epidemics. Medical personnel of all categories shall be allowed to carry out their duties.

If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and if the competent organs of the occupied State are not operating there, the occupying authorities shall, if necessary, grant them the recognition provided for in Article 18. In similar circumstances, the occupying authorities shall also grant recognition to hospital personnel and transport vehicles under the provisions of Articles 20 and 21.

In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their implementation, the Occupying Power shall take into consideration the moral and ethical susceptibilities of the population of the occupied territory.

Article 57

The Occupying Power may requisition civilian hospitt.-.s only temporarily and only in cases of urgent necessity for the care of military wounded and sick, and then on condition that suitable arrangements are made in due time for the care and treatment of the patients and for the needs of the civilian population for hospital accommodation. The material and stores of civilian hospitals cannot be requisitioned so long as they are necessary for the needs of the civilian population.

Article 58

The Occupying Power shall permit ministers of religion to give spiritual assistance to the members of their religious communities.

The Occupying Power shall also accept consignments of books and articles required for religious needs and shall facilitate their distribution in occupied territory:

Article 59

If the whole or part of the population of an occupied territory is inadequately supplied, the Occupying Power shall agree to relief schemes on behalf of the said population, and shall facilitate them by all the means at its disposal.

Such schemes, which may be undertaken either by States or by impartial humanitarian organiza.tions such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, shall consist, in particular, of the provision of consignements of foodstuffs, medical supplies and clothing.

All Contracting Parties shall permit the free passage of these consignments and shall guarantee their protection.

A Power granting free passage to consignments on their way to territory occupied by an adverse Party to the conflict shall, however, have the right to search the consignments, to regulate their passage according to prescribed times and routes, and to be reasonably satisfied through the Protecting Power that these consignments are to be used for the relief of the needy population and are not to be used for the benefit of the Occupying Power.

Article 60.

Relief consignments shall in no way relieve the Occupying Power of any of its responsibilities under Articles 55, 56 and 59. The Occupying Power shall in no way whatsoever divert relief consignments from the purpose for which they are intended, except in cases of urgent necessity, in the interests of the population of the occupied territory and with the consent of the Protecting Power.

Article 61

The distribution of the relief consignments referred to in the foregoing Articles shall be carried out with the cooperation and under the supervision of the Protecting Power. This duty may also be delegated, by agreement between the Occupying Power and the Protecting Power, to a neutral Power, to the International Committee of the Red Cross or to any other impartial humanitarian body.

Such consignments shall be exempt in occupied territory from all charges, taxes or customs duties unless these are necessary in the interests of the economy of the territory. The Occupying Power shall facilitate the rapid distribution of these consignments

All Contracting Parties shall endeavour to permit the transit and transport, free of charge, of such relief consignments on their way to occupied territories.

Article 62

Subject to imperative reasons of security, protected persons in occupied territories shall be permitted to receive the individual relief consignments sent to them

Articfe 63

Subject to temporarv and exceptional measures impo- I sed for urgent reasons of secur-ity by the Occupying Power:

(a) recognized National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societ~es shall be able to pursue their activrties in accordance with Red Cross principles, as defined bythe International Red Cross Conferences. Other relief societies shall be permitted to continue their humanitarian ac. tivies under similar conditions;

(b) the Occupying Power may not require any changes in the personnel or structure of these societies, which would prejudice the aforesaid activities.

The same principles shall apply to the activities and personnel of special organizations of a non-military character, which already exist or which may be established, for the purpose of ensuring the living conditions of the civilian population by the maintenance of the essential public utility services, by the distribution of relief and by the organization of rescues.

Article 64

The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in force, with the exception that they may be repealed or suspended by the Occupying Power in cases where they constitute a threat to its security or an obstacle to the application of the present Convention. Subject to the latter consideration and to the necessity for ensuring the effective administration of justice, the tribunals of the occupied territory shall continue to function in respect of all offences covered by the said laws.

The Occupying Power may, however, subject the population of the occupied territory to provisions which are essential to enable the Occupying Power to fulfil its obligations under the present Convention, to maintain the orderly government of the territory, and to ensure the secnrity of the Occupying Power, of the members and property of the occupying forces or administration, and likewise of the establishments and lines of communication used by them.

Article 65

The penal provisions enacted by the Occupying Power shall not come into force before they have been published and brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants in their own language. The effect of these penal provisi4ns shall not be retroactive. "

Article 66

In case of a breach of the penal provisions promulgated by it by virtue of the second paragraph of Article 64 the Occupying Power may hand over the accused to its properly constituted, non-political military courts, on condition that the said courts sit in the occupied country. Courts of appeal shall preferably sit in the occupied country.

Article 67

The courts shall apply only those provisions of law which were applicable prior to the offence, and which are in accordance with general principles of law, in particular the principle that the penalty shall be proportionate to the offence. Thev shall take into consideration the fact the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power.

Article 68

Protected persons who commit an offence which is solely intended to harm the Occupying Power, but which does not constitute an attempt on the life or limb of members of the occupying forces or administration, nor a grave collective danger, nor seriously damage the property of the occupying forces or administration or the installations used by them, shall be liable to internment or simple imprisonment, provided the duration of such internment or imprisonment is proportionate to the offence committed. Furthermore, internment or imprisonment shall, for such offences. be the only measure adopted for depriving protected persons of liberty. The courts provided for under Article 66 of the present Convention may at their discretion convert a sentence of imprisonment to one of internment for the same period The penal provisions promulgated by the Occupying Power in accordance with Articles s4 and s5 may impose the death penalty on a protected person only in cases where the person is guilty of espionage, of serious acts of sabotage against the military installations of the Occupying Power or of intentional offences which have caused the death of one or more persons, provided that such offences were punishable by death under the law of the occupied territory in force before the occupation began.

The death penalty may not be pronounced on a protected person unless the attention of the court has been particularly cailed to the fact that since the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power, he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance.

In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced on a protected person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.

Article 69

In all cases the duration of the period during which a protected person accoused of an offence is t~nder arrest awaiting trial or punishment shall be deducted from any period of imprisonment awarded.

Article 70

Protected persons shall not be arrested, prosecuted or convicted by the Occupying Power for acts committed or for opinions expressed before the occupation, or during a temporary interruption thereof, with the exception of breaches of the laws and customs of war.

Nationals of the occupying Power who, before the outbreak of hostilities, have sought refuge in the territory of the occupied State, shall not be arrested, prosecuted, convicted or deported from the occupied territory, except for offences committed after the outbreak of hostilities, or for offences under common law committed before the outbreak of hostilities which, according to the law of the occupied State, would have justified extradition in time of peace.

Article 71

No sentence shall be pronounced by the competent courts of the Occupying Power except after a regular trial.

Accused persons who are prosecuted by the Occupying Power shall be promptly informed, in writing, in a language which they understand, of the particulars of the charges preferred against them, and shall be brought to trial as rapidly as possible. The Protecting Power shall be informed of all proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons in respect of charges involving the death penalty or imprisonment for two years of more; it shall be enabled, at~any time, to obtain information regarding the state of such proceedings. Furthermore, the Protecting Power shall be entitled, on request, to be f'urnished with all particulars of these and of any other proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons.

The notification to the Protecting Power, as provided for in the second paragraph above, shall be sent immediately, and shall in any case reach the Protecting Power three weeks before the date of the first hearing Unless, at the opening of the trial, evidence is submitted that the provisions of this Article are fully complied with, the trial shall not proceed. The notification shall include the following particulars:

(a) description of the accused;

(b) place of resideace or detention:

(c) specification of the charge or charges (v.uth mention of the penal provisSons under which it is brou~ht):

(d) designation of the courL which v,ill hear the case; (e) place and date of the first hearin

Article 72

Accused persons shall have the right to present evidence necessary to their defence and may, in particular, call witnesses. They shall have the right to be assisted by a qualified advocate or counsel of their own choice, who shall be able to visit them freely and shall enjoy the necessary facilities for preparing te defence.

Failing a choice by the accused, the Protecting Power may provide him with an advoca,te or counsel. When an accused person has to meet a serious charge and the Protecting Power is not functioning, the Occupying Power, subject to the consent of the accused, shall provide an advoca.te or counsel.

Accused persons shall, unless they freely waive such assistance, be aided by an interpreter, both during preliminary investigation and during the hearing in court. They shall have at any time the right to object to the interpreter and to ask for his replacement.

Article 73

A convicted person shall have the right of appeal provided for by the laws applied by the court. He shall be fully informed of his right to appeal or petition and of te time limit within which he may do so.

The penal procedure provided in the present Section shall apply, as far as it is applicable, to appeals. Where the laws applied by the Court make no provision for appeals, the convicted person shall have the right to petition against the finding and sentence to the competent authority of the Occupying Power.

Article 74

Representatives, of the Protecting Power shall have the right to attend the trial of any protected person, unless the hearing has, as an exceptional measure, to be held in camera in the interests of the security of the Occupying Power, which shall then notify the Protecting Power. A notification in respect of the date and place of trial shall be sent to the Protecting Power.

Any judgement involving a sentence of death, or imprisonment for two years or more, shall be communicated, with the relevant grounds, as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power. The notification shall contain a reference to the notification made under Article 71 and, in the case of sentences of imprisonment, the name of the place where the sentence is to be served. A record of judgements other than those referred to above shall be kept by the court and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power: Any period allowed for appeal in the case of sentences involving the dealth penalty, or imprisonment of two years or more, shail not run until notification of judgement has been received by the Protecting Power.

Article 75

In no case shall persons condemned to death be deprived of the right of petition for pardon or reprieve.

No death sentence shall be carried out before the expiration of a period of a least six months from the date of receipt by the Protecting Power of the notification of the final judgment confirming such death sentence, or of an order deying pardon or reprieve

The six months period of suspension of the death sentence herein prescribed may be reduced in individual cases in circumstances of grave emergency involving an organized threat to the security of the Occupying Power or its forces, provided always that the Protecting Power is notified of such reduction and is given reasonable time and opportuniy to make representations to the competent occupying authorities in respect of such death sentences.

Article 76

Protected persons accused of offences shall be detained in the occupied country, and if convicted they shall serve their sentences therein. They shall, if possible; be separated from other detainees and shall enjoy conditions of food and hygiene which will be sufficient to keep them in good health, and which will be at least equal to those obtaining in prisons in the occupied country.

They shall receive the medical attention required by their state of health.

They shall also have the right to receive any spiritual assistance which they may require.

Women shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the direct supervision of women.

Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors.

Protected persons who are detained shall have the right to be visited by delegates of the Protecting Power and of the International Committee of the Red Cross, in accordance with the provisions of Article 143.

Such persons shall have the right to receive at least one relief parcel monthly.

Article 77

Protected persons who have been accused of offences or convicted by the courts in occupied territory, shall be handed over at the close of occupation, with the relevant records, to the authorities of the liberated territory.

Article 78

If the Occupying Power considers it necessary, for imperative reasons of security, to take safety measures concerning protected persons, it may, at the most, subject them to assigned residence or to internment.

Decisions regarding such assigned residence or internment shall be made according to a regular procedure to be prescribed by the Occupying Power in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention. This procedure shall include the right of appeal for the parties concerned. Appeals shall be decided with the least possible delay. In the event of the decision being upheld, it shall be subject to periodical review, if possible every six months, by a competent body set up by the said Power.

Protected persons made subject to assigned residence and thus required to leave their homes shall enjoy the full benefit of Article 39 of the present Convention.

SECTION IV REGULATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF INTERNEES

CHAPTER l GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 79

The Parties to the conflict shalf not intern protected persons, except in accordance with the provisions of Articles 41, 42, 43, 68 and 78.

Article 80

Internees shall retain their full civil capacity and shall exercise such attendant right as may be compatible with their status.

Articie 8I

Parties to the conflict who intern protected persons shall be bound to provide free of charge for their maintenance, and to grand them also the medicai attention required by their state of health. No deduction from the allowances, salaries or credits due to the internees shall be made for the re,payment of these costs.

The Detaining Power shall provide for the sup,port of those dependent on the internees, if such dependents are without adequate means of support or are unable to earn a living.

Article 82

The Detaining Power shall as far as possible, accommodate the internees according to their nationality, language and customs. Internees who are nationals of the same country shall not be separated merely because they have different languages.

Throughout the duration of their internment, members of the same family, and in particular parents and children, shall be lodged together in the same place of internment, except when separation of a temporary nature is necessitated for reasons of employment or health or for the purposes of enforcement of the provisions of Chapter IX of the present Section. Internees may request that their children who are left at liberty without parental care shall be interned with them.

Wherever possible, interned members of the same family shall be housed in the same premises and given separate accommodation from other internees, tQgether with facilites for leading a proper family life.

CHAPTER II

PLACES OF INTERNMENT

Article 83

The Detaining Power shall not set up places of interment in areas particularly exposed to the dangers of war.

The Detaining Power shall give the enemy Powers, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of places of internment. ,

Whenever military considerations permit, iniernment ca,mps shall be indicated by the letters IC, placed so as to be clearly visible in the daytime from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. No place other than an internment camp shall be marked as such.

Article 84

Internees shall be accommodated and administered separately from prisoners of war and from persons deprived of liberty for any other reason.

Article 85

The Detaining Power is bound to take all necessary and possible measures to ensure that protected persons shall, from the outset of their internment, be accommodated in buildings or quarters which afford every possible safeguard as regards hygiene and health. and provide efficient protection against the rigours of the climate and the effects of the war. In no case shall permanent places of internment be situated in unhealthy areas or in districts, the climate of which is injurious to the interness. In all cases where the district, in which a protected person is temporarily interned, is an unhealthy area has a climate which is harmful to his health, he shall be removed to a more suitable place of internment as rapidly as circumstances permit.

The premises shall be fully protected from dampness, adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out The sleeping quarters shall be sufficiently spacious and well ventilated, ant the internees shall have suitable bedding and sufficient blankts, account being taken of the climate, and the age. sex, and state of health of the internees.

Internees shall have for their use, day and night, sanitary conveniences which conform to the rules of hygiene, and are constantly maintained in a state of cleanjiness. They shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their daily personal toilet and for washit~g their personal laundry; installations and facilities necessary for this purpose shall be granted to them. Showers or baths shall also be available. The necessary time shall be set aside for washing and for cleaning.

Whenever it is necessary, as an exceptional and temporary measure, to accommodate women internees who are not members of a family unit in the same place of internment as men, the provision of separate sleeping quarters and sanitary conveniences for the use of such women internees shall be obligatory.

Article 86

The Detaining Power shall place at the disposal of interned persons, of whatever denomination, premises suitable for the holding of their religious services.

Article 87

Canteens shall be installed in every place of internment, except where other suitable facilities are available. Their purpose shall be to enable internees to make purchases, at prices not higer than local market prices, of foodstuffs and articles of everyday use, including soap and tobacco, such as would increase their personal well-being and comfort.

Profits made by canteens shall be credited to a welfare fund to be set up for each place of internment, and administered for the benefit of the internees attached to such place of internment. The Internee Committee provided for in Article 102 shall have the right to check the management of the canteen and of the said fund.

When a place of internment is closed down, the balance of the welfare fund shall be transferred to the welfare found of a place of internment for internees of the same nationality, or, if such a place does not exist, to a central welfare fund which shall be administered for the benefit of all internees remaining in the custody of the Detaining Power. In case of a general release, the said profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned.

Article 88

In all places of internment exposed to air raids and other hazards of war, shelters adequate in number and structure to ensure the necessary protection shall be installed. In case of alarms, the internees shall be free to eneter such shelters as quickly as possible, excepting those who remain for the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards. Any protective measures taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them.

All due precautions must be taken in places of internment against the danger of fire.

CHAPTER III FOOD AND CLOTHING

Article 89

Daily food rations for internees shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep internees in a good state of health and prevent the development of' nutritional deficiencies. Account shall also be taken of the customan° diet of the internees.

Internees shall also be given the means by which they can prepare for themselves any additional food in their- possession.

Sufficient drinking water shal( be supplied to internees. The use of tobacco shall be permitted.

Interilees who work shall receive additional rations in proportion to the kind of labour which they perform.

Expectant and nursing mothers and children,under fifteen years of age, shall be given additional food, in proportion to their physiological needs.

Article 90

When taken into custody, internees shall be given all facilities to provide themselves with the necessary clothing, footwear and change of underwear, and later on, to procure further supplies if required. Should any internees not have sufficient clothing, account being taken of the climate, and be unable to procure any, it shall be provided free of charge to them by the Detaining Power.

The clothing supplied by the Detaining Power to internees and the outward markings placed on their own clothes shall not be ignominious nor expose them to ridicule.

Workers shall receive suitable working outfits, including protective clothing, whenever the nature of their work so requires.

CHAPTER IV

HYGIENE AND MEDICAL ATTENTION

Article 91

Every place of internment shall have an adequate infirmary, under the direction of a qualified doctor, where internees may have the attention they require, as well as appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall be set aside for cases for contagious or mental diseases.

Maternity cases and internees suffering from serious diseases, or whose condition requires special tretment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted to any institution where adequate treatment can be given and shall receive care not inferior to that provided for the general population.

Internees shall, for preference, have the attention of medical personnel of their own nationality. , Internees may not be prevented from presenting them

selves to the medical authorities fox examination. The medical authorities of the Detaining Power shall, upon request, issue to every internee who has undergone treatment an official certificate showing the nature of his illness or injury, and the duration and nature of the treatment given. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Agency provided for in Article t a0

Treatment, including the provision of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of internees in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances and spectacles, shall be free of charge to the internee.

Article 92

Medical inspections of internees shall be made at least once a month. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of internees, and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria, and veneral diseases. Such inspections shall include, in particular. the checking of weight of each internee and, at least once a year, radioscopic examination.

CHAPTER V

RELIGIOUS, INTEGGECTUAL AND PIfYSICAL ACTIVITIES

Article 93

Internees shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties, including attendance at the services of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the detaining authorities.

Ministers of religion who are interned shall be allowed to minister freely to the members of their community. For this puspose the Detaining Power shall ensure their equitable allocation amongst the various places of internrrient in which there are internees speaking the same language and belonging to the same religion. Should such ministers be too few in number, the Detaining Power shall provide them with the necessary facilities, including means of transport, for moving from one place to another, and they shall be suthorized to visit any internees who are in hospital. Ministers of religion shall be at liberty to correspond on matters concerning their ministry with the religious authorities in the country of detention and, as far as possible, with the international religious organizations of their faith. Such correspondence shall not be considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 107. It shall, however, be subject to the provisions of Article 112.

When internees do not have at their disposal the assistance of ministers of their faith, or should these latter be too few in number, the local religious authorities of the same faith may appoint, in agreement with the Detaining Power, a minister of the internees' faith or, if such a course is feasible from a denominational point of view, a minister of similar religion or a qualified layman. The latter shall enjoy the facilities granted to the ministry he has assumed. Persons so appointed shall comply with all regulations laid down by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and security.

Article 94

The Detaining Power shall encourage intelectual, educational and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst internees, whilst leaving them free to take part in them or not. It shall take all practicable measures to ensure the exercice thereof, in particular by providing suitable premises.

All possible facilities shall be granted to internees to continue their studies or to take up new subjects. The education of children and young people shall be ensured; they shall be allowed to attend schools either within the place of internment or outside.

Internees shall bi given opportunities for physical exercise, sports and outdoor games. For this purpose, sufficient open spaces shall be set aside in all places of internment. Special playgrounds shall be reserved for children and young people.

Article 95

The Detaining Power shall not employ internees as workers, unless they so desire. Employment which, if undertaken under compulsion by a protected person not in internment, would involve a breach of Articles 40 or 51 of the present Convention, and employment on work which is of a degrading or humiliating character are in any case ptohibited.

After a working period of six weeks, internees shall be free to give up work at any moment, subject to eight days' notice.

These provisions constitute no obstacle to the right of the Detaining Power to employ interned doctors, dentists and other medical personnel in their professional capacity on behalf of their fellow internees, or to employ internees for,administrative and maintenance work in places of' interument and to detail such persons for work in the kitchens or for other domestic tasks, or to require such persons to undertake duties connected with the protection of internees against aerial bombardment or other war risks No internee may, however, be required to perform tasks for which he is, in the opinion of a medical officer, physically unsuited.

The Detaining Power shall take entire responsibility for all working conditions, for medical attention, for the payment of wages, and for ensuring that all employed interees receive compensation for occupational accidents and diseases. The standards prescribed for the said working conditions and for compensation shall be in accordance with the national laws and regulations, and with the existing pra,ctice; they shall in no case be inferior to those obtaining for work of the same nature in the same district. Wages for work done shall be determined on an equitable basis by special agreements between the internees, the Detaining Power, and, if the ca,se ar-ises, employers other than the Detaining Power to provide for free maintenance of internees and for the medical attention which their state of health may require. Internees permanently detailed for oategories of work mentioned ip the third paragraph of this Article, shall be paid fair wages by the Detaining Power. The working conditions and the scale of compensatibn for occupational accidents and diseases to internees, thus detailed, shall not be inferior to those applicable to work of the same nature in the same district.

Article 96

All labour detachments shall remain part of and dependent upon a place of internment. The competent authorities of the Detaining Power and the commandant of a place of internment shall be responsible for the observance in a labour detachment of the provisions of the present Convention. The commandant shall keep an up-to-date list of the labour detachments subordinate to him and shall communicate it to the delegates of the Protecting Power, tc the International Committee of the Red Cross and of other humanitarian organizations who may visit the places of internment.

CHAPTER VI

PERSONAL PROPERTYAND FINANCIAL RESOURCES

Article 97

Internees shall be permitted to retain articles~of personal use. Monies, cheques, bonds, etc., and valuables in their possession may not be taken from them except in accordance with established procedure. Detailed receipts shall be given therefor.

The amounts shall be paid into the account of every internee as provided for in Article 98. Such amounts may not be converted into any other currency unless legislation in force in the territory in which t,he owner is interned so requires or the internee gives his consent.

Articles which have above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken away.

A woman internee shall not be searched except by a woman.

On release or repatriation, internees shall be given all articles, monies or other valuables taken from them during internment and shall receive in currency the balance of any credit to their accounts kept in accordance with Article 98, with the exception of any articles or amounts withheld by the Detaining Power by virtue of its legislation in force. If the property of an internee is so withheld, the owner shall receive a detailed receipt.

Family or identity documents in the possession of internees may not be taken away without a receipt being given. At no time shall internees be left without identity documents. If they have none, they shall be issued with special documents drawn up by the detaining authorities, which will serve as their identity papers until the end of their internment.

Internees may keep on their persons a certain amount of money, in cash or in the shape of purchase coupons, to enable them to make purchases

Article 98

All internees shall receive regular allowances, sufficient to enable them to purchase goods and articles, such as tobacco, toilet requisites, etc. Such allowances may take the form of credits or purchase coupons.

Furthermore, internees may receive allowances from the Power to which they owe allegiance, the Protecting Powers, the organizations which may assist them, or their families, as well as the income on their property in accordance with the law of the Detaining Power. The amount of allowances granted by the Power to which they owe allegiance shall be the sa,me for each category of internees (infirm, sick, pregnant women, etc.) but may not be allocated by that Power or distributed by the Detaining Power on the basis of discriminations between internees which are prohibited by Article 27 of the present Convention.

The Detaining Power shall open a regular account for every internee, to which shall be credited the allowances named in the present Article, the wages earned and the remittances received, together with such sums taken from him as may be available under the legislation in force in the territory in which he is interned. Internees shall be granted all facilities consistent with the legislation in force in such territory to make remittances to their families and to other dependants. They may draw from their accounts the amounts necessary for their personal expenses, within the limits fixed by the Detaining Power. They shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities for consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts. A statement of accounts shall be furnished to the Protecting Power, on request, and shall accompany the internee in case of transfer.

CHAPTER VII ADMINISTRATION AND DISCIPLINE

Article 99

Every place of internment shall be put under the authority of a responsible officer, chosen from the regular military forces or the regular civil administration of the Detaining Power. The officer in charge of the place of internment must have in his possession a copy of the present Convention in the official language, or one of the official languages, of his country and shall be responsible for its applica,tion. The staff in control of internees shall be instructed in the provisions of the present Convention and of the administrative measures adopted to ensure its application.

The text of the present Convention and the texts of special agreements concluded under the said Convention shall be posted inside the place of internment, in a language which the internees understand, or shall be in the possession of the Internee Committee.

Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind shall be communicated to the internees and posted inside the places of internment, in a language which they understand.

Every order and command addressed to internees individually must, likewise, be given in a language which they understand.

Article 100

The disciplinary regime in places of internment shall be consistent with humanitarian principles, and shall in no circumstances include regulations imposing on internees any physical exertion dangerous to their health or involving physical or moral victimization. Identification by tattooing or imprinting signs or markings on the body, is prohibited.

In particular, prolonged standing and roll-calls, punishment drill, military" drill and manoeuvres, or the reduction of food rations, are prohibited.

Article I01

Internees shall have the right to present to the authorities in whose power they are, any petition with regard to the conditions of internment to which they are subjected.

They shh,ll also have the right to apply without restriction throught the Internee Committee of, if they consider it necessary, direct to the representatives of the Protecting Power, in order to indicate to then any ponits on on which they may have complants to make with regard to the conditions of internment.

Such petitions and complaints shall be transmitted forthwith and without alteration, and even if the latter are.recognized to be unfounded, they may not occacion any punishmeht.

Periodic reports on the situationin places of internment and as to the needs of the internees may be sent by the Internee Committees to the representatives of the Protecting Powsers.

Article 102

In every place of internment, the internees shall freely elect by secret ballot every six months, the mombers of a Committee emprowered to represent them before the Detaining and the Protecting Powers, the International Committtee of the Red Cross and any other organization which may assist them. The members of the Committtee shall be eligible for re-election.

Internees so elected shall enter upon their duties after their election has been approved by the detaning authorities The reasons for any refusals of dismissals shall be communicated to the Protecting Powers concerned.

Article l03

The Internee Committees shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being of the internees.

In case the internees decide, in particular, to organize a system of mutual assistance amongst themselves, this organization would be within the competence of the Committees in addition to the special duties entrusted to them under other provisions of the present Convention.

Article 104

Members of Internee Committes shall not be required to perform any other work, if the accomplishment of their duties is rendered more difficult thereby.

Members of Internee Committees may appoint from amongst the internees such assistants as they may require. All material facilities shall be granted to them, particularly a certain freedom of movement necessary for the accomplishment of their duties (visits to tabour detachments, receipt of suplies, etc.).

All facilities shall likewise be accorded to members of Internee Committees for communication by post and telegraph with the detaining authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and their delegates, and with the organizations which give assistance to internees. Committee members in labour detachments shall enjoy similar facilities for communication with their Internee Committee in the principal place of internment Such communications shall not be limited, nor considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article to7

Members of Internee Committees who are transf~erred shall be allowed a reasonable time to acquaint their successors with current affairs.

CHAPTER VIII RELATIONS WITH TIfE EXTERIOR

Ar'ticle 105

Immediately upon interning protected persons, the Detaining Powers shall inform them, the Power to which they owe allegiance and their Protecting Power of the measures taken for executing the provisions of the present Chapter. The Detaining Powers shall klikewise inform the Perties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such, measures.

Article 106

As soon as he is interned, or at the latest not more than on week after his arrival in a place of internment, and likewise in cases of sickeness of transfer to another place of internment or to a hospital, every internee shall be enabled to send direct to his family on the one hand, and to the Central Agency provided for by Article 140, on the other, an internment card similar, if possible, to the model annexed to ghe present Convention, informing his relatives of his detention, address and state of health. The said cards shall be forwerded as rapidly as possible and may not be delayed in any way.

Article 107

Internees shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards. If the Detaining Power deems it necessary to limit the number of letters and cards sent by each internee, the said number shall not be less than two letters and four ca,rds monthly; these shall be drawn up so as to conform as colesely as possible to the models annexed to the present Convention. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence addressed to internees, they may be ordered only by the Power to which such internees owe allegiance, possibly ad the request of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must' be conveyed with reasonable despatch; they may not be delayed or retained for disciplinary reasons.

Internees who have been a long time without news, or who find it impossible to receive news from their relatives, or to give them news by the ordinary postal route, as well as those who are at a considerable distance from their homes, shall be allowed to send telegrams, the charges being paid by them in the currency at their disposal. They shall likewise benefit by this provision in case which are recognized to be urgent.

As a rule, internees' mail shall be written in their own language. The Parties to the conflict may authorize correspondence in other languages.

Article 108

Internees shall be allowed to receive, by post or by any other means, individual parcels or collective shipments containing in particular foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies, as well as books and objects of a devotional, educational or recreational character which may meet their needs. Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue of the present Convention.

Should military necessity require the quantity of such shipments to be limited, due notice thereof shall be given to the Protecting Power and to the International Committee of the Red Cross or to any other organization giving assistance to the internees and responsible for the forwarding of such shipments.

The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective shipments shall, if necessary, be the subject of special agreements between the Powers concerned, which may in no case delay the receipt by the internees of relief supplies. Parcels of clothing and foodstuffs may not include books. Medical relief supplies shall, as a rule, be sent in collective parcels.

Article 109

In the absence of special agreements between Parties to the conflict regarding the conditions for the receipt and distribution of collective relief shimpments, the regulati

ons concerning collective relief which are annexed to the present Convention shall be applied.

The special agreeements provided for above shall in no case restrict the right of Internee Committees to take possession of collective relief shipments intended for internees, to undertake their distribution and to dispose of them in the interests of the recipients.

Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, or any other organiza.tion giving assistance to internees and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments, to supervise their distribution to the recipients.

Article 110

All relief shipments for internees shall be exempt from import, customs and other dues.

All matter sent by mail, including relief parcels sent by parcel post and remittances of money, addressed from other countries to internees or despatched by them through the post office, either direct or through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 136 and the Central Information Agency provided for in Article 140, shall be exempt from all postal dues both in the countries of origin and destination and in intermediate countries. To this effect, in particular, the exemption provided by the Universal Postal Convention of 1947 and by the agreements of the Universal Postal Union in favour of civilians of enemy nationality detained in camps or civilian prisons, shall be extended to the other interned persons protected by the present Convention. The countries not signatory to the above-mentioned agreements shall be bound to grand freedom from charges in the same circumstances.

The cost of transporting relief shipments which are intended for internees and which, by reason of their weight or any other cause, cannot be sent through the post office, shyall be borne by the Detaining Power in all the territories under its control. Other Powers which are Parties to the present Convention shall bear the cost of transport in their respective territories.

Costs connected with the transport of such shipments, which are not covered by the above paragraphs, shall be charged to the senders.

The High Contracting Perties shall endeavour to reduce, so far as possible, the charges for telegrams sent by internees, of addressed to them.

Article 111

Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from fulfilling their obligation to ensure the conveyance of the mail and relief shipments provided for in Articles 106, 107, 108 and 113, the Protecting Powers concerned, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization duly approved by the Parties to the conflict may undertake to ensure the conveyance of such shipments by suitable menas (rail, motor vehicles, vessels or aircraf~t, etc.). For this purpose, the High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to supply them with such transport, and to allow its circulation, especially by granting the necessary safe-conducts.

Such transport may also be used to convey:

(a) correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central Information Agency referred to in Article 140 and the National Bureaux referred to in Article I36:

(b) correspondence and reports relating to interneea which the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization assisting the internees exchange either with their own delegates or w~ith the Parties to the conflict.

These provisions in no way detract from the right of any Party to the conflict to arrange other means of transport if it should so prefer, nor preclude the granting of safe-conducts, under mutually agreed conditions, to sucll means of transport. '

The costs occasioned by the use of such menas of transport shall be borne, in proportion to the importance of the shipments, by the Parties to the conflict whose nationals are benefited thereby.

Article 112

The censoring of correspondence addressed to internees or despatched by them shall be done as quickly as possible.

The examination of consignments intended for internees shall not be carried out under conditions that will expose the goods contained in them to deterioration. It shall be done in the presence of the addressee, or of a fellow-internee duly delegated by him. The delivery to internees of individual or colective consignments shall not be delayed under the pretext of difficulties of censorship.

Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by the Parties to the conflict either for military or political reasons, shall be only temporary and its duration shall be as short as possible.

Article 113

The Detaining Powers shall provide all reasonable facilities for the transmission, through the Protecting Power or the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, or as otherwise required, of wills, powers of attorney; letters of authority, or any other documents intended foc internees or despatched by them.

In all cases the Detaining Powers shall facilitate the execution and authentication in due legal form of such documents on behalf of internees, in particular by allowing them to consult a lawyer.

Article 114

The Detaining Power shall afford internees all facilities to enable them to manage, their property, provided this is not incompatible with the conditions of internment and the law which is applicable. For this purpose, the said Po-' wer may give them permission to leave the place of internment in urgent cases and if circumstances allow.

Article 115

In all cases where an internee is a party to proceedings in any court, the Detaining Power shall, if he so requests, cause the court to be informed of his detention and shall, within legal limits, ensure that all necessary steps are taken to prevent him from being in any way prejudiced, by reason of his internment, as regards the preparation and conduct of his case or as regards the execution of any judgment of the court.

Article 116

Every internee shall be allowed to receive visitors, especially near relatives, at regular intervals and as frequently as possible.

As far as is possible, internees shall be permitted to visit their homes in urgent cases, particulary in cases of death or serious illness of relatives.

CHAPTER IX

PENAG AND DISCIPLINARY SANCTIONS

Article 117

Subject to the provisions of the present Chapter, the laws in force in the territory in which they are detained will continue to apply to internees who commit offences during internment.

I

If general laws, regulations or orders declare acts committed by internees to be punishable, whereas the same acts are not punishable when committed by persons who are not internees, such acts shall entail disciplinary punishments only.

No internee may be punished more than once for the same act, or on the same count.

Article 118

The courts or authorities shall in passing sentence take as far as possible into account the fact that the defendant is not a national of the Detaining Power. They shall be free to reduce the penalty prescribed for the offence with which the internee is charged and shall not be obliged, to this end, to apply the minimum sentence prescribed.

Imprisonment in premises without daylight, and, in general, all forms of cruelty without exception are forbidden. Internees who have served disciplinary or judicial sen

tences shall not be treated differently from other internees.

The duration of preventive detention undergone by an internee shall be deducted from any disciplinary or judicial penalty involving confinement to which he may be sentenced.

Internee Committees shall be informed of all judicial proceedings instituted against internees whom they represent, and of their result.

Article 119

The disciplinary punishments applicable to internees shall be the following:

(1) a fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent of the wages which the internee would otherwise receive under the provisions of Article 95 during a period of not more than thirty days.

(2) discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the treatment provided for by the present Convention (3) fatigue duties, not exceeding two hours daily, in con

nection with the maintenance of the place of internment. (4) confinement.

In no case shall disciplinary penalties be inhuman, brutal or dangerous for the health of internees. Account shall be taken of the internee's age, sex and state of health.

The duration of any single punishment shall in no case exceed a maximum of thirty consecutive days, even if the internees is answerable for several breaches of discipline when his case is dealt with, whether such breaches are connected or not.

Article 120

Internees who are recaptured after having escaped or when attempting to escape, shall be liable only to disciplinary punishment in respect of this act, even if it is a repeated offence.

Article 118, paragraph 3, notwithstanding, internees punished as a result of escape or attempt to escape, may be subjected to special surveillance, on condition that such surveillance does not affect the state of their health, that it is exercised in a place of internment and that it does not entail the abolition of any of the safeguards granted by the present Convention.

Internees who aid and abet an escape or attempt to escape, shall be liable on this count to disciplinary punishment only.

Article 121

Escape, or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated offence, shall not be deemed an aggravating circumstance in cases where an internee is.prosecuted for offences committed during his escape.

CHAPTER XI DEATHS

Article 129

The wills of internees shall be received for safe-keeping by the responsible authorities; and if the event of the death of an internee his will shall be transmitted without delay to a person whom he has previously designated.

Deaths of internees shall be certified in every case by a doctor, and a death certificate shall be made out, showing the causes of death and the conditions under which it occurred.

An official record of the death, duly registered, shall be drawn up in accordance with the procedure relating thereto in force in the territory where the place of internment is situated, and a duly certified copy of such record shall be transmitted without delay to the Protecting Power as well as to the Central Agency referred to in Article 190.

Article 130

The detaining authorities shall ensure that internees who die while interned are honourably buried, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged and that their graves are respected, properly maintained, and marked in such a way that they can always be recognized.

Deceased internees shall be buried in individual graves unless unavoidable circumstances require the use of collective graves. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of the religion of the deceased or in accordance with his expressed wish to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the reasons given in the death certificate of the deceased. The ashes shall be retained for safe-keeping by the detaining authorities and shall be transferred as soon as possible to the next of kin on their request.

As soon as circumstances permit, and not later than the close of hostilities, the Detaining Power shall forward lists of graves of deceased internees to the Powers on whom deceased internees depended, through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article t36. Such lists shall include all particulars necessary for the identification of the. deceased internees, as well as the exact location of their graves.

Article 131

Every death or serious injury of an internee, caused or sušpected to have been caused by a sentry, another internee or any other person, as well as any death the cause of which is unknown, shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining Power.

A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the Protecting Power. The evidence of any witnesses shall be taken, and a report including such evidence shall be prepared and forwarded to the said Protecting Powe r.

If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the Detaining Power shall take all necessary steps to ensure the prosecution of the person or persons responsible.

CHAPTER XII

RELEASE, REPATRIATION AND ACCOMMODATION IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES

Article 132

Each interned person shall be released by the Detaining Power as soon as the reasons which necessitated his internment no longer exist.

The Parties to the conflict shall, moreover, endeavour during the course of hostilities, to conclude agreements for

the release, the repatriation, the return to places of residence or the accommodation in a neutral country of c~rtain classes of internees, in particular children, pregnant women and mothers with infants and young children,.wounded and sick, and internees who have been detained for a long time.

Article133

Internment shall cease as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.

Internees in the territory of a Party to the conflict against whom penal proceedings are pending for offences not exclusively subject to disciplinary penalties, may be detained until the close of such proceedings and, if circumstances require, until the completion of the penalty. The same shall apply to internees who have been previously sentenced to a punishment depriving them of liberty.

By agreement between the Detaining Power and the Powers concerned, committees may be set up after the close of hostilities, or of' the occupation of territories, to search for dispersed internees.

Article 134

The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour, upon the close of hostilities or occupation, to ensure the return of all internees to their last place of residence, or to facilitate their repatriation.

Article 135

The Detaining Power shall bear the expense of returning released internees to the places where they were residing when interned, or, if it took them into custody while they were in transit or on the high seas, the cost of completing their journey or of their return to their point of departure.

Where a Detaining Power refuses permission to reside in its territory to a released internee who previously had his permanent domicile therein, such Detaining Power shall pay the cost of the said internee's repatriation. If, however, the internee elects to return to his country on his own responsibility or in obedience to the Government of the Power to which he owes allegiance, the Detaining Power need not pay the expenses of his journey beyond the point of his departure from its territory. The Detaining Power need not pay the cost of repatriation of an internee who was interned at his own request.

If internees are transferred in accordance with Article 45, the transferring and receiving Powers shall agree on the portion of the above costs to be borne by each.

The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and repatriation of their nationals in enemy hands.

SECTION V INFORMATION BUREAUX AND CENTRAL

AGENCY

Article 136

Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of occupation, each of the Parties to the conflict shall establish an official Information Bureau responsible f'or receiving and transmitting information in respect of the protected persons who are in its power.

Each of the Parties to the conflict shatl, within the shortest possible period, give its Bureau information of any measure taken by it concerning any protected persons who are kept in custody for more than two weeks, who are subjected to assigned residence or who are interned. It shall, f'urthermore, require its various departments concerned with such matters to provide the aforesaid Bureau pro

mptly with information concerning all changes pertaining to these protected persons, as, for example, transfers, releases, repatriations, escapes, admittances to hospitals, births and deaths. ' "

Article 137

Each national Bureau shall immediately forward information conceriiing protected persons by the most rapid means to the Powers in whose territory they resided, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers and likewise through the Central Agency provided for in Article 140. The Bureaux shall also reply to all enquiries which may be received regarding protected persons.

Information Bureaux shall transmit information concerning a protected person unless its transmission might be detrimental to the person concerned or to his or her relatives. Even in such a case, the information may not be withheld from the Central Agency which, upon being notified of the circumstances, will take the necessary precautions indica.ted in Article 140.

All communications in writing made by any Bureau shall be authentica,ted by a signature or a seal.

Article 138

The information received by the national Buresu and transmitted by it shall be of such a character as to make it possible to identify the protected person exactly and to advise his next of kiq quickly. The information in respect of each person shall include at least his surname, first names, place and date of birth, nationality, last residence and distinguishing characteristics, the first name of the father and the maiden name of the mother, the date, place and nature of the action taken with regard to the individual, the address at which correspondence may be sent to him and the name and address of the person to be informed.

Likewise, information regarding the state of health of internees who are seriously ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regularly ad if possible every week.

Article 139

Each national Information Bureau shall, furthermore, be responsible for collecting all personal valuables left by protected persons mentioned in Article t36, in particular those who have been repatriated or released, or who have esca.ped or died; it shall forward the said valuables to those concerned, either direct, or, if necessary, through the Central Agency. Such articles shall be sent by the Bureau in sealed packets which shall be accompanied by statements giving clear and full identity particulars of the person to whom the articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the parcel. Detailed records shall be maintained of the receipt and despatch of all such valuables.

Article 140

A Central Information Agency for protected persons, in particular for internees, shall be created in a neutral country. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall, if it deems necessary, propose to the Powers concerned the organiza,tion of such an Agency, which may be the same as that provided for in Article 123 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949.

The function of the Agency shall be to collect all information of the type set forth in Article 136 which it may obtain through official or private channels and to transmit it as rapidly as possible to the countries of origin or of residence of the persons concerned, except in cases where such transmissions might be detrimental to the persons whom the said information concerns, or to their relatives. It shall receive from the Parties to the conflict all reasonable facilities for effecting such transmissions.

The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals benefit by the services of the Central Agency, are requested to give the said Agency the financiai sid it may require. ,

The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting the humanitarian activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and of the relief Societies described in Article 142.

Article 141

The natioiial Information Bureau and the Central Information Agency shall enjoy free postage for all mail, likewise the exemptions provided for in Article 110, and further, so far as possible, exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced rates.

PARTIV EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

SECTION I GENERAL PAOVISIONS

Article 142

Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider essential to ensure their security or to meet any other reasonable need, the representatives of religious organizations, relief societies, or any other organizations assisting the protected persons, shall receive from these Powers, for themselves or their duly accredited agents, all facilities for visiting the protected persons, for distributing relief supplies and material from any source, intended for educational, recreational or religious purposes, or for assisting them in organizing their leisure time within the places of internment. Such societies or organizations may by constituted in the territory of the Detaining Power, or in any other country, or they may have an international character.

The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and organiza.tions whose delegates are allowed to carry our their activities in its territory and under its supervision, on condition, however, that such limitation shall not hinder the supply of effective and adequate relief to all protected persons.

The special position of the International Committee of the Red Cross in this field shall be recognized and respected at all times.

Article 143

Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go to all places where protected persons are, particularly to places of internment, detention and work.

They shall have access to all premises occupied by prot,.cted persons and shall be able to interview the latter,without witnesses, personally or through an interpreter.

Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure. Their duration and frequency shall not be restricted.

Such representatives and delegates shall have full liberty to select the places they wish to visit. The Detaining or Occupying Power, the Protecting Power and when occasion arises the Power of origin of the persons to be visited, may agree that compatriots of the internees shall bez permitted to participate in the visits.

The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall also enjoy the above prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the approval of the Power governing the territories where they will carry out their duties:

Article 144

The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the tezt of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if pošsible, civtl instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population.

Any civilian, military, police oi other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of protected persons, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its provisions.

Article 145

The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Couneil and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof. _

Article 146

The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in 'the following Article. .

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerneđ, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prime facie case.

Fach High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.

ln all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 1os and those following of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949.

Article 147

Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the present Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully ca.using great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a prote~ted person, compelling a protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power, or wilfully depriving a protected person of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in the present Convention, taking of hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.

Article 148

No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.

Article 149

At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention.

If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed.

Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an and to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.

SECTION II FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 150

The present Convention is eštablished in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic.

The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.

Article 151

The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until 12 February 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on 21 April 1949.

Article 152

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.

A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 153

The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratifica,tion have been deposited.

Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.

Article 154

In the relations between the Powers who are bound by the Hague Conventions respecting the Laws and Customs of War on La,nd, whether that of 29 July 1899, or that of 18 October 1907, and who are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be supplementary to Sections II and III of the Regulations annexed to the above-mentioned Conventions of The Hague.

Article 155

From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.

Article 156

Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.

-Che Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Conventions has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 157

The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or aft:er the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.

Article 158

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.

The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notifications has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with release, repatriation and re-establishment of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.

The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages estasblished among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.

Article 159

The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.

In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.

Done at Geneva this twelfth day of August 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to. each of the signatory and acceding States.

ANNEX I

DRAFT AGREEMENT RELATING TO HOSPITAL AND SAFETY ZONES AND LOCALITIES

Article l

Hospital and safety zones shall be strictly reserved for the persons mentioned in Article 23 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949, and in Article 14 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949, and for the personnel entrusted with the organization and administration of these zones and localities, and with the care of the persons therein assembled.

Nevertheless, persons whose permanent residence is within such zones shall have the right to stay there. Article 2

To persons residing, in whatever capacity, in a hospital and safetv zone shall perform any work, either within or without the zone, directly connected with military operations or the production of war material.

Article 3

The Power establishing a hospita( and safety zone shall take all necessary measures to prohibit access to all persons v. ho have no right of residence or entry therein.

Article 4

Hospital and safety zones shall fulfil the following conditions:

(a) they shall comprise only a small part of the territory governed by the Power which has established them

(b) they shall be thinly populated in relation to the possibilities of accommodation

(c) they shall be far removed and free from all military objectives, or large industrtal or administrative establishments

(d) they shall not be situated in areas which, according to every probability, may become important for the conduct of th~ war.

Article 5

Hospital and safety zones shall be subject to the following obligations:

(a) the lines of communication and means of transport which they possess shall not be used for the transport of military personnel or material, even in transit

(b) they shall in no case be defended by military means.

Article 6

Hospital and safety zones shall be marked by means of oblique red bands on a white ground, placed on the buildings and outer precincts.

Zones reserved exclusively for the wounded and sick may be marked by means of the Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) emblem on a white ground.

They may be similary marked at night by means of appropriate illumination.

Article 7

The Powers shall communicate to all the High Contracting Parties in peacetime or on the outbreak of hostilities, a list of the hospital and safety zones in the territories governed by them. They shall also give notice of any new zones set up during hostilities.

As soon as the adverse party has received the above-mentioned notification, the zone shall be regularly established.

If, however, the adverse party considers that the conditions of the present agreement have not been fulfilled, it may refuse to recognize the zone by giving immediate notice thereof to the Party responsible for the said zone, or may make its recognition of such zone dependent upon the institution of the control provided for in Article 8.

Article 8

Any Power having recognized one or several hospital and safety zones instituted by the adverse Party shall be entitled to demand control by one or more Special Commissions, for the purpose of ascertaining if the zones fulfil the conditions and obligations stipulated in the present agreement.

For this purpose, members of the Special Commissions shall at all times have free access to the various zones and may even reside there permanently. They shall be given all facilities for their duties of inspection.

Article 9

Should the Special Commissions note any facts which they consider contrary to the stipulations of the present agreement, they shall at once draw the attention of the Power governing the said zone to these facts, and shall fix a time limit of five days within which the matter should be rectified. They shall duly notify the Power which has recognized the zone.

If, when the time limit has expired,Fthe Power governing the zone has not complied with the warning, the adverse Party may declare that it is no longer bound by the present agreement in respect of the said zone. "

Article 10

Any Power setting up one or more hospital and safety zones, and the adverse Parties to whom their existence has been notified, shall nominate or have nominated by the Protecting Powers or by other neutral Powers, persons eligible to be members of the Special Commissions mentioned in Articles 8 and 9.

Article 11

In no circumstances may hospital and safety zones be the object of attack. They shall be protected and respected at all times by the Parties to the conflict.

Article 12

In the case of occupation of a territory, the hospital and Safety zones therein shall continue to be respected and utilized as such.

Their purpose may, however, be modified by the Occupying Power, on condition that all messures are taken to ensure the safety of the persons acćommodated.

Article 13

The present agreement shall also apply to loca.lities which the Powers may utilize for the same purposes as hospital and safety zones.

ANNEX II

DRAFT REGULATIONS CONCERNING COLLECTIVE RELIEF

Article 1

The Internee Committees shall be allowed to distribute collective relief shipments for which they are responsible to all internees who are dependent for administration on the said Committee's place of internment, including those internees who are in hospitals, or in prison or other penitentiary establishments.

Article 2

The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be effected in accordance with the instructions of the donors and with a plan drawn up by the Internee Committees. The issue of medical stores shall, however, be made for preference in agreement with the senior medical officers, and the latter may, in hospitals and infirmaries, waive the said instructions, if the needs of their patients so demand. Within the limits thus defined, the disttibution shall always be carried out equitably.

Article 3

Members of Internee Committees shall be allowed to go to the railway stations or other points of arrival of relief supplies near their places of internment so as to enable them to verify the quantity as well as the-quality of the goods received and to make out detailed reports thereon for the donors

Article 4

Internee Cornmittees shall be given the facilities necessar- for verifying whether the distribution of collective relief in all subdivisions and annexes of their places of internment has been carried out in accordance with their instructions

Article 5

Internee Committees shall be allowed to complete, and to cause to be completed by members of the Internee Committees in labour detachments or by the senior medici~.l officers of infirmaries and hospitals, forms or questionnaires intended for the donors, relating to collective relief supplies (distribution, requirements, quantities, etc.). Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed, shall be forwarded to the donors without delay.

Article 6

In order to secure the regular distribution of collective relief supplies to the internees in their place of internment, and to meet any needs that may arise through the arrival of fresh parties of internees, the Internee Committees shall be allowed to create and maintain sufficient reserve stocks of collective relief. For this purpose, they shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each warehouse shall be provided .with two locks, the Internee Committee holding the keys of one lock, and the commandant of the place of internment the keys of the other.

Article 7

The High Contracting Parties, and the Detaining Powers in particular, shall, so far as is in any way possible and subject to the regulations governing the food supply of the population, authorize purchases of goods to be made in their territories for the distribution of collective relief to the internees. They shall likewise facilitate the transfer of funds and other financial measurss of a technical or administrative nature taken for the purpose of making such purchases.

Article 8

The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to the right of internees to receive collective relief before their arrival~ in a place of internment or in the course of their transfer, nor to the possibility of representatives of the Protecting Power, or of the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other humanitarian organization giving assistance to internees and responsible for forwarding such supplies, ensuring the distribution thereof to the recipients by any other means they may deem suitable.

the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949; the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition od Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of 12 August t949; the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949; the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949; "the Conventions" means the four Geneva Conventins of 12 August 1949 for the protection of war victims;

(b) "rules of international law applicable in armed conflict" means the rules a~plicable in armed conflict set forth in international agreements to which the Parties to the conflict are Parties and the generally recognized principles and rules of international law which are applicable to armed conflict;

(c) -Protecting Power" means a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict which has been designated by a Party to the conflict and accepted by the adverse Party and has agreed to carry out the functions essigned to a Protecting Power under the Conventions and this Protocol;

(d) "substitute" means an organization acting in place of a Protecting Power in accordance with Article 5.

Article 3

Beginning and end of application

Without prejudice to the provisions which are applicable at all times:

(a) the Conventions and this Protocol shall apply from the beginning of any situation referred to in Article 1 of this Protocol;

(b) the applica.tion of the Conventions and of this Protocol shall cease, in the territory of Parties to the conflict, on the general close of military operations and, in the case of occupied territories, on the termination of the occupation, except, in either circumstance, for those persons whose final release, repatriation or re-establishment ta.kes place thereafter. These persons shall continue to benefit from the relevant provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol until their final release, repatriation or re-establishment.

Article 4

Legal status of the Parties to the conflict

The applica,tion of the Conventionš~and of this Protocol, as well as the conclusion of the agreements provided for therein, shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict. Neither the occupation of a territory nor the application fo the Conventions and this Protocol shall effect the legal status of the territory in question.

Article 5

Appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute

1. It is the duty of the Parties to a conflict from the beginning of that conflict to secure the supervision and implementation of the Conventions and of this Protocol by the application of the system of Protecting Powers, including inter alia the designation and acceptance of those Powers, in accordance with the following paragraphs. Protecting Powers shall have the duty of safeguarding the interests of the Parties to the conflict.

2. From the beginning of a situation referred to in Article 1, each Party to the conflict shall without delay designate a Protecting Power for the purpose of applying the Conventions and this Protocol and shall, likewise without delay and for the same purpose, permit the activities of a Protecting Power which has been acdepted by it as such after designation by the adverse Party.

3. If a Protecting Power has not been designated or accepted from the beginning of a situation referred to in Article 1, the International Committee of the Red Cross, without prejudice to the right of any other impartial humanitarian organization to do tikewise, shall offer its good offices to the Parties to the conflict with a view to the designation without delay of a Protecting Power to which the Parties to the conflict consent. For that purpose it may, inter alia, ask each Party to provide it with a list of at least five States which that Party considers acceptable to act as Protecting Power on its behalf in relation to an adverse Party, and ask each adverse Party to provide a list of at least five States which it would accept as the Protecting Power of the first Party; these lists shall be communicated to the Committee within two weeks after the receipt of the request; it shall compare them and seek the agreement of any proposed State named on both lists.

4. If, despite the foregoing, there is no Protecting Power, the Parties to the conflict shall accept without delay an offer which may be made by the International Committee of the Red Cross or by any other organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy, after due consultations with the said Parties and taking into account the result of these consultations, to act as a substitute. The functioning of such a substitute is subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict; every effort shall be made by the Parties to the conflict to facilitate the operations of the substitute in the performance of its tasks under the Conventions and this Protocol.

5. In accordance with Article 4, the designation and acceptance of Protecting Powers for the purpose of applying the Conventions and this Protocol shall not affect the legalstatus of the Parties to the conflict or of any territory, including occupied territory.

6. The maintenance of diplomatic relations between Parties to the conflict or the entrusting of the protection of a Party's interests and those of its nationals to a third State in accordance with the rules of international law relating to diplomatic relations is no obstacle to the designation of Protecting Powers for the purpose of applying the Conventions and this Protocol.

7. Any subsequent mention in this Protocol of a Protecting Power includes also a substitute.

Article 6

Qualified persons

1. The High Contracting Parties shall, also in peacetime, endeavour, with the assistance of the national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies, to train qualified personnel to facilitate the application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, and in particular the activities of the Protecting Powers.

2. The recruitment and training of such personnel are within domestic jurisdiction.

3. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall hold at the disposal of the High Concracting Parties the lists of persons so trained which the High Contracting Parties may have established and may have transmitted to it for that purpose.

4. The conditions governing the employment of such personnel outside the national territory shall, in each case, be the subject of special agreements between the Parties concerned.

Article 7

Meetings

The depositary of this Protocol shall convene a meeting of the High Contracting Parties, at the request of one or more of the said Parties and upon the approval of' the majority of the said Parties, to consider generaI problems concerning the application of the Conventions and of the Protocol.

PART II

WOUNDED, SICK AND SHIPWRECKED

SECTION I GENERAL PROTECTION

Article 8 Terminology

For the purposes of this Protocol:

(a) "wounded" and "sick" mean persons, whether mili tary or civilian, who, because of trauma, disease or othe physical or mental disorder or disability, are in need of me dica,l assistance or care and who refra,in from any act o hostility. These terms also cover maternity cases, new-bori babies and other persons who may be in need of immedia te medical assistance or ca.re, such as the infirm or expec tant mothers, and who refrain from any act of hostility

(b) "shipwrecked" means persons, whether military o: civilian, who are in peril at sea or in other waters as a re sult of misfortune affecting them or the vessel or aircraf carTying them and who refrain from any act of hostility These persons, provided that they continue to refrain fron any act of hostility, shall continue to be considered ship wrecked during their rescue until they acquire another sta tus under the Conventions or this Protocol;

(c) "medical personnel" means those persons assigned by a Party to the conflict, exclusively to the medical purpo ses enumerated under sub-paragraph (eJor to the adminis tration of medical units or to the operation or administrati on of medica.l transports. Such assignments may be eithe: permanent or temporary. The term includes:

(i) medical personnel of a Party to the conflict, whethe: military or civilian, including those described in the Firs and Second Conventions, and those assigned to civil defen ce organizations;

(ii) medical personnel of national Red Cross (Red Cres cent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies and other national volun tary aid societies duly recognized and authorized by a Par ty to the conflict;

(iii) medical personnel of medical units or medica transports described in Article 9, paragraph 2;

(d) "religious personnel. means military or civilian pe~ sons, such as chaplains, who are exclusively engaged i: the work of their ministry and attached:

(i) to the armed forces of a Party to the conflict;

(ii) to medical units or medical transports of a Party t the conflict;

(iii) to medica.l units or medical transports described u Article 9, paragraph 2; or

(iv) to civil defence organizations of a Party to the cor flict. The attachment of religious personnel may be eithe permanent or temporary, and the relevant provisions mer tioned under sub-paragraph (kJ apply to them;

(e) -medical units" means establishments and othe units, whether military or civilian, organized for medicč purposes, namely the search for, collection, transportatioi diagnosis or treatment - including first-aid treatment of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, or for the preven on of disease. The term includes, for example, hospita and other similar units, blood transfusion centres, preve tive medicine centres and institutes, medical depots a the medical and pharmaceutical stores of such units. Me cal units may be fixed or mobile, permanent or tempora

(f) "medica.l transportation" means the conveyance by land, water or air of the wounded, sick, shipwrecked, medical personnel, religious personnel, medica.l equipmerit or medical supplies protected by the Conventions and by this Protocol;

(g) "medica.l transports" means any means of transportation, whether military or civilian, permanent or temporary, assigned exclusively to medical transportation and under the control of a competent authority of a Party to the conflict;

(h) "medical vehicles" means any medica,l transports by land;

(i) "medical ships and craft" means any medical transports by water;

(j) "medical aircraft" means any medical transports by air;

(k) "permanent medical personnel", "permanent medical units" and "permanent medicai transports" mean those assigned exclusively to medical purposes for an indeterminate period. "Temporary medical personnel", "temporary medical units" and "temporary medical transports" mean those devoted exclusively to medical purposes for limited periods during the whole of such periods. Unless otherwise specified, the terms .medical personnel", "medical units" and "medical transports".cover both permanent and temporary categories;

(1) "distinctive emblem" means the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun on a white ground when used for the protection of medical units and transports, or medical and religious personnel, equipment or supplies;

(m) "distinctive signal- means any signal or message specified for the identification exclusively of medical units or transports in Chapter III of Annex I to this Protocol.

Article 9

Field of application

1. This Part, the provisions of which are intended to ameliorate the condition of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, shall apply to all those affected by a situation referred to in Article 1, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, sex, language, religion or belief, politica,l or other opinion, national or social origin, wealth, birth or other status, or on any other similar criteria.

2. The relevant provisions of Articles 27 and 32 of the First Convention shall apply to permanent medical units and transports (other than hospital ships, to which Article 25 of the Second Convention applies) and their personnel made available to a Party to the conflict for humanitarian purposes:

(a) by a neutral or other State which is not a Party to that conflict;

(b) by a recognized and authorized aid society of such a State; ,

(c) by an impartial international humanitarian organiza,tion.

Article 10

Protection and care

1. All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to whichever Party they belong, shall be respected and protected.

2. In all circumstances they shall be treated humanely and shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. There shall be no distinction among them founded on any grounds other than medical ones.

Article 11

Protection of persons

1. The physica,l or mental health and integrity of persons who are in the power of the adverse Party or who are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty as a result of a situation referred to in Article 1 shall not be endangered by any unjustified act or omission. Accordingly, it is prohibited to subject the persons described in this Article to any medica,l procedure which is not indicated by the state of health of the person concerned and which is not consistent with generally accepted medical standards which would be applied under similar medical circumstances to persons who are nationals of the Party conducting the procedure and who are in no way deprived of liberty.

2. It is, in particular, prohibited to carry out on such persons, even with their consent:

(a) physical mutilations;

(b) medical or scientific experiments;

(c) removal of tissue or organs for transplantation, except where these acts are justified in conformity with the conditions provided for in paragraph 1.

3. F~cceptions to the prohibition in paragraph 2 (c) may be made only in the case of donations of blood for transfusion or of skin for grafting, provided that they are given voluntarily and without any coercion or inducement, and then only for therapeutic purposes, under conditions consistent with generally accepted medica,l standards and controls designed for the benefit of both the donor and the recipient.

4. Any wilful act or omission which seriously endangers the physical or mental health or integrity of any person who is ih the power of a Party other than the one on which he depends and which either violates any of the prohibitions in paragraphs 1 and 2 or fails to comply with the requirements of paragraph 3 shall be a grave breach of this Protocol.

5. The persons described in paragraph 1 have the right to refuse any surgical operation. In case of refusal, medical personnel shall endeavour to obtain a written statement to that effect, signed or acknowledged by the patient.

6. Each Party to the conflict shall keep a medical record for every donation of blood for transfusion or skin for grafting by persons referred to in paragraph 1, if that donation is made under the responsibility of that Party. In addition, each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to keep a record of all medical procedures undertaken with respect to any person who is interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty as a result of a situation referred to in Article 1. These records shall be available at all times for inspection by the Protecting Power.

Article 12

Protection of medical units

1. Medical units shall be respected and protected at all times and shall not be the object of attack.

2. Paragraph 1 shall apply to civilian medical units, provided that they:

(a) belong to one of the Parties to the conflict;

(b) are recognized and authorized by the competent authority of one of the Parties to the conflict; or

(c) are authorized in conformity with Article 9, paragraph 2, of this Protocol or Article 27 of the First Convention.

3. The Parties to the conflict are invited to notify each other of the location of their fixed medical units. The absence of such notification shall not exempt any of the Parties from the obligation to comply with the provisions of paragraph 1.

4. Under no circumstances shall medical units be used in an attempt to shield military objectives from attack. Whenever possible, the Parties to the conflict shall ensure that medical units are so sited that attacks against military objectives do not imperil their safety.

Article 13

Discontinuance of protection of civilian medical units

1. The protection to which civilian medical units are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian function, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after a warning has been given setting, whenever appropriate, a reasonable time-limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.

2. The following shall not be considered as acts harmful to the enemy:

(a) that the personnel of the unit are equipped with light individual weapons for their own defence or for that of the wounded and sick in their charge;

(b) that the unit is guarded by a picket or by sentries or by an escort;

(c) that small-arms and ammunition taken from the wounded and sick, and not yet handed to the proper service, are found in the units;

(d) that members of the armed forces or other combatants are in the unit for medical reasons.

Article 14

Limitations on requisition of civilian medical units

1. The Occupying Power has the duty to ensure that the medical needs of the civilian population in occupied territory continue to be satisfied.

2. The Occupying Power shall not, therefore, requisition civilian medical units, their equipment, their materiel or the services of their personnel, so long as these resources are necessary for the provision of adequate ~medical services for the civilian population and for the cohtinuing medicaI care of any wounded and sick already under treatment.

3. Provided that the general rule in paragraph 2 continues to be observed, the Occupying Power may requisition the said resources, subject to the following particular conditions:

(a) that the resources are necessary for the adequate and immediate medical treatment of the wounded and sick members of the armed forces of the armed forces of the Occupying Power or of prisoners of war;

(b) that the requisition continues only while such necessity exists; and

(c) that immediate arrangements are made to ensure that the medical needs of the civilian population, as well as those of any wounded and sick under treatment who are affected by the requisition, continue to be satisfied.

Article 15

Protection of civilian medical and religious personnel

1. Civilian medical personnel shall be respected and protected.

2. If needed, all available help shall be afforded to civilian medical personel in an area where civilian medica services are disrupted by reason of combat activity.

3. The Occupying Power shall afford civilian medica personnel in occupied territories every assistance to enab le them to perform, to the best of their ability, their huma nitarian functions. The Occupying Power may not requir that, in the performance of those functions, such person nel shall give priority to the treatment of any person ex cept on medical grounds. They shall not be compelled t

carry out tasks which are not compatible with their humanitarian mission.

4. Civilian medical personnel shall liave access to any place where their services are essential, subject to such supervisory and safety measures as the relevant Party to the conflict may deem necessary.

5. Civilian religious personnel shall be respected and protected. The provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol concerning the protection and identification of medical personnel shall apply equally to such persons.

Article 18

General protection of medical duties

1. Under no circumstances shall any person be punished for ca,rrying out medical activities compatible with medical ethics; regardless of the person benefiting therefrom.

2. Persons engaged in medica.l activities shall not be compelled to perform acts of to carry out work contrary to the rules of medical ethics or to other medical rules designed for the benefit of the wounded and sick or to the provisions of the Conventions or of this Protocol, or to refrain from performing acts or from carrying out work required by those rules and provisions.

3. No person engaged in medical activities shall be compelled to give to anyone belonging either to an adverse Party, or to his own Party except as required by the law of the latter Party, any infromation concerning the wounded and sick who are, or who have been, under his care, if such information would, in his opinion, prove harmful to the patients concerned or to their families. Regulations for the compulsory notification of communicable diseases shall, however, be respected.

Article 17

Role of the civilian population and of aid societies

1. The civilian population shall respect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, even if they belong to the adverse Party, and shall commit no act of violence against them. The civilian population and aid societies, such as National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies, shall be permitted, even on their own initiative, to collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, even in indvaded or occupied areas. No one shall be harmed, prosecuted, convicted or punished for such humanitarian acts.

2. The Parties to the conflict may appeal to the civilian population and the aid societies referred to in paragraph 1 to collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, and to search for the dead and report their location; they shall grant both protection and the necessary facilites to those who respond to this appeal. If the adverse Party gains or regains control of the area, that Party also shall afford the same protection and facilities for so long as they are needed.

Article 18

Identification

1. Each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that medical and religious personnel and medical units and transports are identifiable.

2 Each Partv to the conflict shall also endeavour to adopt and to im-plement methods and procedures which will make it possible to recognize medical units and transports which use the distinctive emblem and distinctive signals

3 In occupied territory and in areas where fighting is taking place or is likely to take place, civilian medical per

sonnel and civilian religious personnel should be recognizable by the distinctive emblem and an identity card certifying their status. .

4. With the consent of the competent authority, medical units and transports shall be marked by the distinctive emblem. The ships and craft referred to in Article 22 of this Protocol shall be marked in accordance with the provisions of the Second Convention.

5. In addition to the distinctive emblem, a Party to the conflict may, as provided in Chapter III of Annex I to this Protocol, authorize the use of distinctive signals to identify medical units and transports. Exceptionally, in the special cases covered in that Chapter, medical transports may use distinctive signals without displaying the distinctive embl em.

6. The application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 5 of this Article is governed by Chapters I to III of Annex I to this Protocol. Signals designated in Chapter III of the Annex for the exclusive use of medical units and transports shall not, except as provided therein, be used for any purpose other than to identify the medical units and transports specified in that Chapter.

7. This Article does not authorize any wider use of the distinctive emblem in peacetime than is prescribed in Article 44 of the First Convention.

8. The provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol relating to supervision of the use of the distinctive emblem and to the prevention and repression of any misuse thereof shall be applicable to distinctive signals.

Article 19

Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict shall apply the relevant provisions of this Protocol to persons protected by this Part who may be received or interned within their territory, and to any dead of the Aarties to that conftict whom they may find. '

Article 20 Prohibition of reprisals

Reprisals against the persons and objects protected by this Part are prohibited.

SECTION II MEDICAL TR,ANSPORTATION

Article 21 Medical vehicles

Medical vehicles shall be respected and protected in the same way as mobile medical units under the Conventions and this Protocol.

Article 22

Hospital ships and coastal rescue craft

1. The provisions of the Conventions relating to:

(a) vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 of the Second Convention,

(b) their lifeboats and small craft, (c) their personnel and crews, and

(d) the wounded, sick and shipwrecked on board,

shall also apply where these vessels carry civilian wounded, sick and shipwrecked who do not belong to any of the categories mentioned in Article 13 of the Second Convention. Such civilians shall not, however, be subject to surren

der to any Party which is not their own, or to capture at sea. If they find themselves in the power of a Party to the conflict other than their own they shall be covered by the Fourth Convention and by this Protocol.

2. The protection provided by the Conventions to vessels described in Article 25 of the Second Convention shall . extend to hospital ships made available for humanitarian purposes to a Party to the conflict:

(a) by a neutral or other State which is not a Party to that conflict; or

(b) by an impartial international humanitarian organization,

provided that, in either case, the requirements set out in that Article are coznplied with.

3. Small craft described in Article 27 of the Second Convention shall be protected even if the notification envisaged by that Article has not been made. The Parties to the conflict are, nevertheless, invited to inform each other of any details of such craft which will facilitate thei<r identification and recognition.

Article 23

Other medical ships and craft

1. Medica,l ships and craft other than those referred to in Article 22 of this Protocol and Article 38 of the Second Convention shall, whether at sea or in other waters, be respected and protected in the same way as mobile medical units under the Conventions and this Protocol. Since this protection ca,n only be effective if they can be identified and recognized as medical ships or craft, such vessels should be marked with the distinctive emblem and as far as po$sible comply with the second paragraph of Article 43 of the Second Convention.

2. The ships and craft referred to in paragraph 1 shall remain subject to the laws of war. Any warship on the surface able immediately to enforce its command may order them to stop, order them off, or make them take a certain course, and they shall obey every such command. Such ships and craft may not in any other way be diverted from their medical mission so long. as they are needed for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked on board.

3. The protection provided in paragraph 1 shall cease only under the conditions set out in Article 34 and 35 of the Second Convention. A clear refusal to obey a command given in accordance with paragraph 2 shall be an act harmful to the enemy under Article 34 of the Second Convention.

4. A Party to the conflict may notify any adverse Party as far in advance of sailing as possible of the name, description, expected time of sailing, course and estimated speed of the medical ship or craft, particularly in the case of ships of over 2,000 gross tons, and may provide any other information which would facilitate identification and recognition. The adverse Party shall acknowledge receipt of such information.

5. The provisions of Article 37 of the Second Convention shall apply to medical and religious personnel in such ships and craft.

6. The provisions of the Second Convention shall apply to the H~ounded, sick and shipwrecked belonging to the categories referred to in Article 13 of the Second Convention and in Article 44 of this Protocol who may be on board such medical ships and craft. Wounded, sick and shipwrecked civilians who do not belong to any of the categories mentioned in Article 13 of the Second Convention shall not be subject, at sea, either to surrender to any Party which is not their own, or to removal from such ships or craft; if they

find themselves in the power of a Party to the conflict other than their own, they shall be covered by the Fourth Convention and by this Protocol.

Article 24

Protection of medical aircraft

Medical aircraft shall be respected and protected, subject to the provisions of this Part.

Article 25

Medical aircraft in areas not controlled by an adverse Party In and over land areas physicallycontrolled by friendly

forces,or in and over sea areas not physically controlled by an adverse Party, the respect and protection of medical aircraft of a Party to the conflict is not dependent on any agreement with an adverse Party. For greater safety, however, a Party to the conflict operating its medical aircraft in these areas may notify the adverse Party, as provided in Article 29, in particular when such aircraft are making flights bringing them within range of surface-to-air weapons systems of the adverse Party.

Article 26

Medical aircraft in contact or similar zones

1. In and over those parts of the contact zone which are physically controlled by friendly forces and in and over those areas the physical control of which is not clearly established, protection for medical aircraft can be fully effective only by prior agreement between the competent military authorities of the Parties to the conflict, as provided for in Article 29. Although, in the absence of such an agreement, medical aircraft operate at their own risk, they shall nevertheless be respected after they have been recognized as such. '

2. "Contact zone" means any area on land where the forward elements of opposing forces are in contact with each other, especially where they are exposed to direct fire from the ground.

Article 27

Medical aircraft in areas controlled by an adverse Party 1. The medical aircraft of a Party to the conflict shall continue to be protected while flying over land or sea areas physically controlled by an adverse Party, provided that prior agreement to such flights has been obtained from the competent authority of that adverse Party.

2. A medical aircraft which flies over an area physically controlled by an adverse Party without, or in deviation from the terms of, an agreement provided for in paragraph 1, either through navigational error or because of an emergency affecting the safety of the flight, shall make every effort to identify itself and to inform the adverse Party of the circumstances. As soon as such medical aircraft has been recognized by the adverse Party, that Party shall make all reasonable efforts to give the order to land or to alight on water, referred to in Article 3o, paragraph 1, or to take other measures to safeguard its own interests, and, in either case, to allow the aircraft time for compliance, before resorting to an attack against the aircraft.

Article 28

Restrictions on operations of medical aircraft

1. The Parties to the conflict are prohibited from using their medical aircraft to attempt to acquire any military

advantage over an adverse Party. The presence of medical aircraft shall not be used in an attempt to render military objectives immune from attack.

2. Medical aircraft shall not be used to collect or transmit intelligence data and shall not carry any equipment intended for such purposes. They are prohibited from carrying any persons or cargo not included within the definition in Article 8, sub-paragraph (f). The carrying on board of the personal effects of the occupants or of equipment intended solely to facilitate navigation, communication or identification shall not be considered as prohibited.

3. Medical aircraft shall not carry any armament except small-arms and ammunition taken from the wounded, sick and shipwrecked on board and not yet handed to the proper service, and such light individual weapons as may be necessary to enable the medical personnel on board to defend themselves and the wounded, sick and shipwrecked in their charge.

4. While carrying out the flights referred to in Articles 26 and 27, medical aircraft shall not, except by prior agreement with the adverse Party, be used to search for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked.

Article 29

Notifications and agreements concerning medical aircraft 1. Notifications under Article 25, or requests for prior agreement under Articles 26, 27, 28 (paragraph 4), or 31 shall state the proposed number of medical aircraft, their flight plans and means of identification, and shall be understood to mean that every glight will be carried out in compliance with Article 28.

2. A Party which receives a notification given under Article 25 shall at once acknowledge receipt of such notification.

3. A Party which receives a request for prior agreement under Articles 26. 27, 28 (paragraph 4), or 31 shall, as rapidly as possible, notify the requesting Party:

(a) that the request is agreed to; (b) that the request is denied, or

(c) of reasonable alternative proposals to the request. It may also propose a prohibition or restriction of other flights is the area during the time involved. If the Party which submitted the request accepts the alternative proposals, it shall notify the other Party of such acceptance.

4. The Parties shall take the necessary measures to ensure that notifications and agreements can be made rapid

5. The Parties shall also take the necessary measures to disseminate rapidly the substance of any such notific&tions and agreements to t.he military units concerned and shall instruct those units regarding the means of identification that will be used by the medical aircraft in question.

Article 30

Landing and inspection of medical aircraft

1. Medical aircraft Clying over areas which are physically controlled by an adverse Party, or over areas the physical control of which is not clearly established, may be ordered to land or to alight on water, as appropriate, to permit inspection in accordance with the following paragraphs. Medical aircraft shall obev anv such order.

2. If such an aircraf't lands or atights on water, whether ordered to do so or for other reasons, it may be subjected to inspection solely to deterrnine the matters referred to in paragraphs 3 and a :y such inspection shall be commenced without delay and .shall be conducted expeditiously. The inspecting Partv shall not require the wounded and sick to be removed from the aircraft unless their removal

is essential for the inspection. That Party shall in any event ensure that the condition of the wounded and sick is not adversely affected by the inspection or by the removal.

3. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft:

(a) is a medical aircraft within the meaning of Article 8, sub-paragraph(jJ, r

(b) is not in violation of the conditions prescribed in Article 28, and

(c) has not flown without or in breach of a prior agreement where such agreement is required,

the aircraft and those of its occupants who belong to the adverse Party or to a neutra,l or other State not a Party to the conflict shall be authorized to continue the flight without delay.

4. If the inspection disclo5es that the aircraft:

(a) is not a medical aircraft within the meaning of Article 8, sub-paragraph(jJ,

(b) is in violation of the conditions prescribed in Article 28, or

(c) has flown without or in breach of a prior agreement where such agreement is required.

the aircraft may be seized. Its occupants shall be treated in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol. Any aircraft 5eized which had been assigned as a permanent medical aricraft may be used thereafter only as a medical aircraft.

Article 31

Neutral or other States not Parties to the contlict

1. Except by prior agreement, medical aircraft shall not fly over or land in the territory of a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict. However, with such an agreement, they shall be respected throughout their flight and also for the dur~tion of any ca,lls in the territory. Nevertheless they shall obey any summons to land or to alight on water, as appropriate.

2. Should a medical aircraft, in the absence of an agreement or in deviation from the terms of an agreement, fly over the territory of a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict, either through navigational error or bečause of an emergency affecting the safety of the flight, it shal make every effort to give notice of the flight and to identif itself. As soon as such medical aircraft is recognized, tha State shall make all reasonable efforts to give the order t land or to alight on water referred to in Article 30, parag raph t, or to take other measures to safeguard its Own inte rests, and, in either case, to allow the aircraft time for com pliance, before resorting to an attack against the aircraft

3. If a medical aircraft, either by agreement or in the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 2, lands or alight: on water in the territory of a neutral or other State not Par ty to the conflict, whether ordered to do so or for other rea sons, the aircraft shall be subject to inspection for the pur poses of determining whether it is in fact a medical air craft. The inspection shatl be commenced without dela~ and shall be conducted expeditiously. The inspecting Partv shall not require the wounded and sick of the Party oper ~ ting the aircraft to be removed from it unless their remov is essential for the inspection. The inspecting Party shall i am~ event ensure that the condition of the wounded an sick is not adversely affected by the inspection or the rem val. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft is in fact medical aircraft, the aircraft with its occupants, other tha those who must be detained in accordance with the rules international law applicable in armed conflict, shall be a lowed to resume its flight, and reasonable facilities shal be given for the continuation of the flight. If the inspectio~ discloses that the aricraft is not a medical aircraft, it sha: 9

be seized and the occupants treated in accordance with paragraph 4.

4. The wounded, sick and shipwrecked disembarked, otherwise than temporarily, from a medica,l aircraft with the consent of the local authorities in the territory of a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict shall, unless agreed otherwise between that State and the Parties to the conflict, be detained by that State where so required by the rules of international law applica,ble in armed conflict, in such a manner that they cannot again take part in the hostilities. The cost of hospital treatment and internment shall be borne by the State to which those persons belong.

5. Neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict shall apply any conditions and restrictions on the passage of medical aircraft over, or on the landing of medical aircraft in, their territory equally to all Parties to the conflict.

SEGTION III MISSING AND DEAD PERSONS

Article 32 General principle

In the implementation of this Section, the activities of the High Contracting Parties, of the Parties to the conflict and of the international humanitarian organiza,tions mentioned in the Conventions and in this PFotocol shall be prompted mainly by the right of famillies to know the fate of their relatives.

Article 33

Missing persons

1. As soon as circumstances permit, and at the latest from the end of active hostilities, each Party to the conflict shall search for the persons who have been reported missing by an adverse Party. Such adverse Party shalI transmit all relevant information concerning such persons in order to facilitate such searches.

2. In order to facilitate the gathering of information pursuant to the preceding paragraph, each Party to the conflict shall, with respect to persons who would not receive more favourable consideration under the Conventions and this Protocol:

(a) record the information specified in Article 138 of the Fourth Convention in respect of such persons who have been detained, imprisoned or otherwie held in captivity for more than two weeks as a result of hostilities or occupation, or who have died during any period of detention;

(b) to the fullest extent possible, facilitate and, if need be, ca,rry out the search for and the recording of information concerning such persons if they have died in other circumstances as a result of hostilities or occupation.

3. Information concerning persons reported missing pursuant to paragraph 1 and requests for such information shall be transmitted either directly or through the Protecting Power or the Central Tracing Agency of the International Committee of the Red Cross or national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies. Where the information is not transmitted through the International Committee of the Red Cross and its Central Tracing Agency, each Party to the conflict shall ensure that such information is also suplied to the Central Tracing Agency.

4. The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to agree on arrangements for teams to search for, identify and recover the dead from battlefield areas, including arrangements, if appropriate, for such teams to be accompanied by personnel of the adverse Party hile carrying out these missions in areas controlled by he adverse Party. Personnel of such teams shall be respected and protected while exclusively carrying out these duties

Article 34

Remains of deceased

1. The remains of persons who have died for re,asons related to occupation or in detention resulting from occupation or hostilities and those of persons not nationals of the country in which they have died as a result of hostilities shall be respected, and the gravesites of all such persons shall be respected, maintained and marked as provided for in Article 130 of the Fourth Convention, where their remains or gravesites would not receive more favourable consideration under the Conventions and this Protocol.

2. As soon as cirumstances and the realtions between the adverse Parties permit, the High Contracting Fariies in whose territories graves and, as the case may,be, other locations of the remains of persons who have died as a resulč of hostilities or during occupation or in detention are situated, shall conclude agreements in order:

(a) to facilitate access to the gravesites by relatives of the deceased and by representatives of official graves registration services and to regulate the practica,l arrangements for such access;

(b) to protect and maintain such gravesites permanently;

(c) to facilitate the return of the remains of the deceased and of personal effects to the home country uspon its request or, unless that country objects, upon the request of the next of kin.

3. In the absence of the agreements provided for in paragraph 2 (b) or (c) and if the home country of such deceased is not willing to arrange it its expense for the maintenance of such gravesites, the High Contracting Party in whose territory the gravesites are situated may offer to facilitate the return of the remains of the deceased to the home country. Where such an offer has not been accepted the High Contracting Party may, after the egpiry of five years from the date of the offer and upon due notice to the home country, adopt the arrangements laid down in its own laws relating to cemeteries and graves.

4. A High Contracting Party in whose territory the gravesites referred to in this Article are situated shall be permitted to exhume the remains only:

(a) in accordance with paragraphs 2(c) and 3, or

(b) where exhumation is a matter of overriding public necessity, including cases of medical and investigative necessity, in which case the High Contracting Party shall at all times respect the remains, and shall give notice to the home ~ountry of its intention to exhume the remains together with details of the intended place of reinterment.

PART III

METHODS AND MEANS OF WARFARE COMBATANT AND PRISONER-OF-WAR STATUS

SECTION I

METHODS AND MEANS OF WARFARE

Article 35

Basic rules

1. In any armed conflict, the right of the Parties to the conflict to choose methods or means of warfare is not unlimited.

2. It is prohibited to employ weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering.

3. It is prohibited to employ methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the nautral environment.

Article 36

New weapons

In the study, development, acquisition or adoption of a new weapon, means or method of warfare, a High Cdntracting Party is under an obligation to determine whether its employment would, in some or all circumstances, be prohibited by this Protocol or by any other rule of international law applicable to the High Contracting Party.

Article 37

Prohibition of perfidy

1. It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence, shall constitute perfidy. The following acts are e:amples of perfidy:

(a) the feigning of an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce or of a surrender;

(b) the feigning of an inca,pacitation by wounds or sickness;

(c) the feigning of civilian,,non-combatant status; and (d) the feigning of protected status by the use of signs, embiems or uniforms of the United Nations or of neutral or other States not Prties to the conflict.

2. Ruses of war are not prohibited. Such ruses are acts which are intended to mislead an adversary or to induce him to act recklessly but which infringe no rule of international law applicable in armet conflict of an adversary with respect to protection under that law. The following are examples of such ruses: the use od camouflage, decoys, mock operations and misinformation.

Article 38

Recognized emblems

1. It is prohibited to make improper use of the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun or of other emblems, signs or signals provided for by the Conventions or by this Protocol. It is also prohibited to misuse deliberately in an armed conflict other internationally recognized protective emblems, si~s or signals, including the flag of truce, and the protective emblem of cultural property.

2. It is prohibited to make use of the distinctive emblem of the United Nations, except as authorized by the Organization.

Article 39

Emblems of nationality

1. It is prohibited to make use in an armed conflict of the flags or military emblems, insignia or uniforms of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict.

2. It is prohibited to make use of the flags or military emblems, insignia or uniforms of adverse Parties while engaging in attacks or in order to shield, favour, protect or impede military operations.

3. Nothing in this Article or in Article 37, paragraph t (d), shall affect the existing generally recognized rules of international law applicable to espionage or to the use of flags in the conduct of armet conflict at sea

Article 40

Quarter

It is prohibited to order that shall be no survivors, to threaten and adversary therewith or to conduct hostilities oa this basis.

Članak 41.

Zaštita neprijatelja koji je izvan bojnog ustroja ("hors de combat")

1. Nijedna osoba kojoj se priznaje ili kojoj, s obzirom na okolnosti, treba priznati da je izvan bojnog ustroja ne smije biti predmet napada.

2. Izvan bojnog ustroja je svaka osoba: a) koja je u vlasti protivnićke stranke,

b) koja jasno izražava namjeru da se preda, ili

c) koja je u besvjesnom stanju ili je na drugi na.čin onesposobljena zbog rana ili bolesti i prema tome nesposobna da se brani,

pod uvjetom da se u svakom takvom slućaju suzdr-zava od svakoga neprijateljskog ćina i da ne pokušava pobjeći.

3. Kad osobe koje imaju pravo na zaštitu kao ratni zarobtjenici padnu pod vlast protivničke stranke u neuobičajenim okolnostima borbe zbog kojih je onemogućena njihova evakuacija, kako je to predviđeno u odjeljku I. dijela III. Treće konvencije, one se moraju osloboditi i moraju se poduzeti sve mjere opreza da se osigura njihova sigurnost.

Članak 42.

Osobe koje se nalaze u zrakoplovima

1. Nijedna osoba koja padobranom iskaće iz zrakoplova u nevolji ne smije za vrijeme spuštanja biti predmet napada.

2. Pošto se spusti na područje koje kontrolira protivnlčka stranka, osobi koja je padobranom iskočila iz zrakoplova u nevolji omogućit će se da se preda, osim ako je očito da poduzima neprijateljski ćin.

3. Zračno-desantne postrojbe nisu zaštićene ovim člankom.

ODJELIAK II.

STATUS BORACA I RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA

Članak 43.

Oružane snage

1. Oružane snage stranke sukoba sastoje se od svih organiziranih oruža.nih snaga, naoruianih grupa i naoru˛a-I nih jedinica koje su pod zapovjedništvom odgovornim toj stranki za ponašanje svojih potćinjenih, ćak i kad tu stranku zastupa vlada iti vlast koju protivnićka stranka ne priznaje. Te oru˛ane snage moraju biti podvrgnute unutrašnjem disciplinskom sustavu koji, među ostalim, osigurava poštovanje pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjivih u oružanim sukobima.

2. Pripadnici orui.anih snaga stranke sukoba (osim sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja navedenog u Članku 33. Trećel konvencije) jesu borci, što znaći da imaju pravo izravno sudjelovati u neprijateljstvima.

3. Stranka sukoba koja u svoje oruiane snage ukljući paravojnu organizaciju ili naoru˛anu redarstvenu slu˛bu mora to notificirati ostalim strankama sukoba.

Članak 44.

Borci i ratni zarobljenici

1. Svi borci koji padnu pod vlast protivničke stranke su ratni zarobljenici.

2. Iako su svi borci du˛ni poštovati pravila međunarod nog prava primjenjiva u oru˛anim sukobima, kršenje tit pravila ne lišava borca njegova prava da se smatra borcen ili, ako padne pod vlast protivnićke stranke, njegova pravt

adverse~Party, of his rtght to be a prisoner of war, except as provided in paragraphs 3 and 4.

3. In order to promote the protection of the civilian population from the effects of hostilities, combatants are obliged to distinguish themselves from the civilian population while they are engaged in an attack or in a military operation preparatory to an attack. Recognizing, however, that there are situations in armed conflicts where, owing to the nature of the hostilities an armed combatant cannot so distinguish himself, he shall retain his status as a combatant, provided that, in such situations, he carries his arms openly:

(a) during each military engagement, and

(b) during such time as he is visible to the adversary while he is engaged in a military deployment preceding the launching of an attack in which he is to participate.

Acts which comply with the requirements of this paragraph shall not be considered as perfidious within the meaning of Article 37, paragraph 1 (c).

4. A combatant who falls into the power of an adverse Party while failing to meet the requirements set forth in the second sentence of paragraph 3 shall forfeit his right to be a prisoner of war, but he shall, nevertheless, be given protections equivalent in all respects to those accorded to prisoners of war by the Third Convention and by this Protocol. This protection includes protections equivalent to those accorded to prisoners of war by the Third Convention in the case where such a person is tried and punished for any offences he has committed.

5. Any combatant who falls into the power of an adverse Party while not engaged in an attack or in a military operation preporatory to an attack shall not forfeit his rights to be a combatant and a prisoner of war by virtue of his `prior activities.

6. This article is without prejudice to the right of any person to be a prisoner of war pursuant to Article 4 of the Third Convention.

7. This Article is not intended to change the generally accepted practice of States with respect to the wearing of the uniform by combatants assigned to the regular, uniformed armed units of a Party to the conflict.

8. In addition to the ca,tegories of persons mentioned in Article 13 of the First and Second Conventions, all members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as defined in Article 43 of this Protocol, shall be entitled Lo protection under those Conventions if they are wounded or sick or, in the case of the Second Convention, shipwrecked at sea or in other waters.

Article 45

Protection of persons who have taken part in hostilities 1. A person who takes part in hostilities and falls into the power of an adveser Party shall be presumed to be a prisoner of war, and therefore shall be protected by the Third Convention, if he claims the status of prisoner of war, or if he appears to be entitled to such status, or if the Party on which he depends claims such status on his behalf by notification to the detaining Power or to the Protecting Power. Should any doubt arise as to whether anv such person is entitled to the status of prisoner of war, he shall continue to have such status and, therefore, to be protected by the Third Convention and this Protocol until such time as his status has been determined by a competent tribunal.

2. If a person who has fallen into the power of an adverse Party is not held as a prisoner of war and is to be tned by that Party for an offence arising out of the hostiloies. he shall have the right to assert his entitlement to prisoner-of-war status before a judicial tribunal and to have that question adjudicated. Whenever possible under the applicable procedure, this adjudication shall occur bef ore

the trial for the offence. The representatives of the Protect.ing Power shall be entitled to attend the proceedings in which that question is adjudicated, unless, exceptionally, the proceedings are held in camera in the interest of $tate security. In such a case the detaining Power shall advise the Protecting Power accordingly.

3. Any person who has ta,ken part in hostilities, who is not entitled to prisoner-of-war status and who does not benefit from more favourable treatment in accordance with the Fourth Convention shall have the right at all times to the protection of Article 75 of this Protocol. In occupied territory, any such person, unless he is held as a spy, shall also be entitled, notwithstanding Article 5 of the Fourth Convention, to his rights of communication under that Convention.

Article 46 Spies

1. Notwithstanding any other provision of the Conventions or of this Protocol, any member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who falls into the power of an adverse Party while engaging in espionage shall not have the right to the status of prisoner of war and may be treated as a spy.

2. A member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who, on behalf of that Party and in territory controlled by an adverse Party, gathers or attempts to gather information shall not be considered as engaging in espionage if, while so acting, he is in the uniform of his armed forces.

3. A member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who is a resident of territory occupied by an adverse Party and who, on behalf of the Party on which he depends, gathers or attempts to gather information of military value within that territory shall not be considered as engaging in espionage unless he does so through an act of false pretences or deliberately in a Člandestine manner. Moreover, such a resident shall not lose his right to the status of prisoner of war and may not be treated as a spy unless he is captured while engaging in espionage.

4. A member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who is not a resident of territory occupied by an adverse Parčy and who has engaged in espionage in that territory shall not lose his right to the status of prisoner of war and may not be treated as a spy unless he is captured before he has rejoined the armed forces to which he belongs. I

Article 47 Mercenaries

1. A mercenary shall not have the right to be a combatant or a prisoner of war.

2. A mercenary is any person who:

(a) is specially recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict:

(b) does, in fact, take a direct part in the hostilities; (c) is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that Party;

(d) is neither a national of a Party to the conflict nor a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict; (e) is not a member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, and

(f) has not been sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces.

PART IV CIVILIAN POPULATION

SECTION I

GENERAL PROTECTION AGA1NST EFFECTS OF HOSTILITIES

CHAPTER I

BASIC R ULE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION

Article 48 Basic rule

In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population and civilian objects, the Parties to the conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants and between civilian objects and military objectives and accordingly shall direct their operations only against military objectives.

Article 49

Definition of attacks and scope of application

1. "Attacks" means acts of violence against the adversary, whether in offence or in defence.

2. The provisions of this Protocol with respect to attacks apply to all attacks in whatever territory conducted, including the national territory belonging to a Party to the conflict but under the control of an adverse Party.

3. Tlie provisions of this Section apply to any land, air or sea warfare which may affect the civilian population, individual civilians or civilian objects on land. They further apply to alI attacks from the sea or from the air against objectives on land but do not otherwise affect the rules of international law applica.ble in armed conflict at sea or in the air.

4. The provisions of this Section are additional to the rules concerning humanitarian protection contained in the Fourth Convention, particularly in Part II thereof, and in other international agreements binding upon the High Contracting Parties, as well as to other rules of international law relating to the protection of civilians and civilian objects on land, at sea or in the air against the effects of hostilities.

CHAPTER II

CIVILL4NS AND CIVILIAN POPULATION

Article 50

Definition of civilians and civilian population

1. A civilian is any person who does not belong to one of the categories of persons referred to in Article 4 A (1 ), (2), (3) and (6) of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of this Protocol. In case of doubt whether a person is a civilian, that person shall be considered to be a civilian.

2. The civilian population comprises all persons who are civilians.

3. The presence within the civilian population of individuals who do not come within the definition of civilians does not deprive the population of its civilian character

Article 51

Protection of the civilian population

1. The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection against dangers arising from military operations. To give effect to this protection. the following rules, which are additional to other applicable rules of international law, shall be observed in all circumstances.

2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of

violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited.

3. Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this Section, unless and for such time as they take a direc! part in hostilities.

4. Indiscriminate attacks are prohibited. Indiscriminate attacks are:

(a) those which are not directed at a specific military objective;

(b) those which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific military objective; or (c) those which employ a method or means of combat

the effects of which cannot be limited as required by this Protocol;

and consequently, in each such case, are of a nature to strike military objectives and civilians or civilian objects without distinction.

5. Among others, the following types of attacks are to be considered as indiscriminate:

(a) an attack by bombardment by any methods or means which treats as a single military objective a number of clearly separated and distinct military objectives located in a city, town, village or other area containing a similar concentration of civilians or civilian objects; and

(b) an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civiVians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.

6. Attacks against the civilian population or civilians by way of reprisals are prohibited.

7. The presence or movements of the civilian population or individual civilians shall not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations, in particular in attempts to shield military objectives from attacks or to shield, favour or impede military op~rations. The Parties to the conflict shall not direct the movement of the civilian population or individual civilians in order to attempt to shield mimlitary objectives from attacks or to shield military operations

8. Any violation of these prohibitions shall not release the Parties to the conflict from their legal obligations with respect to the civilian population and civilians, including the obligation to take the precautionary measures provided for in Article 57.

CHA PTER lll CIVILIAN OBJECTS

Article 52

General protection of civilian objects

1. Civilian objects shall not be the object of attack or of reprisals. Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives as defined in paragraph 2.

2. Attacks shall be limited stnctly to military objectives. In so far as objects are concerned, military objectives are limited to those objects whith by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action and H~hose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage

3. In case of doubt whether an object which is normally dedicated to civilian purposes, such as a place of worship, a house or other dwelling or a school, is being used to make an effective contribution to militar-~~ action, it shall be presumed not to be so used

Article 53

Protection of cuitural objects and of places of worship Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 14 May 1954, and of other relevant international instruments, it is prohibited:

(a) to commit any acts of hostility directed against the historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples;

(b) to use such objects in support of the military effort; (c) to make such objects the object of reprisals.

Article 54

Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civiiian population

1. Starvation of civilians as a method of warfare is prohibited.

2. It is prohibited to attack, destroy, iemove or render useless objects indispensable to the survival of the civ~lian population, such as foodstuffs, agricultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works, for the specific purpose of denying them for their sustenance value to the civilian population or to the adverse Party, whatever the motive, whether in order to starve out civilians, to cause them to move away, on for any other motive.

3. The prohibitions in paragraph 2 shall not apply to such of the objects covered by it as are used by an adverse Party:

(a) as sustenance solely for the members of its armed forces; or

b) if not as sustenance, then in direct support of military action, provided, however, that in no event shall actions against these objects be taken which may be expected to leave the civilian population with such inadequate food or water as to cause its starvation or force its movement.

4. These object shall not be made the object of reprisals.

5. In recognition of the vital requirements of any Party to the conflict in the defence of its national territory against invasion, derogation from the prohibitions contained in paragraph 2 may be made by a Party to the conflict within such territory under its own control where required by imperative military necessity.

Article 55

Protection of the natural environment

1. Care shall be taken in warfere to protect the natural environment against widespread, long-term and severe damage. This protection includes a prohibition of the use of methods or means of warfare which are intended or may be expected to cause such damage to the natural environment and there by to prejudice the health or survival of the population.

2. Attacks against the natural environment by way of reprisals are prohibited.

Article 56

Protection of works and installations containing dangerousforces 1. Works or installations containing dangerous forces.

namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrical generating stations, shall not be made the object of attack, even where these objects are military objectives, if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilan population. Other military objectives-located at or in the vicinity of these works or installati

ons shall not be made the object of attack if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces from the works or installations and consequent severe losses among the civilian population.

2. The special protection against attack provided by paragraph 1 shall cease:

(a) for a dam or a dyke only if it is used for other than its normal function and in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support;

(b) for a nuclear electrical generating station only if it provides electric power in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support;

(c) for other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations only if they are used in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support.

3. In all cases, the civilian population and individual civilians shall remain entitled to all the protection accorded them by international law, including the protection of the precautionary measures provided for in Article 57. If the protection ceases and any of the works, installations or military objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 is attacked, all practical precautions shall be taken to avoid the release of the dangerous forces.

4. It is prohibited to make any of the works, installatiohs or military objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 the object of reprisals.

5. The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to avoid locating any military objectives in the vicinity of the works or installations mentioned in paragraph 1. Nevertheless, installations erected for the sole purpose of defending the protected works or instatlations from attack are permissible and shall not themselves be made the object qf attack, provided that they are not used in hostilities except for defensive actions necessary to respond to attacks against the protected works or installations and that their armament is limited to weapons capable only of repelling hostile action against the protected works or installations.

6. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict are urged to conclude further agreements among themselves to provide additional protection for objects containing dangerous forces.

7. In order to facilitate the identification of the objects protected by this Article, the Parties to the conflict may mark them with a special sign consisting of a group of three bright orange circles placed on the same axis, as specified in Article 16 of Annex I to this Protocol. The absence of such marking in no way relieves any Party to the conflict of its obligations under this Article.

CHAPTER lV

PRECA UTIONAR Y MEASURES

Article 57 Precautions in attack

1. In the conduct of military operations, constant care shall be taken to spare the ciuilian population, civilians and civilian objects.

2. With respect to attacks, the following precautions shall be taken:

(a) those who plan or decide upon an attack shall

(i) do everything feasible to verify that the objectives tc be attacked are neither civilians nor civilian objects and

No prisoner of war may at any time be sent to, or detained in areas where he may be exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to render certain points of areas immune from military operations.

Prisoners of war shall have shelters againts air bombardment and other haza.rds of war, to have extent as the local civilian population. With the exception of those engaged in the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards, they may enter such shelters ss soon as possible after the giving of the alarm. Any other protective measure taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them.

Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of prisoner of war camps.

Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner of war camps shall be indicated in the day-time by the letters PW or PG, placed so as tp be clearly visible from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. Only prisoner of war camps shall be marked as such.

Article 24

Transit or screening camps of a permanent kind shall be fitted out under conditions similar to those described in the present Section, and the prisoners therein shall have the same treatment as in other camps.

CHAPTER ll

QUARTERS, FOOD AND CLOTHING OF PRISONERS OF WAR

Article 25

Prisoners of war shall be quartered under conditions as favourable as those for the forces of the Detaining Power who are billeted in the same area. The said conditions shall make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no case be prejudicial to their health.

The foregiong provisions shall apply in particular to the dormitories of prisoners of war as regards both total surface and minimum cubic space, and the general installations, bedding and blankets.

The premises provided for the use of prisoners of war individually or collectively, shall be entirely protected from dampness and adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. All precautions must be taken against the danger of fire.

In any camps in which women prisoners of war, as well as men, are accommodated, separate dormitories shall be provided for them.

Article 26

The basic daily food rations shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep prisoners of war in good health and to prevent loss of weight or the development of nutritional deficiencies Account shall also be taken of.the habitual diet of the prisoners

The Detaining Power supply prisoners of war who work with such additional rations as are necessary for the labour on which they are employed.

Suf'ficient drinking water shall be supplied to prisoners of war The use of tobacco shall be permitted. Prisoners of' war shall, as far as possible, be associated

with the preparation of their meals: they may be employed for that purpose in the kitchens. Furthermore, they shall be

are not subject to special protection but are military objectives within the meaning of paragraph 2 of Article 52 and that it is not prohibited by the provisions of this Protocol to attack them;

(ii) take all feasible preca.utions in the choice of means and methods of attack with a view to avoiding, and in any event to minimizing, incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects;

(iii) refrain from deciding to launch any attack which may be expected to ca,use incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct milita,ry advantage anticipated;

(b) an attack shall be canceiled or suspended if it becomes apparent that the objective is not a military one or is subject to special protection or that the attack may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated;

(c) effective advance warning shatl be given of attacks which may affect the civilian population, unless circumstances do not permit.

3. When a choice is possible between several military objectives for obtaining a similar military advantage, the objective to be selected shall be that the attack on which may be expected to cause the least danger to civilian lives and to civiIian objects.

4. In the conduct of military operations at sea or in the air, each Party to the conflict shall, in conformity with its rights and duties under the rules of international law applica.ble in armed conflict, take all reasonable precautions to avoid losses of civilian lives and damage to civilian objects.

5. No provision of this Article may be construed as authorizing any attacks against the civilian population, civilians or civilian objects.

Article 58

Precautions against the effects of attacks

The Parties to the conflict shall, to the maximum extent feasible:

(a) without prejudice to Article 49 of the Fourth Convention, endeavour to remove the civilian population, individual civilians and civilian objects under their control from the vicinity of military objectives;

(b) avoid locating military objectives within or near densely populated areas;

(c) take the other necessary precautions to protect the civilian population, individual civilians and civilian objects under their control against the dangers resulting from military operations.

CHAPTER V

LOCALITIES AND ZONES UNDER SPECIAL PROTECTION

Article 59 Non-defended localities

1. It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to attack, by any means whatsoever, non-defended localities.

2. The appropriate authorities of a Party to the conflict may declare as a non-defended locality any inhabited place near or in a zone where armed forces are in contact which is open for occupation by an adverse Party. Such a locality shall fulfil the following conditions:

(a) all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile,military equipment must have been evacuated;

(b) no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;

(c) no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; and "

(d) no activities in support of military operations shall be undertaken.

3. The presence, in this locality, of persons specially protected under the Conventions and this Protocol, and of police forces retained for the sole purpose of maintaining law and order, is not contrary to the conditions laid down in paragraph 2.

4. The declaration made under paragraph 2 shall be addressed to the adverse Party and shall define and describe, as precisely as posSible, the limits of the non-defended loc~lity. The Party to the conflict to which the declaration is addressed shall acknowledge its receipt and shall treat the loca.lity as a non-defended locality unless the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 are not in fact fulfilled, in which event it shall immediately so inform the Party making the declaration. Even if the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 are not fulfilled, the locality shall continue to enjoy the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other rules of international law applicable in armed conflict.

5. The Parties to the conflict may agree on the establishment of non-defended localities even if such localities do not fulfil the conditions laid down in paragraph 2. The agreement should define and describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the non-defended locality; if necessary, it may lay down the methods of supervision.

6. The Party which is in control of a locality governed by such an agreement shalI mark it, so ger as possible, by such signs as may be agreed upon with the other Party, which shall be displayed where they are clearly visible, especially on its perimeter and limits and on highways.

7. A locaiity loses its status as a non-defended locality when it ceases to fulfil the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 or in the agreement referred to in paragr9.ph 5. In such an eventuality, the locality shall continue to enjoy the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other rules of international law applicable in armed conflict.

Article 60

Demilitarized zones

1. It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to extend their military operations to zones on which they have conferred by agreement the status of demilitarized zone, if such extension is contrary to the terms of this agreement.

2. The agreement shall be an express agreement, may be concluded verbally or in writing, either directly or through a Protecting Power or any impartial humanitarian organiza.tion, and may consist of reciprocal and concordant declarations. The agreement may be concluded in peacetime, as well as after the outbreak of hostilities, and should define and describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the demilitarized zone and, if necessary, lay dowm the methods of supervision.

3. The subject of such an agreement shall normally be any zone which fulfils the following conditions

(a) all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated:

(b) no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;

(c) no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; and

(d) any aćtivity linked to the military effort must have ceased.

~ The Parties to the conflict shall agree upon the interpretation to be given to the condition laid down in sub-paragraph (d) and upon persons to be admitted to the demilitarized zone other than those mentioned in paragraph 4,

4. The presence, in this zone, of persons specially protected under the Conventions and this Protocol, and of police forces retained for the sole purpose of maintaining law and order, is not contrary to the conditions laid down in paragraph 3.

5. The Party which is in control of such a zone shall mark it, so far as possible, by such signs as may be agreed upon with the other Party, which shall be displayed where they are clearly visible, especially on its perimeter and limits and on highways.

. 8. If the fighting draws near to a demilitarized zone, and if the Parties to the conflict have so agreed, none of them may use the zone for purposes related to the conduct of military operations or unilaterally revoke its status.

7. If one of the Parties to the conflict commits a material breach of the provisions of paragraphs 3 or 6, the other Party shall be released from its obligations under the agreement conferring upon the zone the status of demilitarized zone. In such an eventuality, the zone loses its status but shall continue to snjoy the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other rules of international law applica,ble in armed conflict.

CHAPTER VI CIVIL DEFENCE

Article 61 Definitions and scope

For the purposes of this Protocol:

(a) "civil defence" means the performance of some or all of the undermentioned humanitarian tasks intended to protect the civilian population against the dangers, and to help it to recover from the immediate effects, of hostilities or disasters and also to provide the conditions necessary for its survival. These tasks are:

(i) warning; (ii) evacuation;

(iii) management of shelters;

(iv) management of blackout measures; (v) rescue;

(vi) medical services, including first aid, and religious assistance;

(vii) fire-fighting;

(viii) detection and marking of danger areas;

(ix) decontamination and similar protective measures; (x) provision of emergency accommodation and supplies;

(xi) emergency assistance in the restoration and maintenance of order in distressed areas;

(xii) emergency repair of indispensable public utilities; (xiii) emergency disposal of the dead;

(xiv) assistance in the preservation of objects essential for smvival;

(xv) complementary activities necessary to carry out any of the tasks mentioned above, including, but not limited to, planing and organization;

(b) .civil defence organizations. means those establishments and other units which are organized or authorized by the competent authorities of a Party to the conflict to perform any of the tasks mentioned under sub-paragraph (a), and which are assigned and devoted exclusively to such tasks:

(c) "personnel" of civil defence organizations means those persons assigned by a Party to the conflict exclusively to the performance of the tasks mentioned under sub-paragraph (a), including personnel assigned by the dompetent authority of that Party exclusively to the administration of these organizations;

(d) "materiei" of civil defence organiza.tions means equipment, supplies and transports used by these organizations for the performance of the tasks mentioned under sub-paragraph (a).

Article 62 General protection

1. Civilian civil defence organizations and their personnel shall be respected and protected, subject to the provisions of this Protocol, particularly the provisions of this Section. They shall be entitled to perform their civil defence tasks except in case of imperative military necessity.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to civilians who, although not members of civilian civil defence organizations, respond to an appeal from the competent authorities and perform civil defence tasks under their control.

3. Building and materiel used for civil defence purposes and shelters provided for the civilian population are covered by Article 52. Objects used for civil defence purposes may not be destroyed or diverted from their proper use except by the Party to which they belong.

Article 63

Civil defence in occupied territories

1. In occupied territories, civilian civil defence organizations shall receive from the authorities the facilities necessary for the performance of their tasks. In na circumstances shall their personnel be compelled to perform activites which would interfere with the proper performance of these tasks. The Occupying Power shall not change the structure or personnel of such organizations in any way which might jeopardize the efficient performance of their mission. These organizations shall not be required to give priority to the nationals or interests of that Power.

2. The Occupying Power shall not compel, coerce or induce civilian civil defence organizations to perform their tasks in any manner prejudicial to the interests of the civilian population.

3. The Occupying Power may disarm civil defence personnel for reasons of security.

4. The Occupying Power shall neither divert from their proper use nor requisition buildings or materiel belonging to or used by civil defence organizations if such diversion or requisition would be harmful to the civilian population

5. Provided that the general rule in paragraph 4 continues to be observed, the Occupying Power may requisition or diveri these resources, subject to the following particular conditions:

(a) that Lhe buildings or materiel are necessar-y for other needs of the civilian population; and

(b) that the requisition or diversion continues only while such necessity exists.

6. The Occupying Power shall neither divert nor requisition shelters provided for the use of the civilian population or needed by such population.

c) "osoblje" organizacija civilne z~.štite znaći osobe kojima je stranka sukoba namijenila iskljućivo obavljanje zadataka nabrojenih u točki a), ukljućujući osoblje kojemu je stranka sukoba namijenila isključivo upravljanje tim organizacijama;

d) .materijal" organizacija civilne zaštite znači opremu, zalihe i prijevozna sredstva što ih te organizacije upotrebljavaju za obavljanje zadataka nabrojanih u točki a).

Članak 62.

Opća zaštita

1. Civilne organizacije civilne zaštite i njihovo osoblje poštovat će se i štititi sukladno odredbama ovoga Protokola i osobito odredbama ovog odjeljka. One imaju pravo obavljati svoje zadatke civilne zaštite, osim u slućaju imperativne vojne potrebe.

2. Odredbe stavka 1. također se primjenjuju na civile koji se, iako ne pripadaju ot`ganizacijama civilne za,štite, odazovu molbi nadleinih vlasti i pod njihovom kontrolom obavljaju zadatke civilne zaštite.

3. Na zgrade i materijal što se upotrebljavaju u svrhe civilne zaštite i na skloništa namijenjena civilnom stanovništvu primjenjuje se Članak 52. Objekti koji se upotrebljavaju u svrhe civilne zaštite ne mogu se uništiti niti im se mo˛e promijeniti namjena,,osim ako to ućini stranka kojoj pripadaju.

Članak 63.

Civilna zaštita na okupiranim područjima

1. Na okupiranim područjima vlasti će civilnim organizacijama civilne zaštite pru˛iti olakšice potrebne za. obavljanje njihovih zadataka. Ni u kojim okolnostima njihovo se osoblje ne smije prisiliti na aktivnosti koje bi ometale primjereno obavljanje tih zadataka. Okupacijska sila ne mo˛e mijenjati ustroj ili osoblje takvih organizacija na bilo kakav način koji bi ugrozio djelotvorno obavljanje njihove misije. Od tih se organizacija neće zahtijevati da daju prednost dr˛.avljanima ili interesima te sile.

2. Okupacijska sila ne smije natjerati, prisiliti ili navesti civilne organizacije civilne zaštite da obavljaju svoje zadatke na bilo kakav način koji bi štetio interesima civilnog stanovništva.

3. Okupacijska sila moie razorui,ati osoblje civilne zaštite iz sigurnosnih razloga.

a. Okupacijska sila ne smije odvratiti od primjerene upotrebe niti rekvirirati zgrade ili materijal što pripadaju organizacijama civilne zaštite ili što ih one upotrebljavaju ako bi takvo odvraćanje ili takva rekvizicija štetila civilnom stanovništvu

5 Okupacijska sila mo˛e rekvirirati ta sredstva ili im promijeniti namjenu pod uvjetom da se i dalje poštuje opće' pravilo iz stavka 4 i pod ovim posebnim uvjetima:

a) da su zgrade i materijal nužni za druge potrebe civilnog stanovništva, i

b) da rekvizicija ili promjena namjene traje samo dok takva potreba postoji.

6 Okupacijska sila ne moLe promijeniti namjenu niti rekvirirati skloništa koja su stavljena na raspolaganje civilnom stanovništvu ili su nužna za potrebe toga stanovništva

Article 66

Identification

1. Each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that its civil defence organizations, their personnel, buildings and materiel, are identifiable while they are exciusively devoted to the performance of civil defence tasks. Shelters provided for the civilian population should be similarly identifiable.

2. Each Party to the conflict shall also endeavour to adopt and implement methods and procedures which will make it possible to recognize civilian shelters as well as civil defence personnel, buildings and meteriel on which Ghe international distinotive sing of civil defence is displayed.

3. In occupied territories and in areas where fighting is taking place or is likely to take place, civilian civil defence personnel should be recognizable by the international distinctive sing of civil defence and by an identity card certifying their status.

4. The international distinctive sign of civil defence is an equilateral blue triangle on an orange ground when used for the protection of civil defence organizations, their personnel, buildings and materiel and for civilian shelters.

5. In addition to the distinctive sign, Parties to the conflict may agree upon the use of distinctive signals for civil defence identification purposes.

6. The application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 4 is governed by Chapter V of Annex I to this Protocol. 7. In time of peace, the sign described in paragraph 4

may, with the consent of the compeEent national authorities, be used for civil defence identification purposes.

8. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall take the measures necessary to supervise the display of the international distinctive sign of civil defence and to prevent and repress any misuse thereof.

9. The identification of civil defence medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical transports is also governed by Article 18.

Article 67

Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to civil defence organizations ;

1. Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to civil defence organizations shall be respected and protectad, provided that:

(a) such personnel and such units are permanently assigned and exclusively devoted to the performance of any of the tasks mentioned in Article 61;

(b) if so assigned, such personnel do not perform any other military duties during the conflict;

(c) such personnel are clearly distinguishable from the other members of the armed forces by prominently displaying the international distinctive sign of civil defence, which shall be as large as appropriate, and such personnel are provided with the identity card reffered to in Chapter V of Annex I to this Protocol certifying their status;

(d) such personnel and such units are equipped only with light individual weapons for the purpose of maintaining order or for selfdefence. The provisions of Article 65, paragraph 3 shall also apply in this case;

(e) such personnel do not participate directly in hostilities, and do not commit, or are not used to commit, outside their civil detence tasks, acts harmful to the adverse Party;

(f) such personnel and such units perform their civil defence tasks only within the national territory of their PartY. .

The non-observance of the conditions stated in (eJabove by any members of the armed forces who is bound by the conditions prescribed in (a) and (b) above is prohibited.

2. Military personnel serving within civil defence organizations shall, if they fall into the power of an adverse Party, be prisoners of war. In occupied terntory they may, but only in the interest of the civilian population of that territory, be employed on civil defence tasks in so far as the need arises, provided however that, if such work is dangerous, they volunteer for such tasks.

3. The buildings and major items of equipment and transports of military units assigned to civil defence organizations shall be clearly marked with the international distinctive sign of civil defence. This distinctive sign shall be as large as appropriate.

4. The materiel and buildings of military units permanently assigned to civil defence organizations and exclusively devoted to the performance of civil defence tasks shall, if they fall into the hands of an adverse Party, remain subject to the laws of war. They may not be diverted from their civil defence purpose so long as they are required for the performance of civil defence tasks, except in case of imperative military necessity, unless previous arrangements have been made for adequate provision for the needs of the civilian population.

SEGTION II

RELIEF IN FAVOUR OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATION

Article 68 FYeld of application

The provisions of this Section apply to the civilian population as defined in this Protocol and are supplementary to Articles 23, 55, 59, 60, 61 and 62 and other relevant provisions of the Fourth Convention.

Article 69

Basic needs in occupied territories

1. In addition to the duties specified in Article 55 of the Fourth Convention concerning food and medical supplies, the Occupying Power shall, to the fullest extent of the means available to it and without any adverse distinction, also ensure the provision of clothing, bedding, means of shelter, other supplies essential to the survival of the civilian population of the occupied territory and objects necessary for religious worship.

2. Relief actions for the benefit of the civilian population of occupied territories are governed by Articles 59, 60, 61, 62, 108, 109, 110 and I11 of the Fourth Convention, and by Article 71 of this Protocol, and shall be implemented without delay.

Article 70

Relief actions

1. If the civilian population of any territory under the control of a Party to the conflict, other than occupied territory, is not adequately provided with the supplies mentioned in Article 69, relief actions which are humanitarian an impartial in character and conducted without any adverse distinction shall be undertaken, subject to the agreement of the Parties concerned in such relief actions. Offers of such relief shall not be regarded as interference in the armed conflict or as unfriendly acts. In the distribution of relief consignments, priority shall be given to those persons, such as children, expectant mothers, maternity cases and

nursing mothers, who under the Fourth Convention or under this Protocol, are to be accorded privileged treatment or spećial protection. .

2. The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party shall allow and facilitate rapid and unimpeded passage of all relief consignments, equipment and personnel provided in accordance with this Section, even if such assistance is destined for the civilian population of the adverse Party.

3. The Parties to the conflict and each High contraCting Party which allow the passage of relief consignments, equipment and personnel in accordance with paragraph 2:

(a) shall have the right to perscribe the technical arrangements, including search, under which such passage is permitted;

(b) may make such permission conditional on the distribution of this assistance being made under the local supervision of a Protecting Power;

(c) shall, in no way whatsoever, divert relief consignments from the purpose for which they are intended nor delay their forwarding, except in cases of urgent necessity in the interest of the civilian population concerned.

4. The Parties to the conflict shall protect relief consignments and facilitate their rapid distribution.

5. The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party concerned shall encourage and facilitate effective international co-ordination of the relief actions referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 71

Personnel participating in relief actions

1. Where necessary, relief personnel may form part of the assistence provided in any relief action, in particular for the transportation and distribution of relief consignments; the participation of such personnel shall be subject to the approval of the Party in whose territory they will carry out their duties.

2. Such personnel shall be respected and protected.

3. Each Party in receipt of relief consignments shall, to the fullest extent practicable, assist the relief personnel referred to in paragraph 1 in carrying out their relief mission. Only in case of imperative military necessity may the activities of the relief personnel be limited or their movements temporarily restricted.

4. Under no circumstances may relief personnel exceed the terms of their mission under this Protocol. In particular they shall take account of the security requirements of the Party in whose territory they are carrying out their duties. The mission of any of the personnel who do not respect these conditions may be terminated.

SECTION III

TREATMENT OF PERSONS IN THE POWER OF A PARTY TO THE CONFLICT

CHAPTER l

FIELD OF APPLICATION AND PROTECTION OF PERSONS AND OBJECTS

Article 72 Filed of application

The provisions of this Section are additional to the rules concerning humanitarian protection of civilians and civilian objects in the power of a Party to the conflict contained in the Fourth Convention, particularly Parts I and III ihereof, as well as to other applicable rules of' internationaV law relating to the protection of fundamental human rights durgin international armed conflict.

Article 73

R,efugees and stateless persons

Persons who, before the beginning of hostilities,, were considered as stateless persons or refugees under the relevant international instruments accepted by the Parties concerned or under the national legislation of the State of refuge or State of residence shall be protected persons within the meaning of Parts I and III of the Fourth Convention, in all circumstances and without any adverse distinction. Article 74

Reunion of dispersed families

The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall facilitate in every possible way the reunion of families dispersed as a result of armed conflicts and shall encourage in particular the work of the humanitarian organizatiohs engaged in this task in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol and in conformity with their respective security regulations.

Article 75

1. Fundamental guarantees

1. In so far as they are affected by a situation referred to in Article 1 of this Protocol, persons who are in the power of a Party to the conflict and who do not benefit from more favourable treatment under the Conventions or under this Protocol shall be treated humanely in all circumstances and shall enjoy, as a minimum, the protection provided by this Article without any adverse distinction based upon race, colour, sex, Ianguage, religion or belief, political or other opinion, national or social origin, wealth, birth or other status, or on any other similar criteria. Each Party shall respect the person, honour, convictions and religious practices of all such persons. ,

2. The following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever, whether committed by civilian or by military agents:

(a) violence to the life, health, or physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular:

(i) murder;

(ii) torture of all kinds, whether physical or mental; (iii) corporal punishment; and

(iv) mutilation;

(b) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading tretment, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault;

(c) the taking of hostages;

(d) collective punishments; and

(e) threats to commit any of the foregoing acts.

3. Any person arrested, detained or interned for actions related to the armed conflict shall be informed pro- . mptly, in a language he understands, of the reasons why these measures have been taken. Except in cases of arrest or detention for penal offences, such persons shall be released with the minimum delay possible and in any event as soon as the corcumstances justifying the arrest, detentlon or internment have ceased to exist.

4. No sentence may be passed and no penalty may be executed on a person found guilty of a penal offence related to the armed conflict except pursuant to a conviction pronounced by an impartial and regularly constituted court respecting the generally recognized principles of regular judicial procedure" which include the following:

(aj the procedure shall provide for an accused to be informed without delay of the particulars of the offence alleged against him and shall afford the accused before and during his trial all necessary rights and means of defence;

(b) no one shall be convicted of an offence except on the basis of individual penal responsibility;

(c) no one shall be accused or convicted of a cr~ninal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under the national or international law to which he was subject at the time when it was committed; nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time when th~ criminal offence was committed; if, after the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby;

(d) anyone charged with an offence is presumed innocent until proved gutily according to law;

(e) anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to be tried in his presence;

(f) no one shall be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt;

(g) anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(h) no one shall be prosecuted or punished by the same Party for an offence in respect of which a final judgement acquitting or convicting that person has been previously pronounced under the same law and judicial procedure;

(i) anyone prosecuted for an offence shall have the right to have the judgement pronounced publicly; and

(j) a convicted person shall be advised on conviction of his judicial and other remedies and of the time-limit within which they may be exercised.

5. Women whose liberty has been restricted for reasons related to the armed conflict shall be held in quarters separated from men's quarters. They shall be under the immediate supervision of women. Nevertheless, in cases where families are detained or interned, they shall, whenever possible, be held in the same place and accommodated as family units.

6. Persons who are arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the armed conflict shall enjoy the protection provided by this Article until their final release, repatriation or re-establishment, even after the end of the armed conflict.

7. In order to avoid any doubt concerning the prosecution and trial of persons accused of war crimes or crimes against humanity, the following principles shall apply:

(a) persons who are accused of such crimes should be submitted for the purpose of prosecution and trial in accordance with the applicable rules of international law; and

(b) any such persons who do not benefit from more favourable treatment under the Conventions or this Protocol shall be accorded the treatment provided by this Article, whether or not the crimes of which they are accused constitute grave breaches of the Conventions or of this Protocol.

8, No provision of this Article may be construed as limiting or infringing any other more favourable provisions granting greater protection, under any applicable rules of international law, to persons covered by paragraph 1.

CHAPTER Il

MEASURES IN FAVOUR OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN

Article 76 Protection of women

1. Women shall be the object of special respect and shall be protected in particular against rape, forced prostitution and any other form of indecent assault.

2. Pregnant women and mothers having dependent infants who are arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the armed conflict, shall have their cases considered with the utmost priority . ,

3. To the maximum extent feasible, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to avoid the pronouncement of the death penalty on pregnant women or mothers having dependent infants, for an offence related to the armed conflict. The death penalty for such offences shall not be executed on such women.

Article 77 Protedion of children

1. Children shall be the object of special respect and shall be protected againSt any form of indecent assault. The Parties to the conflict shall provide them with the care and aid they require, whether because of their age or for any other reason.

2. The Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible measures in other that children who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities and, in particular, they shall refrain from recruiting theril into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.

3. If, in exceptional cases, despite the provisions of paragraph 2, children who have not attained the age of fifteen years take a direct part in hostilities and fall into the power of an adverse Party, they shall continue to benefit from the special protection accorded by this Article, whether or not they are prisoners of war.

4. If arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the armed conflict, children shall be held in quarters separate from the quarters of adults, except where families are accommodated as family units as provided in Article 75, paragraph 5.

5. The death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict shall not be executed on persons who had not attained the age of eighteen years at the time the offence was committed.

Article 78

Evacuation of children

1. No Party to the conflict shall arrange for the evacuation of children, other than its own nationals, to a foreign country except for a temporary evacuation where compelling reasons of the health or medical treatment of the children or, except in occupied territory, their safety, so require. Where the parents or legal guardians can be found, their written consent to such evacuation is required. If these persons cannot be found, the written consent to such evacuation of the persons who by law or custom are primarily responsible for the care of the children is required. Any such evacuation shall be supervised by the Protecting Power in agreement with the Parties concerned, namely, the Party arranging for the evacuation, the Party receiving the children and any Parties whose nationals are being evacuated. In each case, all Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible precautions to avoid endangering the evacuation.

2. Whenever an evacuation occurs pursuant to paragraph i, each child's education, includiitg his religious and moral education as his parents desire, shall be provided while he is away with the greatest possible continuity.

3. With a view to facilitating the return to their families and country of children evacuated pursuant to this Article, the authorities of the Party arranging for the evacuation and, as appropriate, the authorities of the receiving countr-y shall establish for each child a card with photographs,

which they shall send to the Central Tracing Agency of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Each ca.rd shall bear, whenever possible, and whenever it involves no risk of harm to the child, the following information: '

(a) surname(s) of the child; (b) the child's first name(s); (c) the child's sex;

(d) the place and date of birth (or, if that date is not known, the approximate age);

(e) the father's full name;

(f) the mother's full name and her maiden name; (g) the child's next-of-kin;

(h) the child's nationality;

(i) the child's native language, and any other languages he speaks:

(j) the address of the child's family;

(k) any identification number for the child; (I) the child's state of health;

(m) the child's blood group;

(n) any distinguishing features;

(o) the date on which and the place where the child was found;

(p) the date on which and the place from which the child left the country;

(q) the child's religion, if any;

(r) the child's present address in the receiving country; (s) should the child die before his return, the date, place and circumstances of death and place of interment.

CHAPTER 111 JOURNALISTS

Article 79

Measures of protection for journalists

1. Journalists engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed conflict shall be considered as civilians within the meaning of Article 50, paragraph 1.

2. They shall be protected as such under the Conventiqns and this Protocol, provided that they take no action adversely affecting their status as civilians, and without prejudice to the right of war correspondents accredited to the armed forces to the status provided for in Article 4 A (4) of the Third Convention.

3. They may obtain an identity card similar to the model in Annex II of this Protocol. This card, which shall be issued by the government of the State of which the journalist is a national or in whose territory he resides or in which the news medium employing him is located, shall attest to his status as a journalist.

PART V

EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTIONS AND OF THIS PROTOCOL SEC1'ION I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 80 Measures for execution

The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall without delay take all necessary measures for the execution of their obtigations under the Conventions and this Protocol.

2. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall give orders and instructions to ensure observance of the Conventions and this Protocol, and shall supervise their execution.

Article 81

Activities of the Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations 1. The Parties to the conflict shall grant to the Interna

tional Committee of the Red Cross all facilities within their power so as to enable it to ca.rry out the humanitarian functions assigned to it by the Conventions and this Protocol in order to ensure protection and assistance to the victims of conflicts; the International Committee of the Red Cross may also ca.rry out any other humanitarian activities in favour of these victims, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned.

2. The Parties to the conflict shall grant to their respective Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) organizations the facilities necessary for carrying out their humanitarian activities in favour of the victims of the conflict, in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol and the fundamental principles of the Red Cross as formulated by the International Conferences of the Red Cross.

3. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall facilitate in every possible way the assistance which Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) organizations and the League of Red Cross Societies extend to the victims of conflicts in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol and with the fundamental principles of the Red Cross as formulated by the International Conferences of the Red Cross.

4. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall, as far as possible, make facilities similar to those mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 available to the other humanitarian organizations referred to in the Conventions and this Protocol which are duly authorized by the respective Parties to the conflict and which perform their humanitarian activities in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol.

Article 82

Legal advisers in armed forces

The High Contracting Parties at all times, and the Parties to the conflict in time of armed conflict, shall ensure that legal advisers are available, when necessary, to advise military commanders at the appropriate level on the application of the Conventions and this Protocol and on the appropriate instruction to be given to the arLned forces on this subject.

Article 83

Dissemination

1 The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Conventions and this Protocol as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction and to encourage the study thereof by the civilian population, so that those instruments may become known to the armed forces and to the civilian population.

2. Any military or civilian authorities who, in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities in respect of the application of the Conventions and this Protocol shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof.

Article 84

Rutes of application

The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another, as soon as possible, through the depositary and. as appropriate, through the Protecting Powers, their official translations of the Protocol, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure its application.

Article 81

Activities of the Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations 1. The Parties to the conflict shall grant to the Interna

tional Committee of the Red Cross all facilities within their power so as to enable it to ca.rry out the humanitarian functions assigned to it by the Conventions and this Protocol in order to ensure protection and assistance to the victims of conflicts; the International Committee of the Red Cross may also ca.rry out any other humanitarian activities in favour of these victims, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned.

2. The Parties to the conflict shall grant to their respective Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) organizations the facilities necessary for carrying out their humanitarian activities in favour of the victims of the conflict, in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol and the fundamental principles of the Red Cross as formulated by the International Conferences of the Red Cross.

3. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall facilitate in every possible way the assistance which Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) organizations and the League of Red Cross Societies extend to the victims of conflicts in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol and with the fundamental principles of the Red Cross as formulated by the International Conferences of the Red Cross.

4. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall, as far as possible, make facilities similar to those mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 available to the other humanitarian organizations referred to in the Conventions and this Protocol which are duly authorized by the respective Parties to the conflict and which perform their humanitarian activities in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol.

Article 82

Legal advisers in armed forces

The High Contracting Parties at all times, and the Parties to the conflict in time of armed conflict, shall ensure that legal advisers are available, when necessary, to advise military commanders at the appropriate level on the application of the Conventions and this Protocol and on the appropriate instruction to be given to the arLned forces on this subject.

Article 83

,Dissemination

1 The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Conventions and this Protocol as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction and to encourage the study thereof by the civilian population, so that those instruments may become known to the armed forces and to the civilian population.

2. Any military or civilian authorities who, in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities in respect of the application of the Conventions and this Protocol shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof.

Article 84

Rutes of application

The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another, as soon as possible, through the depositary and. as appropriate, through the Protecting Powers, their official translations of the Protocol, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure its application.

SEC'TION II

REPRESSION OF BREACHES OF THE CONVENTIONS AND OF THIS PROTOCOL

Article 85

Repression of breaches of this Protocol

1. The provisions of the Conventions relating to the repression of_ breaches and grave breaches, supplemented by this Section, shall apply to the repression of breaches and grave breaches of this Protocol.

2. Acts described as grave breaches in the Conventions are grave breaches of this Protocol if committed against persons in the power of an adverse Party protected by Articles 44,45 and 73 of this Protocol, or against the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of the adverse Party who are protected by this Protocol, or against those medical or religious personnel, medical units or medical transports which are under the control of the adverse Party and are protected by this Protocol.

3. In addition to the grave breaches defined in Article 11, the following acts shall be regarded as grave breaches of this Protocol, when committed wilfully, in violation of the relevant provisions of this Protocol, and causing death or serious injury to body or health:

(a) making the civilian population or individual civilians the object of attack:

(b) launching an indiscriminate attack affecting the civilian population or civilian objects in the knowledge that such attack will cause excessive loss of life, injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects, as defined in Article 57, paragraph 2 (a) (iii);

(c) launching an attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces in the knowledge that such attack will cause excessive loss of life, injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects, as defined in Article 57, paragraph 2 (a) (iii);

(d) making non-defended localities and demilitarized zones the object of attack;

(e) making a person the object of attack in the knowledge that he is hors de combat;

(f) the perfidious use, in violation of Article 37, of the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun or of other protective signs recognized by the Conventions or this Protocol.

4. In addition to the grave breaches defined in the preceding paragraphs and in the Conventions, the following shall be regarded as grave breaches of this Protocol, when committed wilfully and in violation of the Conyentions or the Protocol:

(a) the transfer by the Occupying Power of parts of ~its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, or the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the occupied territory within or outside this territory, in violation of Article 49 of the Fourth Convention;

(b) unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians;

(c) practices of apartheid and other inhuman and degrading practices involving autrages upon personal dignity, based on racial discrimination;

(d) making the clearly recognized historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples and to which special protection has been given by special arrangement, for example, within the framework of a competent international organization, the object of attack, causing as a result extensive destruction thereof, where there is no evidence of the violation by the adverse Party of Article 53, sub-paragraph (b), and when such historic monuments, works of

art and places of worship are not located in the immediate proximity of military objectives;

(e) depriving a person protected by the Conventions or referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article of the rtghts of fa-~ ir and regular trial.

5. Without prejudice to the application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, grave breaches of these instruments shall be regarded as war crtmes.

Article 86

Failure to act

1. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall repress grave breaches, and take measures necessary to suppress all other breaches, of the Conventions or of this Protocol which result from a failure to act when under a duty to do so.

2. The fact that a breach of the Conventions or of this Protocol was committed by a subordinate does not absolve his superiors from penal or disciplinary responsibility, as the case may be, if they knew, or had information which should have enabled them to conclude in the circumstances at the time, that he was committing or was going to commit such a breach and if they did not take all feasible measures within their power to prevent or repres the breach.

Article 87

Duty of commanders

1. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall require military commanders, with respect to members of the armed forces under their command and other persons under their control, to prevent and, where necessary, to suppress and to report to competent authortties breaches of the Conventions and of this Protocol.

2. In order to prevent and suppress breaches, High Contracting Parties and Parties to the conflict shall require that, commensurate with their level of responsibility, commanders ensure that members of the armed forces under their command are aware of their obligations under the Conventions and this Protocol.

3. The High Contracting Parties and Parties to the conflict shall require any commander who is aware that subordinates or other persons under his control are going to commit or have committed a breach of the Conventions or of this Protocol, to initiate such steps as are necessary to prevent such violations of the Conventions or this Protocol, and, where appropriate, to initiate disciplinary or penal action against violators thereof.

Article 88

Mutual assistance in criminal matters

1. The High Contracting Parties shall afford one another the greatest measure of assistance in connection with criminal proceedings brought in respect of grave breaches of the Conventions or of this Protocol.

2.' Subject to the rights and obligations established in the Conventions and in Article 85, paragraph 1, of this Protocol, and when circumstances permit, the High Contracting Parties shall co-operate in the matter of extradition. They shall give due consideration to the request of the State in whose territory the alleged offence has occurred.

3 The law of the High Contracting Party requested shall apply in all cases. The provisions of the preceding paragraphs shall not, however, affect the obligations arising from the provisions of any other treaty of a bilateral or multilateral nature which governs or wiil govern the whole or part of the subject of mutual assistance in criminal matters

Article 89

Co-operation

In situations of serious violations of the Conventions or of this Protocol; the High Contracting Parties undertake to act, jointly or individually, in cooperation with the United Nations and in conformity with the United Nations Charter.

Article 90

International Fact-Finding Commission

1. (a) An International Fact-Finding Commission (hereinafter referred to as "the Commission.) consisting of fifteen members of high moral standing and acknowledged impartiality shall be established.

(b) When not less than twenty High Contracting Parties have agreed to accept the competence of the Commission pursuant to paragraph 2, the depositary shall then, and at intervals of five years thereafter, convene a meeting of representatives of those High Contracting Parties for the purpose of electing the members of the Commission. At the meeting, the representatives shall elect the members of the Commission by secret ballot from a list of persons to which each of those High Contracting Parties may nominate one person.

(c) The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity and shall hold office until the election of new members at the ensuing meeting.

(d) At the election, the High Contracting Parties shall ensure that the persons to be elected to the Commission individually possess the qualifica,tions required and that, in the Commission as a whole, equitable geographical representation is assured.

(e) In the case of a casual vacancy, the Commission itself shall fill the vacancy, having due regard to the provisions of the preceding subparagraphs.

(f) The depositary shall make available to the Commission the necessary administrative facilities for the performance of its functions.

2. (a) The High Contracting Parties may at the time of ~ signing, ratifying or acceding to the Protocol, or at any other subsequent time, declare that they recognize ipso facto and without special agreement, in relation to any other High Contracting Party accepting the same obligation, the competence of the Commission to enquire into allegations by such other Party, as authortzed by this Article.

(b) The declarations referred to above shall be deposited with the depositary, which shall transmit copies thereof to the High Contracting Parties.

(c) The Commission shall be competent to:

(i) enquire into any facts alleged to be a grave breach as defined in the Conventions and this Protocol or other serious violation of the Conventions or of this Protocol;

(ii) facilitate, through its good offices, the restoration of an attitude of respect for the Conventions and this Protocol.

(d) In other situations, the Commission shall institute an enquiry at the request of a Party to the conflict only with the consent of the other Party or Parties concerned.

(e) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, the provisions of Article 52 of the First Convention, Article 53 of the Second Convention, Article 132 of the Third Convention and Article 149 of the Fourth Convention shall continue to apply to any alleged violation of the Conventions and shall extend to any alleged violation of this Protocol.

3. (a) Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties concerned, all enquiries shall be undertaken by a Chamber consisting of seven members appointed as follows:

(i) five members of the Commission, not nationals of any Party to the conflict, appointed by the President of the Commission on the basis of equitable representation of the geographical areas, after consultation with the Parties to the conflict; '

(ii) two ad hoc members, not nation~ls of any Party to the conflict, one to be appointed by each side.

(b) Upon receipt of the request for an enquiry, the President of the Commission shall specify an appropriate time-limit for setting up a Chamber. If any sd hoc member has not been appointed within the time-limit, the President shall immediately appoint such additional member or members of the Commission as may be necessary to complete the membership of the Chamber.

4. (a) The Chamber set up under paragraph 3 to undertake an enquiry shall invite the Parties to the conflict to assist it and to present evidence. The Chamber may also seek such other evidence as it deems appropriate and may carry out an investigation of the situation in loco.

(b) All evidence shaIl be fully disclosed to the Parties, which shall have the rtght to comment on it to the Commission.

(c) Ea,ch Party shall have the right to challenge such evidence.

5. (a) The Commission shall submit to the Parties a report on the findings of fact of the Chamber, with such recommendations as it may deem appropriate.

(b) If the Chamber is unable to secure sufficient evidence for factual and impartial findings, the Commission shall state the reasons for that inability.

(c) The Commission shall not report its findings publicly, unless all the Parties to the conflict have requested the Commission to do so.

6. The Commission shall establish its own rules, including rules for the presidency of the Commission and the presidency of the Chamber. Those rules shall ensure that the functions of the President of the Commission are exercised at ali times and that, in the case of an enquiry, they are exercised by a person who is not a national of a Party to the conf'lict.

7. The administrative expenses of the Commission shall be met by contributions from the High Conctracting Parties which made declarations under paragraph 2, and by voluntary contributions. The Party or Parties to the conflict requesting an enquiry shall advance ihe necessary funds for expenses incurred by a Chamber and shall be reimbursed by the Party"or Parties againt which the allegations are made to the extent of fifty per cent of the costs of the Chamber. Where there are counter-allegations before the Chamber each side shall advance fifty per cent of the necessary funds.

Article 91

Responsibility

A Party to the conflict which violates the provisions of the Conventions or of this Protocol shall, if the ca.se demands, be liable to pay compensation. It shall be responsible for all acts committed by persons forming part of its armed forces

PART VI FINAL PROVINTIONS

Article 92

Signature

This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Parties to the Conventions six months after the signing of the Final Act and will remain open for a period of twelve months

Article 93

Ratification

This Protocol shall be ratified as soon as possible. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Swiss Federal Council, depositary of the Conventions.

Article 94 Accession This Protocol shall be open for accession by any Party

to the Conventions which has not signed it. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.

Article 95

Entry into force

1. This Protocol shall enter into force six months after two instruments of ratification or accession have been deposited.

2. : or each Party to the Conventions thereafter ratifying or acceding to this Protocol, it shall enter into force six months after the deposit by such Party of its instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 96

Treaty relations upon entry into force of this Protocol

1. When the Parties to the Conventions are also Parties to this Protocol, the Conventions shall apply as supplemented by this Protocol,

2. When one of the Parties to the conflict is not bound by this Protocol, the Parties to the Protocol shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by this Protocol in relation to each of the Parties which are not bound by it, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.

3. The authority representing a people engaged against a High Conctracting Party in an amred conflict of the type referred to in Article 1, paragraph 4, may undertake to apply the Conventions and this Protocol in relation to that conflict by means of a unilateral declaration addressed to the depositary. Such declaration shall, upon its receipt by the depositary, have in relation to that conflict the following effects:

(a) the Conventions and this Protocol are brought into force for the said authority as a Party to the conflict with immediate effect:

(b) the said authority assumes the same rights and obligations as those which have been assumed by a High Contracting Party to the Conventions and this Protocol; and

(c) the Conventions and this Protocol are equally binding upon all Parties to the conflict.

Article 97

Amendment

1. Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Protocol. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to the depositary, which shall decide, after consultation with all the High Contracting Parties and the International Committee of the Red Cross, whether a conference should be convened to consider the proposed amendment.

2. The depositary shall invite to that conference all the High Contracting Parties as well as the Parties to the Conventions, whether or not they are signatories of this Protocol.

Article 98

Revision of Annex I

1. Not later than four years after the entry into force of this Protocol and thereafter at intervals of not less than fo

ur years, the Internacional Committee of the Red Cross shali consult the High Contracting Parties concerning Annex I to this Protocol and, if it considers it necessary, may propose a meeting of technical experts to review Annex I and to propose such amendments to it as may appear to ba desirable. Unless, withiri six months of the communication of a proposal for such a meeting to the High Contracting Parties, one third of them object, the International Committee of the Red Cross shall convene the meeting, inviting also observers of appropriate international organizations. Such a meeting shall also be convened by the International Committee of the Red Cross at any time at the request of one third of the High Contracting Parties.

2. The depositary shall convene a conference of the High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the Conventions to consider amendments proposed by the meeting of technical experts if, after that meeting, the International Committee of the Red Cross or one third of the High Contracting Parties so request.

3. Amendments to Annex I may be adopted at such a conference by a two-thirds majority of the High Contracting Parties present and voting.

4. The depositary shall communicate any amendment so adopted to the High Contracting Parties and to the Parties to the Conventions. The amendment shall be considered to have been accepted at the end of a period of one year after it has been so communicated, unless within that period a declaration of non-acceptance of the amendment has been communicated to the depositary by not less than one third of the Hich Contracting Parties.

5. An amendment considered to have been accepted in accordance with paragraph 4 shall enter into force three months after its acceptance for all High Contracting Parties other than those which have made a declaration of non-acceptance in accordance with that paragraph. Any Party making such a declaration may at any time withdraw it and the amendment shall then enter into force for that Party three months thereafter. '

s. The depositary shall notify the High Contracting Parties and Parties to the Conventions of the entry into force of any amendment, of the Parties bound thereby, of the date of its entry into force in relation to each Party, of declarations of non-acceptance made in accordance with paragraph a, and of withdrawals of such declarations.

.

Article 99

Denunciation

1. In case a High Contracting Party should denounce ' this Protocol, the denunciation shall only take effect one year after receipt of the instrument of denunciation. If, however, on the expiry of that year the denouncing Party is engaged in one of the situations referred to ni Article 1, the denunciation shall not take effect before the end of the armed conflict or occupation and not, in any case, before operations connected with the final release, repatriation or re-establishment of the persons protected by the Conventions or this Protocol have been terminated.

2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the depositary, which shall transmit it to all the High Contracting Parties.

3. The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of ~ the denouncing Party.

a. Any denunciation under paragraph 1 shall not affect the obligations already incurred, by reason of the armed conflict, under this Protocol by such denouncing Party in respect of any act committed before this denunciation becomes effective.

CHAPTER II

THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

Article 4

Shape The distinctive emblem (red on a white ground) shall be as large as appropriate under the circumstances. For the shapes of the cross, the crescent or the lion and sun' the High Contracting Parties may be guided by the models shown in Figure 2.

No State has used the emblem of the lion and sun since 1980.

Article 5 Use

1. The distinctive emblem shall, whenever possible, be displayed on a flat surface, on flags or in any other way apropriate to the lay of the land, so that it is visible from as many directions and from as far away as possible, and in particular from the air.

2. At night or when visibility is reduced, the distinctive emblem may be lighted or illuminated.

3. The distinctive emblem may be made of materials which make it recogniza.ble by technical means of detecting. The red part shoudl be painted on top of black primer paint in order to facilitate its identification, in particular by infrared instruments.

4. Medical and religious personnel carrying out their duties in the battle area shall, as far as possible, wear headgear and clothing bearing the distinctive emblem.

CHAPTER III DISTINCTIVE SIGNALS

Article 6 Use

1. All distinctive signals specified in this Chapter may be used by medical units or transports.

2. These signals, at the exclusive disposai of medical units and transports, shall not be used for any other purpose, the use of the light signal being reserved (see paragraph 3 below).

3. In the absence of a special agreement between the Parties to the conflict reserving the use of flashing blue lights for the identification of medical vehicles, ships and craft, the use of such signals for other vehicles, ships and craft is not prohibited.

4. Temporary medical aircraft which cannot, either for lack of time or because of their characteristics, be marked with the distinctive emblem, may use the distinctive signals authorized in this Chapter.

Arcicle 7

Light signal

1. The light signal, consisting of a flashing blue light as defined in the Airworthiness Technical Manual, ICAO Doc. 9051,is established for the use of~ medical aircraft to signal

their identity. No other aircraft shall use this signal. Medica.l aircraft using the flashing blue light should axhibit such lights as may be necessary to make the light signal visible from as many directions as possible.

2. In accordance with the provisions of Chapter XIV, para. 4 of the IMO International Code of Signals, vessels protected by the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Protocol should exhibit one or more flashing blue lights visible from any direction.

3. Medical vehicles should exhibit one or more flashing blue lights visible from as far away as possible. The High Contracting Parties and, in particular, the Parties to the conflict which use lights of other colours should give notification of this.

4. The recommended blue colour is obtained when its chromaticity is within the boundaries of the ICI chromaticity diagram defined by the following equations:

green boundary y = 0.65 + O.SOSx white boundary y = 0.400 - x purple boundary x. = 0.133 + O.s00y

The recommended flashing rate of the blue light is between sixty and one hundred flashes per minute.

Article 8

Radio signal

I The radio signal shall consist of the urgency signal and the distinctive signal as described in the ITU Radio Regulations (RR Articles 40 and N 40).

2. The radio message preceded by the urgency and distinctive signals mentioned in paragraph 1 shall be transmitted in English at appropriate intervals on a frequency or frequencies specified for this purpose in the Radio Regulations, and shall convey the following data relating to the medical transports concerned:

(a) call sign or other recognized means of identification:

(b) position;

(c) number and type of vehicles; (d) intended route;

(e) estimated time en route and of departure and arrival, as appropriate;

(f) any other information, such as flight altitude, guarded radio frequencies, languages used and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes.

3. In order to facilitate the communications referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2, as well as the communications referred to in Articles 22, 23 and 25 to 3I of the Protocol, the High Contracting Parties, the Parties to a conflict, or one of the Parties to a conflict, acting in agreement or alone, may designate, in accordance with the Table of Frequency Allocations in the Radio Regulations annexed to the International Telecommunication Convention, and publish selected, national frequencies to be used by them for such communications. The International Telecommunication Union shall be notified of these frequencies in accordance with procedures approved by a World Administrative Radio Conference.

Article 9

Electronic identification

1 The Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) system, as specif ied in Annex 10 to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 7 December 1944, as amended

from time to time, may be used to identify and to follow the sourse of medical aircraft. The SSR mode and code to be reserved for the exclusive use of medical aircraft shall be established by the High Contracting Parties, the Parties to a conflict, or one of the Parties to a conflict, acting in agreement or alone, in accordance with procedures to be recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization.

2. Protected medical transports may, for their identification and location, use standard aeronautical radar transponders and/or maritime search and rescue radar transponders.

It should be possible for protected medical transports to be identified by other vessels or aircraft equipped with secondary surveillance radar by means of a code transmitted by a radar transponder, e. g. in mode 3/A, fitted on the medical transports.

The code transmitted by the medical transport transponder should be assigned to that transport by the competent suthorities and notified to all the Parties to the conflict.

3. It should be possible for medical transports to be identified by submarines by the appropriate underwater asoustic signals transmitted by the medical transports.

The underwater acoustic signal shall consist of the call sign (or any other recognized means of identification of medical transport) of the ship preceded by the single group YYY transmitted in morse on an appropriate acoustic frequency, e. g. SkHz.

Parties to a conflict wishing to use the underwater acoustic identification signal described above shall inform the Parties concerned of the signal as soon as possible, and shall, when notifying the use of their hospital ships, confirm the frequency to be employed.

4. Parties to a conflict may, by special agreement between them, establish for their use a similar electronic system for the identification of medical vehicles, and medical ships and craft.

CHAPTER IV COMMUNICATIONS

Article IO Radiocommunications

1. The urgency signal and the distinctive signal provided for in Article 8 may precede appropriate radio communications by medical units and transports in the application of the procedures carried out under Articles 22, 23 and 25 to 31 of the Protocol.

2. The medical transpor2s referred to in Articles 40 (Section II, No. 3209) and N 40 (Section III, No. 32t4) of the ITU Radio Regulations may also transmit their communications by satellite systems, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 37, N 37 and 59 of the ITU Radio Regulations for the Mobile-Satellite Serwices

Article 11

Use of international codes

Medical units and transports may" also use the codes and signals laid dov,w by the International Telecommunication Union, the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization These codes and signals shall be used in accordance with the standards, practices and procedures established by these Organizations.

Article 12

Other means of communication

When two-way radiocommunication is not possible, the signals provided for in the International Code of Signals adopted by the International Maritime Organiza,tion or in the appropriate Annex to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 7 December 1944, as amended from time to time, may be used.

Article 13

Flight plans

The agreements and notifications relating to flight plans provided for in Article 29 of the Protocol shall as far as possible be formulated in accordance with procedures laid down by the International Civil Aviation Organiza,tion.

Article 14

Signals and procedures for the interception of medical aircraft If an intercepting aircraft is used to verify the identity

of a medical aircraf in fiighr or to require it to land in accordance with Articles 30 and 3i of the Protocol, the standard visual and radio interception procedures prescribed by Annex 2 to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 7 December 1944, as amended from time to time, should be used by the intercepting and the medical aircraft.

CFIAPTER V CIVIL DEFENCE

Article 15

Identity card

1. The identity card of the civil defence personnel provided for in Article 66, paragraph 3, of the Protocol is governed by the relevant provisions of Article 2 of these Regulations.

2. The identity card for civil defence personnel may following the model shown in Figure 3.

3. If civil defence personnel are permitted to carry light individual weapons, an entry to that effect should be made on the card mentioned.

PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS OF 12 AUGUST 1949, AND

RELATING TO THE PRO'TECTION OF VICTIMS OF NON-INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS (PROTOCOL II)

Adopted at Geneva on 8 June

PREAMBLE

The High Contracting Parties,

Recalling that the humanitarian principles enshrined in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, constitute the foundation of respect for the human person in cases of armed conflict not of an international character,

Recalling furthermore that international instruments relating to human rights offer a basic protection to the human person,

Emphasizingthe need to ensure a better protection for the victims of those armed conflicts,

Recallingthat, in cases not covered by the law in force, the human person remains under the protection of the principles of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience,

Have agreed on the following:

PART I

SCOPE OF THIS PROTOCOL

Article 1

Material field of application

1. This Protocol, which develops and supplements Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 without modifying its existing conditions of application, shall apply to all armed conflicts which are not covered by Article 1 of the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I) and which take place in the territory of a High Contracting Party between its armed forces and dissident armed forces or other organized armed groups which, under responsible command, exercise such control over a part of its territory as to enable them to carry out sustained and concerted milita.ry operations and to implement this Protocol.

2. This Protocol shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence and other acts of a similar nature, as not being armed conflicts.

Article 2

Personal field of application

1. This Protocol shall be applied without any advers distinction founded on race, colour, sex, language, religio or belief, political or other opinion, national or social ori gin, wealth, birth or other status, or on any other simila criteria (hereinafter referred to as "adverse distinction.) t all persons affected by an armed conflict as defined in Ar ticle 1.

2. At the end of the armed conflict, all the persons wh have been deprived of their liberty or whose liberty has be en restricted for reasons related to such conflict, as well a those deprived of their liberty or whose liberty is restricte after the conflict for the same reasons, shall enjoy the pro tection of Articles 5 and 6 until the end of such deprivatior or i^estriction of liberty.

Article 3

Non-intervention

1. Nothing in this Protocol shall be invoked for the purpose of affecting the sovereignty of a State or the responsibility of the government, by all legitimate means, to maintain or re-establish law and order in the State or to defend the national unity and territorial integrity of the State.

2. Nothing in this Protocol shall be invoked as a justifica.tion for intervening, directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the armed conflict or in the internal or external affairs of the High Contracting Party in the territory of which that conflict occurs.

PART II HUMANE TREATMENT

Aticle 4

Fundamental guarantees

1. All persons who do not take a direct part or who have ceased to take part in hostilities, whether or not their liberty has been restricted, are entitled to respect for their person, honour and convictions and religious practices. They shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction. It is prohibited to order that there shall be no survivors.

2. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the following acts against the persons referred to in paragraph t are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whateoever:

(a) violence to the life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular murder as well as cruel tretment such as torture, mutilation or any form of corporal punishment;

(b) collective punishments;

(c) taking of hostages; , (d) acts of terrorism; '

(e) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, rape, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault;

(f) slavery and the slave trade in all their forms; (g) pillage;

(h) threats to commit any of the foregoing acts.

3. Children shall be provided with the care and aid they require, and in particular:

(a) they shall receive an education, including religious and moral education, in keeping with the wishes of their parents or, in the absence of parents, of those responsible for their care;

(b) all appropriate steps shall be taken to facilitate the reunion of families temporarily separated;

(c) children who have not attained the age of fifteen years shall neither be recruited in the armed forces or groups nor allowed to take part in hostilities:

(d) the special protection provided by this Article to children who have not attained the age of fifteen years shall remain applicable to them if they take a direct part in hostilities despite the provisions of sub-paragraph (c) and are captured;

(e) measures shall be iaken, if necessar-y, and whenever possible with the consent of their parents or persons who by law or custom are primarily responsible for their care, to remove children temporarily from the area in which hostilities are taking place to a safer area within the country and ensure that t.hey are accompanied by persons responsible for their safety and well-being.

Article 5

Persons whose liberty has been restricted

1. In addition to the provisions of Article 4, the following provisions shall be respected as a minimum with re. gard to persons deprived of their liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict, whether they are interned or detained:

(a) the wounded and the sick shall be treated in accordance with Article 7;

(b) the persons referred to in this paragraph shall, to the same extent as the local civilian population, be provided with food and drinking water and be afforded safeguards as regards health and hygiene and protection against the rigours of the climate and the dangers of the armed conflict;

(c) they shall be allowed to receive individual or collective relief;

(d) they shall be allowed to practise their religion and, if requested and appropriate, to receive spiritual assistance from persons, such as chaplains, performing religious functions;

(e) they shall, if made to work, have the benefit of working conditions and safeguards. similar to those enjoyed by the local civilian population.

2. Those who are responsible for the internment or detention of the persons referred to in paragraph i shall also, within the limits of their capabilities, respect the following provisions relating to such persons:

(a) except when men and women of a family are accommodated together, women shall be held in quarters separated from those of men and shail be under the immediate supervision of women;

(b) they shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards, the number of which may be limited by competent authority if it deems necessary;

(c) places of internment and detention shall not be located close to the combat zone. The persons referred to in paragraph 1 shall be evacuated when the places where they are interned or detained become particularly exposed to danger arising out of the armed conflict, if their evacuation can be carried out under adequate conditions of safety;

(d) they shall have the benefit of medical examinations;

(e) their physical or mental heaIth and integrity shall not be endangered by any unjustified act or omission. Accordingly, it is prohibited to subject the persons described in this Article to any medical procedure which is not indicated by the state of health of the person concerned, and which is not consistent with the generally accepted medical standards applied to free persons under similar medical circumstances.

3. Person who are not covered by paragraph t but whose liberty has been restricted in any way whatsoever for reasons related to the armed conflict shall be treated hurr~anely in accordance with Article 4 and with paragraphs 2 (a), (c) and (d), and 2 (b) of this Article.

4. If it is decided to release persons deprived of their liberty, necessary measures to ensure their safety shall be taken by those so deciding

Article Penal prosecutions

1. This Article applies to the prosecution and punishment of criminal offences related to the armed conf'lict

2. No sentence shall be passed and no penalty shall be executed on a person found guilty of an offence except

pursuant to a conviction pronounced by a court offering the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality. In particular:

(a) the procedure shall provide for an accused to be i4formed without delay of the particulars of the offence alleged against him and shall afford the accused before and during his trial all necessary rights and means of defence;

(b) no one shall be convicted of an offence except on the basis of individual penal responsibility;

(c) no one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under the law, at the time when it was committed; nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was commited; if, after the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby;

(d) anyone charged with an offence is presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;

(e) anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to be tried in his presence;

(f) no one shall be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.

3. A convicted person shall be advised on conviction of his judicial and other remedies and of the time-limits within which they may be exercised.

4. The death penalty shall not be pronounced on persons who were under the age of eighteen years at the time of the offence and shall not be carried out on pregnant women or mothers of young children.

5. At the end of hostilities, the authorities in power shall endeavour to grant the broadest possible amnesty to persons who have participated in the armed conflict, or those deprived of their liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict, whether they are interned or detained.

P A R T III , WOUNDED, SICK AND SHIPWRECKED

Article 7 Protection and care

1. All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, whether or not they have taken part in the armed conflict, shall be respected and protected.

2. In all circumstances they shall be Lreated humanely and shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. There shall be no distinction among them founded on any grounds other than medical ones.

Article 8

Search

Whenever circumstances permit, and particularly after an engagement, all possible measures shall be taken, without delay, to search for and collect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment, to ensure their adequate care, and to search for the dead, prevent their being despoiled, and decently dispose of them.

Article 9

Protection of medical and religious personnel

l. Medical and religious personnel shall be respected and protected and shall be granted all available help for the performance of their duties. They shal! not be compelled to carry out tasks which are not cornpatible with their humanitarian mission.

2. In the performance of their duties medical personnel may not be required to give priority to any person except on medical grounds.

Article 10

General protection of medical duties

1. Under no circumstances shall any person be punished for having carried out medica,l activities compatible with medical ethics, regardless of the person benefiting therefrom.

2. Persons engaged in medical activities shall neither be compelled to perform acts or to carry out work contrary to, nor be compelled to refrain from acts required by, the rules of medical ethics or other rules designed for the benefit of the wounded and sick, or this Protocol.

3. The professional obligations of persons engaged in medical activities regardirig information which they may acquire concerning the wounded and sick under their care shall, subject to national law, be respected.

4. Subject to national law, no person engaged in medical activities may be penalized in any way for refusing or failing to give information concerning the wounded and sick who are, or who have been, under his ca,re.

Article 11

Protection of medical units and transports

1. Medical units and transports shall be respected and protected at all times and shall not be the object of attack.

2. The protection to which medical units and transports are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit hostile acts, outside their humanitarian function. Protection may, however, cease only after a warning has been given setting, whenever appropriate, a reasonable time-limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.

Article 12

The distinctive emblem

Under the direction of the competent authority concerned, the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun on a white ground shall be displayed by medical and religious personnel and medical units, and on medica,l transports. It shall be respected in all circumstances. It shall not be used improperly.

PART IV CIVILIAN POPULATION

Article 13

Protection of the civilian population

1. The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection against the dangers arising from military operations. To give effect to this protection, the following rules shall be observed in all circumstances.

2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of violonce the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited.

3. Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this Part, unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.

Article 14

Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population

Starvation of civilians as a method of combat is prohibited. It is therefore prohibited to attack, destroy, remove or render useless, for that purpose, objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, such as foodstuffs, agrtcultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works.

Article 15

Protection of works and installations containing dangerous forces

Works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrtcal generating staticns, shall not be made the object of attack, even where these objects are military objectives, if such attack may ca.use the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population.

Article 16

Protection of cultural objects and of places of worship Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 14 May 1954, it is prohibited to commit any acts of hostility directed against historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples, and to use them in support of the military effort.

Article 17

Prohibition of forced movement of civilians

1. The displacement of the civilian population shall not be ordered for reasons related to the conflict unless the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand. Should such displacements have to be carned out, all possible measures shall be ta.ken'in order that the civilian population may be received under satisfactory conditions of shelter, hygiene, health, safety and nutrition.

2. Civilians shall not be compelled to leave their own territory for reasons connected with the conflict.

Article 18

Relief societies and relief actions

1. Relief societies located in the terrttory of the High Contracting Party, such as Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) organiza.tions, may offer their services for the performance of their traditional functions in relation to the victims of the armed conflict. The civilian population may, even on its own initiative, offer to collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked.

2. If the civilian population is suffering undue hardship owing to a lack of the su~plies essential for its survival, such as foodstuffs and medical supplies, relief actions for the civilian population which are of an exclusively humanitarian and impartial nature and which are conducted without any adverse distinction shall be undertaken subject to the consent of the High Contracting Party concerned.

PART V FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 19 Dissemination

This Protocol shall be disseminated as widely as possible.

Signature

This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Parties to the Conventions six months after the signing of the Fi-' nal Act and will remain open for period of twelve months.

Article 21

Ratification

This Protocol shall be ratified as soon as possible. The instruments of ratifica,tion shall be deposited with the Swiss Federal Council, depositary of the Conventions.

Article 22

Accession

This Protocol shall be open for accession by any Party to the Conventions which has not signed it. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.

Article 23

Entry into torce

1. This Protocol shall enter into force six months after two instruments of ratification or accession have been deposited.

2. For each Party to the Conventions thereafter ratifying or acceding to this Protocol, it shall enter into force six months after the deposit by such Party of its instrument of ratifica,tion or accession.

Article 24

Amendment

1. Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Protocol. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to the depositary which shall decide, after consultation with all the High Contracting Parties and the International Committee of the Red Cross, whether a conference should be convened to consider the proposed amendment.

2. The depositary shall invite to that conference all the High Contracting Parties as well as the Parties to the Conventions, whether or not they are signatories of this Protocol.

Article 25

Denunciation 1. In case a High Contracting Party should denounce this Protocol, the denunciation shall only take effect six months after receipt of the instrument of denunciation. If, however, on the expiry of six months, the denouncing Party is engaged in the situation referred to in Article 1, the denunciation shall not take effect before the end of the armed conflict. Persons who have been deprived of liberty, or whose liberty has been restricted, for reasons related to the conflict shall nevertheless continue to benefit from the provisions of this Protocoi until their final release.

2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the depositary, which shall transmit it to all the High Contracting Parties.

Article 26

Notifications The depositary shall inform the High Contracting Parties as well as the Parties the Conventions, whether or not they are signatories of this Protocol, of:

(a) signatures affixed to this Protocol and the deposit of instruments of ratification and accession under Articles 21 and 22;

(b) the date of entry into force of this Protocol under Article 23; and

(c) communications and declarations received under Article 2a.

Article 27

Registration

1. After its entry into force, this Protocol shall be transmitted by the depositary to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication, in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

2. The depositary shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications and accessions received by it with respect to this Protocol.

Article 28

Authentic texts

The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic shall be deposited with the depositary, which shall transmit certified true copies thereof to all the Parties to the Conventions.

 


 

ŽENEVSKA KONVENCIJA ZA POBOLJŠANJE POLOŽAJA RANJENIKA I BOLESNIKA U ORUŽANIM SNAGAMA U RATU OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949.

Potpisani opunomoćenici vlada, zastupljenih na Diplomatskoj konferenciji održanoj u Ženevi od 21. travnja do 12. kolovoza 1949. radi revizije ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje poloi,aja ranjenika i bolesnika u vojskama u ratu od 27. srpnja 1929, sporazumjeli su se kako slijedi:

GLAVA I. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 1.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poštovati ovu Konvenciju i da će joj osigurati poštovanje u svim okolnostima.

Članak 2.

Osim odredaba koje treba da stupe na snagu još u vrijeme mira, ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati u slućaju objavljenog rata ili svakoga drugoga oružanog sukoba koji izbije između dvije ili više visokih stranaka ugovornica, čak i ako jedna od njih ne priznaje ratno stanje.

Konvencija će se također primjenjivati u svim slućajevima okupacije ćitavoga ili dijela područja visoke stranke ugovornice, ćak i ako ta okupacija ne naide ni na kakav vojni otpor.

Ako jedna sila u sukobu nije stranka ove Konvencije, sile stranke Konvencije ipak ostaju njome vezane u svojim međusobnim odnosima. One će, osim toga, biti vezane Konvencijom u odnosu na tu silu, ako ta sila prihvaća i primjenjuje njezine odredbe.

Članak 3.

U slućaju oružanog sukoba koji nema međunarodni karakter i koji izbije na području jedne od visokih stranaka ugovornica, svaka stranka sukoba dužna je primjenjivati barem ove odredbe:

1. S osobama koje izravno ne sudjeluju u neprijateljstvima, ukljućujući pripadnike oružanih snaga koji su položili oružje i osobe koje su izvan bojnog ustroja ("hors de combat") zbog bolesti, rana, lišenja slobode ili bilo kojega drugog razloga, u svakoj će se prilici postupati ćovjećno, bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga na rasi, boji kože, vjeroispovijedi ili uvjerenju, spolu, rodenju ili imovinskom stanju, ili bilo kojem drugom slićnom kriteriju.

U tu su svrhu prema gore navedenim osobama zabranjeni i ostaju zabranjeni, u svako doba i na svakom mjestu, ovi ćini:

a) nasilje protiv života i tijela, osobito sve vrste ubojstava, sakaćenja, okrutnog postupanja i mućenja;

b) uzimanje talaca;

c) povrede osobnog dostojanstva, osobito uvredljivi i ponižavajući postupci;

d) izricanje i izvršavanje kazni be-r prethodnog sudenja pred redovito ustanovljenim sudom, k<;ji pruža sva sudska jamstva priznata kao nužna od civiliziranih naroda

2. Ranjenici i bolesnici prikupit će se i njegovati.

Svaka nepristrana humanitarna organizacija, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa, moie strankama sukoba ponuditi svoje usluge.

S druge strane, stranke sukoba nastojat će posebnim sporazumima osnažiti sve ili dio ostalih odredaba ove Konvencije.

Primjena prethodnih odredaba ne utjeće na pravni položaj stranaka sukoba.

Članak 4.

Neutralne će sile analogno primjenjivati odredbe ove Konvencije na ranjenike i bolesnike te na Člannove sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja oruianih snaga stranaka sukoba koji budu prihvaćeni ili internirani na njihovu području, kao i na prikupljene mrtve.

Članak 5.

Na zaštićene osobe koje padnu pod vlast protivnićke stranke ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati do trenutka nji- , hove konaćne repatrijacije.

Članak 6.

Osim sporazuma izrijekom,predviđenih Članncima 10, 15, 23, 28, 31, 36. i 37, visoke stranke ugovornice mogu sklapati druge posebne sporazume o svakom pitanju za koje budu smatrale da ga treba posebno urediti. Nijedan posebni sporazum ne može pogoršati položa.j ranjenika i bolesnika te Člannova sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja kako je ureden ovom Konvencijom, niti ogranićiti prava koja im ova Konvencija priznaje.

Ranjenici i bolesnici, kao i Članovi sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, uživaju pogodnosti iz tih sporazuma dokle god se Konvencija na njih primjenjuje, osim ako su suprotne odredbe izrijekom sadri,ane u spomenutim ili u kasnijim sporazumima ili ako neka od stranaka sukoba poduzme prema njima povoljnije mjere.

Članak 7.

Ranjenici i bolesnici, kao i Člannovi sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, ne mogu se ni u kojem slućaju, ni djelomice niti u cijelosti, odreći prava koja im osiguravaju ova Konvencija i posebni sporazumi spomenuti u prethodnome Članku, ako takvih bude.

Članak 8.

Ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati uz sudjelovanje i pod nadzorom sila zaštitnica, čija je dui.nost da štite interese stranaka sukoba. U tu svrhu sile zaštitnice mogu, uz svoje diplomatsko ili konzularno osoblje, imenovati delegate među vlastitim državljanima ili među drLavljanima drugih neutralnih sila. Za te se delegate mora dobiti privola sile kod koje će oni obavljati svoju misiju.

Stranke sukoba u najvećoj će mogućoj mjeri olakšavati zadatak predstavnika ili delegata sila zaštitnica.

Predstavnici ili delegati sila zaštitnica ne smiju ni u kojem slućaju prekoraćiti okvire svoje misije, kako to proizlazi iz ove Konvencije; oni osobito moraju voditi računa o imperativnim potrebama sigurnosti države u kojoj oba~~ljaju svoje duinosti. Njihovo se djelovanje može ogranićiti, iznimno i privremeno, jedino kad to zahtijevaju imperatiwne vojne potrebe.

Članak 9.

Odredbe ove Konvencije ne prijeće humanit.arne aktivnosti koje će h4edunarodni odbor Crvenog križa, kaso i svaka druga nepristrana humanitarna organizacipa, uz privolu zaintetesiranih stranaka sukoba, poduzimati radi zaštite i prui.anja pomoći ranjenicima i bolesnicima te Člannovima sanitetskog i yerskog osoblja.

 

Članak 10.

Visoke stranke ugovorrLice mogu se u svako doba složiti o tome da obavljanje zadataka, što ih ove Konvencije postavlja silama zaštitnicama, povjere nekoj organizaciji koja pruža sva jamstva za nepristranost i djelotvornost.

Ako se ranjenici i bolesnici ili Člannovi sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja iz bilo kojega razloga ne koriste ili više ne koriste djelovanjem sile zaštitnice ili organizacije određene sukladno prvome stavku, sila koja ih drži mora zatražiti od neke neutralne države ili od neke takve organizacije da preuzme funkcije što ih na temelju ove Konvencije obavljaju sile zaštitnice određene od stranka sukoba.

Ako se na taj način zaštita ne može osigurati, sila koja drii ranjenike i bolesnike ili Člannove sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja mora zatražiti od neke humanitarne organizacije, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Crvenog krii.a, da preuzme humanitarne zadatke što ih na temelju ove Konvencije obavljaju sile za,štitnice ili mora, sukladno odredbama ovoga Članka, prihvatiti usluge lcoje joj ponudi neka takva organizacija.

Svaka neutralna sila ili svaka organizacija koju je pozvala zainteresirana sila, ili koja je u navedene svrhe ponudila svoje usluge, mora u svojem djelovanju ostati svjesna odgovornosti prema stranki sukoba i mora pružiti dovoljna jamstva da je u stanju preuzeti odnosne funkcije i nepristrano ih obavljati.

Od prethodnih odredaba ne može se odstupiti posebnim sporazumom između sila od kojih bi jedna, makar i privremeno, prema drugoj sili ili njezinim saveznicima bila ogranićena u slobodi pregovaranja zbog vojnih dogadaja, osobito u slućaju okupacije čitavog ili znatnog dijela njezina područja.

Kad god se u ovoj Konvenciji spominje sila zaštitnica, taj se izraz ujedno primjenjuje i na organizacije koje je zamjenjuju u smislu ovoga Članka.

Članak 11.

U svim slučajevima kad one to budu smatrale korisnim u interesu zaštićenih osoba, osobito u slućaju neslaganja između stranaka sukoba o primjeni ili tumaćenju odredaba ove Konvencije, sile zaštitnice pružit će dobre usluge radi rješavanja spora.

U tu svrhu svaka od sila zaštitnica može, na poziv jedne stranke ili samoinicijativno, predložiti strankama sukoba sastanak njihovih predstavnika, osobito organa vlasti odgovornih za ranjenike i bolesnike te Člannove sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, po mogućnosti na prikladno odabranorn neutralnom području. Stranke sukoba dužne su provesti prijedloge o sastanku koji su im podneseni. Sile zaštitnice mogu, ako je to potrebno, predložiti strankama sukoba na privolu ličnost koja pripada nekoj neutralnoj sili ili koju uputi Međunarodni odbor Crwenog kriia, a koja će biti pozvana da sudjeluje na tom sastanku

GLAVA II. RANJENICI I BOLESN1CI

Članak12

Pripadnici oružanih snaga i ostale osobe spomenute u slijedećem članku, koje se nađu na moru i koju su ranjene, bolesne ili brodolomci, poštovat će se i štititi u svakoj prilici.

S njima će stranka sukoba u čijoj se vlasti budu nalazili postupati čovjećno i njegovati ih bez ikakvoga nepcvoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga na spolu, rasi, državljnstvu, vjerooispovijedi, političkom mišljenju ili bilo kojem drugom

sličnom kriteriju. Strogo su zabranjeni svaki napad na njihov život i na njihovu ličnost te, uz ostalo, njihovo ubijanje ili istrebljivanje, podvrgavanje mućenju, vršenje nad njma bioloških pokusa, namjerno nepruianje medicinske pomoći ili njege ili njihovo izlaganje u tu svrhu izazvanim opasnostima od zaraze ili infekcije.

Jedino razlozi medicinske hitnosti dopuštaju prednost u pružanju njege.

Prema ženama postupat će se sa svim dužnim obzirima prema njihovu spolu.

Stranka sukoba, koja je prisiljena prepustiti ranjenike ili bolesnike svome protivniku, ostavit će s njima, utoliko koliko to vojni razlozi dopuštaju, jedan dio svoga sanitetskog osoblja i materijala da pridonesu njihovoj njezi.

Članak13.

Ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati na ranjenike i bolesnike koji pripadaju ovim kategorijama:

1. pripadnici oružanih snaga stranke sukoba, kao i pripadnici milicija i dobrovol)ačkih odreda koji ulaze u sastav tih oruianih snaga;

2. pripadnici ostalih milicija i pripadnici ostalih dobrovoljaćkih odreda, ukljućujući i pripadnike organiziranih pokreta otpora, koji pripadaju stranki sukoba i koji djeluju izvan ili unutar vlastitog područja, ćak i ako je ono okupirano, pod uvjetom da te milicije ili dobrovoljački odredi, uktjućujući i te organizirane pokrete otpora, ispunjavaju ove uvjete:

a) da im na ćelu stoji osoba odgovorna za svoje potćinjene;

b) da imaju određeni i na daljinu prepoznatljiv znak raspoznavanja;

c) da otvoreno nose orui.je;

d) da svoje operacije izvode u skladu s ratnim zakonima i obićajima;

3. pripadnici redovitih orui.anih snaga koji izraze vjernost nekoj vladi ili vlasti koju nije priznala sila u ćijoj su vlasti;

4. osobe koje prate oružane snage a da im neposredno ne pripadaju, kao civilni Članovi posade vojnih zrakoplova, ratni dopisnici, dobavljaći, Člannovi radnih jedinica ćija. je dužnost briga o udobnosti orui,anih snaga, pod uvjetom da su za to dobile odobrenje od oruianih snaga koje prate;

5. Članovi posada, ukljućujući zapovjednike, pilote i vježbenike, trgovačke mornarice te posade civilnog zrakoplovstva stranaka sukoba, koji ne uživaju povoljniji postupak na temelju drugih odredaba međunarodnog prava;

6. stanovništvo neokupiranog područja koje se prilikom približavanja neprijatelja spontano lati oružja da bi se oduprlo postrojbama napadaća, ne imajući vremena organizirati se kao redovite oruia.ne snage, ako otvoreno nosi orui.je i ako poštuje ratne za.kone i obićaje.

Članak 16.

Vodeći računa o odredbama Članka 12, ranjenici i bolesnici zaraćene stranke koji padnu pod vlast protivnika bit će ratni zarobljenici i na njih će se primjenjivati pravila međunarodnog prava o ratnim zarobljenicima. I

Članak 15.

U svako doba, a osobito nakon boja, stranke sukoba bez odgode će poduzeti sve moguće mjere da se pronadu i prikupe ranjenici i bolesnici, da se oni zaštite od pljaćke i zlostavljanja i da im se osigura potrebna njega, te da se pronadu mrtvi i sprijeći da budu opljaćkani.

 

Kad god to prilike dopuste, utanačit će se primirje ili prekid vatre ili će se postići lokalno utanaćenje radi uklanjanja, razmjene i prijenosa ranjenika ostavljenih na bojištu.

Isto se tako između stranaka sukoba mogu sklopiti lokalna utanaćenja radi evakuacije ili razmjene ranjenika i bolesnika iz opsjednute ili opkoljene zone i radi prolaska sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja te sanitetske opreme na putu za tu zonu.

Članak 19

Stranke sukoba moraju, što je briže moguće, registrirati sve podatke koji pridonose identifikaciji ranjenika, bolesnika i mrtvih protivničke stranke, koji su pali u njihove ruke.' Ti bi podaci, po mogućnosti, morali ukljućivati:

a) naznaku sile ćiji su pripadnici,

b) broj vojne jedinice ili matićni broj, c) prezime; .

d) ime ili imena; e) datum rodenja;

f) svaki drugi podatak koji se nalazi u osobnoj iskaznici ili na identifikacijskoj ploćici;

g) datum i mjesto zarobljavanja ili smrti;

h) podatke o ranama, bolesti ili uzroku smrti.

Gore navedeni podaci moraju se što je brie moguće proslijediti informacionom uredu, navedenom u Članku 122. Ženevske konvencije o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949, koji će ih, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice i Središnje agencije za ratne zarobljenike. dostaviti sili ćije su te osobe pripadnici.

Stranke sukoba izdat će i dostaviti jedna drugoj, na načinodređen u prethodnome stavku, smrtovnice ili propisno ovjerene spiskove mrtvih. One će, također, prikupiti i dostaviti jedna drugoj, posredovanjem istog ureda, polovicu dvostruke identifikacijske ploćice, oporuke ili druge dokumente koji imaju vrijednost za bliske rodake pokojnika, novac i uopće sve predmete koji se nadu kod mrtvih i koii imaju stvarnu vrijednost ili vrijednost osjećajne prirode Ti će se predmeti, kao i neidentificirani predmeti, poslati u zapećaćenim paketima, popraćenima izjavom koja sadrži sue pojedinosti potrebne za identifikaciju pokojnog vlasniku. kao i popis sadržaja paketa.

Članak 20.

Stranke sukoba brinu se o tome da pokopu ili spaljiwinju mrtvih, što se obavlja pojedinaćno utoliko koliko to okolnosti dopuštaju, prethodi pažljivi, po mogućnosti Iile(nićki pregled leševa radi ustanovljenja smrti, utvrđivanje identiteta i omogućavanja sastavljanja izvještaja brodolomca dvostruke identifikacijske pločice ili, ako se radi o obrćnoj pločici, sama pločica treba da ostane na lešu

Leševi se mogu spaljivati samo ako to nalažu higijenski razlozi ili zbog vjeroispovijedi pokojnika. U slučaju spaljivanja, u smrtovnicu ili u ovjereni spisak mrtvih unosi se tome napomena, uz navođenje okolnosti i razloga zbog kojih je leš spaljen.

Stranke sukoba brinu se, također, da mrtvi i budu dostojno pokopani, po mogućnosti u skladu s obredima vjero ispovijedi kojoj su pripadali, da njihovi grobovi budu poštovani, okupljeni po mogućnosti prema državljanstvu pokojnika, uredno održavani i tako oznaćeni da se uwlek nmy: pronaći. One će u tu svrhu na poćetku neprijateljstavi službeno organizirati službu za grobove da bi se omogučila eventualna ekshumacija te osigurala identifikacija žrtve.

 

bez obzira na to gdje se grobovi nalaze, i njihovo moguće vraćanje u zemlju podrijetla. Ove se odredbe primjenjuju i na pepeo umrlih koji čuva služba za grobove, dok je zemlja podrijetla ne upozna s konaćnim mjerama koje glede toga želi poduzeti.

Čim to prilike dopuste, a najkasnije po svršetku neprijateljstava, te će službe, posredovanjem informacionog ureda spomenutoga u drugome stavku Članka 16, razmijeniti spiskove koji sadri.e toćno mjesto i obilježja grobova, kao i podatke o mrtvima koji su tu pokopani.

Članak 18.

Vojna vlast može pozvati stanovnike da izraze svoje milosrde dobrovoljnim prikupljanjem i njegovanjem, pod njezinim vodstvom, ranjenika i bolesnika, pružajući osobama koje su se tom pozivu odazvale zaštitu i potrebne olakšice. Ako protivnićka stranka preuzme ili vrati pod svoju kontrolu to područje, tim će osobama i dalje pružati istu zaštitu i iste olakšice.

Vojna vlast mora dopustiti stanovnicima i društvima za pružanje pomoći, ćak i u~regijama u kojima je izvršena invazija ili koje su okupirane, da spontano prikupljaju i njeguju ranjenike i bolesnike bez obzira na to ćiji su državljani. Civilno stanovništvo mora poštovati te ranjenike i bolesnike i osobito se suzdržavati od bilo kakvog ćina nasilja protiv njih.

Nitko se nikada ne smije uznemiravati ili osuditi zato što je njegovao ranjenike ili bolesnike.

Odredbe ovoga Članka ne oslobadaju okupacijsku silu obveza prui.anja medicinske njege i moralne pomoći ranjenicima i bolesnicima.

GLAVA III. SANITETSKE JEDINICE I USTANOVE

Članak 19.

Nepokretne sanitetske ustanove i pokretne sanitetske jedinice sanitetske slui.be ne mogu ni u kojoj prilici biti predmet napada, nego će ih stranke sukoba u svako doba poštovati i štititi. Ako padnu u ruke protivnićke stranke, mogu nastaviti djelovanjem sve dok sila koja ih je zarobila sama ne osigura njegu potrebnu ranjenicima i bolesnicima koji se nalaze u tim ustanovama i jedinicama.

Nadležne će se vlasti pobrinuti da gore spomenute sanitetske ustanove i jedinice budu, u granicama mogućnosti, smještene tako da napadi protiv vojnih ciljeva ne mogu ugroziti njihovu sigurnost.

Članak 20.

Bolnički brodovi, koji imaju pravo na zaštitu prema Ženevskoj konvenciji za poboljšanje poloi,aja ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca oružanih snaga na moru od 12. kolovoza 1949, ne smiju se napadati s kopna.

Članak21.

Zaštita na koju imaju pravo nepokretne sanitetske ustanove i pokretne sanitetske jedinice sanitetske službe može prestati samo ako se one upotrijebe za vršenje, izvan svojih humanitarnih dužnosti, ćina štetnih za neprijatelja. Zaštita, međutim, prestaje tek nakon upozorenja koje, u svim odnosnim slućajevima, odreduje razuman rok i pošto je ono ostalo bez ućinka.

Članak 22.

Ne smatraju se razlozima lišavanja neke sanitetske jedinice ili ustanove zaštite zajamćene Člankom 19:

cinjenica da je osoblje jedinice ili ustanove naoružano i da upotrebljava oruije za vlastitu obranu ili obranu ranjenika i bolesnika;

cinjenica, da, u nedostatku naoružanih bolničara, .jedinicu ili ustanovu štite straiarska jedinica" ili straža.ri, ili orui,ana pratnja;

cinjenica da se u jedinici ili u ustanovi nalazi osobno naoruianje i streljivo koje je oduzeto ranjenicima i bolesnicima i nije još predano nadležnoj službi;

činjenica, da se osoblje i materijal veterinarske sluibe nalazi u jedinici ili u ustanovi, a da ne ćini njihov sastavni dio;

činjenica da se humanitarne aktivnosti sanitetskih jedinica i ustanova ili njihova osoblja protežu na ranjene ili bolesne civile.

Članak 23.

Visoke stranke ugovornice mogu još u vrijeme mira, a stranke sukoba pošto započnu neprijateljstva, na vlastitom području i, ako je potrebno, na okupiranim područjima ustanoviti sanitetske zone i mjesta, organizirane tako da se od posljedica rata za.štite ra:njenici i bolesnici, kao i osoblje odgovorno za organizaciju i upravljanje tim zonama i mjestima, te za pruianje njege osobama koje su tu okupljene.

čim zapoćnu neprijateljstva i za vrijeme njihova trajanja zainteresirane stranke mogu sklapati sporazume o uzajamnom priznavanju sanitetskih zona i mjesta što su ih ustanovile. U tu svrhu mogu provesti odredbe Predloška spora2uma priloienoga ovoj Konvenciji, uz izmjene koje smatraju potrebnima.

Sile zaštitnice i Međunarodni odbor Crvenog krii,a pozivaju se da pruie svoje dobre usluge radi ustanovljavanja i priznavanja tih sanitetskih zona i mjesta.

GLAVA IV. OSOBLIE

Članak 24.

Sanitetsko osoblje namijenjeno iskljućivo pronalaženju, prikupljanju, prijevozu i lijećenju ranjenika i bolesnika ili sprečavanju bolesti, osoblje namijenjeno iskljućivo upravljanju sanitetskim jedinicama i ustanovama, kao i vojni svećenici pridodani oruianim snagama, poštovat će se i štititi u svakoj prilici.

Članak 25.

Pripadnici oruianih snaga, posebno osposobljeni da u slučaju potrebe sluie kao pomoćni bolničari ili nosaći nosila prilikom pronalaienja, prikupljanja, prijevoza ili lijećenja ranjenika i bolesnika, također će se poštovati i štititi ako obavljaju te dužnosti u trenutku kad stupe u dodir s neprijateljem ili padnu pod njegovu vlast.

Članak 26.

Osoblje nacionalnih društava Crvenog kriia i drugih dobrovoljnih društava za pruianje pomoći, propisno priznatih i ovlaštenih od svojih vlada, koje bi obaljalo iste dužnosti kao i osoblje navedeno u Članku 24, izjednaćeno je s osobljem navedenim u spomenutome Članku, pod uyetom da se osoblje takvih društava podvrgne vojnim zakonima i pravilnicima.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica priopćit će drugoj, bilo u vrijeme mira, bilo na poćetku ili tijekom neprijateljstava, a svakako prije nego što stvarno poćnu djelovati, imena društava što ih je, pod svojom odgovornošću, ovlastila da pruiaju pomoć redovitoj sanitetskoj sluibi svojih oružamh snaga.

Članak 27.

Priznato društvo neutralne zemlje moie sa svojim sanitetskim osobljem i jedinicama pružiti pomoć stranki suko

ba samo uz prethodni pristanak svoje vlade i. uz odobrenje odnosne stranke sukoba. To će se osoblje i te jedinice staviti pod kontrolu te stranke sukoba.

Neutralna će vlada to odobrenje priopćiti protivnićkoj stranki države koja tu pomoć prihvaća.

Ni u kakvim se okolnostima ta pomoć ne smatra miješanjem u sukob.

Članovi osoblja navedenoga u prvome stavku moraju se, prije nego što napuste neutralnu zemlju kojoj pripadaju, propisno opskrbiti osobnim iskaznicama predviđenima u Članku 40.

Članak 28.

Ako padne pod vlast protivničke stranke, osobJje navedeno u Članncima 24. i 26. može biti zadriano samo utoliko koliko to iziskuju zdravstveno stanje, duhovne potrebe i broj ratnih zarobljenika.

člapovi tako zadri.anog osoblja ne smatraju se ratnim zarobljenicima. Oni će se, međutim, koristiti barem svim odredbama Ženevske konvencije o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949. Oni će nastaviti obavljati, u okviru vojnih zakona i pravilnika sile koja ih drii, a pod vodstvom njezinih nadleinih službi i u skladu sa svojom profesionalnom savjesti, svoje sanitetske i duhovnićke dužnosti u korist ratnih zarobljenika, poglavito onih koji pripadaju orui.anim snagama ćiji su i oni Člannovi. Uz to, u obavljanju svojih sanitetskih i duhovnićkih duinosti, oni uživaju i ove olakšice:

a) Ovlašteni su povremeno posjećivati ratne zarobljenike koji se nalaze u radnim jedinicama ili u bolnicama smještenima izvan logora. Vlast koja ih dr~i stavit će im na raspolaganje, u tu svrhu, potrebna prijevozna sredstva.

b) U svakom logoru vojni lijećnik najstariji po položaju u najvišem činu odgovara pred vojnim vlastima logora za sve što se odnosi na aktivnosti zadrLanoga sanitetskog osoblja. ~im za.poćnu neprijateljstva u tu će se svrhu stranke sukoba sporazumjeti o odgovarajućim činovima svoga sanitetskog osoblja, ukljućujući i osoblje društava navedenih u Članku 26. Glede svih pitanja koja proizlaze iz njihovih dužnosti, taj liječnik, kao i vojni svećenici, imaju izravan pristup nadležnim logorskim vlastima, koje će im pružiti sve ol~.kšice potrebne za korespondenciju koja se odnosi na ta pitanja.

c) I uz to što je podvrgnuto unutrašnjoj disciplini logora u kojemu se nalazi, zadriano se osoblje ne smije prisiljavati ni na kakav rad koji je stran njegovim sanitetskim ili vjerskim dužnostima.

Tijekom neprijateljstava stranke sukoba sporazumjet će se o mogućoj razmjeni zadr-zanog osoblja i utvrdit će načine i postupak za to.

Nijedna od prethodnih odredaba ne oslobada silu koja drii ratne zarobljenike od njezinih obveza glede medicinske i duhovne skrbi o njima.

Članak 29.

Članovi osoblja navedenog u Članku 29. koji padnu u ruke neprijatelja smatraju se ratnim zarobljenicima, ali će obavljati sanitetske duinosti utoliko koliko to bude potrebno.

Članak 30.

Člannovi osoblja ćije zadržavanje nije prijeko potrebno u smislu odredaba Članka 28, vratit će se stranki sukoba

kojoj pripadaju ćim se otvori put za njihov povratak i čim to vojne potrebe dopuste.

U oćekivanju njihova vraćanja ne smatraju se ratnim zarobljenicima. Oni će se, međutim, koristiti barem svim odredbama Ženevske konvencije u postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949. Oni će nastaviti ispunjavati svoje dužnosti pod vodstvom protivničke stranke i poglavito će se baviti njegom ranjenika i bolesnika stranke sukoba kojoj pripadaju.

Prilikom odlaska sa sobom će ponijeti vlastite stvari, predmete za osobnu upotrebu, dragocjenosti i instrumente.

Članak 31.

Odabir osoblja čije je vraćanje predviđeno na temelju Članka 30. izvršit će se bez obzira na rasu, vjeroispovijed ili političko mišljenje, ponajprije prema kronološkom redu zarobljavanja i prema njihovom zdravstvenom stanju.

Ćim zapoćnu neprijateljstva stranke sukoba mogu posebnim sporazumima odrediti postotak osoblja, u odnosu na broj zarobljenika, koje treba zadri.ati i njegovo razvrstavanje po logorima.

Članak 32.

Osobe navedene u Članku 27. koje padnu pod vlast protivničke stranke ne mogu biti zadrža,ne.

Ako nije drukćije ugovoreno, dopustit će im se povratak u njihovu zemlju ili, ako to nije moguće, na područje stranke sukoba u ćijoj su službi bile, ćim se otvori put za njihov povratak i čirri to vojne potrebe dopuste.

U oćekivanju njihova vraćanja, one će nastaviti radom pod vodstvom protivnićke stranke; poglavito će se baviti njegom ranjenika i bolesnika stranke sukoba u ćijoj su službi bile.

Prilikom odlaska sa sobom će ponijeti vlastite stvari, predmete za osobnu upotrebu i dragocjenosti, instrumente, oružje i, ako je to moguće, prijevozna sredstva.

Stranke sukoba osiguravaju tom osoblju, dok se nalazi u njihovoj vlasti, istu ishranu, isti smještaj, iste prinadležnosti i istu plaću kao odgovarajućem osoblju svojih oruianih snaga. Hrana svakako treba da bude dostatna po količini, kakvoći i raznovrsnosti da bi se spomenuto osoblje odrialo u normalnom zdravstvenom stanju.

GLAVA V. ZGRADE I MATERIJAL

Članak 33.

Materijal pokretnih sanitetskih jedinica oružanih snaga koje padnu pod vlast protivničke stranke ostaje namijenjen njezi ranjenika i bolesnika.

Zgrade, materijal i spremišta sanitetskih ustanova orui.anih snaga ostaju podvrgnuti ratnome pravu, ali im se namjena ne može promijeniti dokle god su potrebni ranjenicima i bolesnicima. Zapovjednici oružanih snaga u ratu mogu ih, međutim, upotrijebiti u slućaju hitne vojne potrebe, pod uvjetom da su prethodno poduzeli potrebne mjere za dobrobit bolesnika i ranjenika koji se tu njeguju

Materijal i spremišta navedeni u ovome Članku ne smiju se namjerno uništiti.

Članak 34.

Pokretna i nepokretna imovina društava za pruianje pomoći, kojima su priznate~povlastice prema Konvenciji, smatraju se privatnim vlasništvom.

 

Pravo na rekviziciju koje ratni zakoni i običaji pr-iznaju zaraćenim strankama neće se vršiti, osim u slučaju hitne , potrebe i tek pošto je poloiaj ranjenika i bolesnika osiguran.

GLAVA VI. SANITETSKI TRANSPORTI

Članak 35.

Transporti ranjenika i bolesnika ili sanitetskog materijala poštovat će se i štititi na isti načinkao i pokretne sanitetske jedinice.

Kad ti transporti ili vozila padnu u ruke protivnićke' stranke podvrgavaju se ratnome pravu, pod uvjetom da se stranka sukoba koja ih uzapti u svakom slućaju pobrine za ranjenike i bolesnike koji se u njima nalaze.

Civilno osoblje i sva prijevozna sredstva što proistječu od rekvizicije podvrgavaju se općim pravilima međunarodnog prava.

Članak 36.

Sanitetski zrakoplovi, to jest zrakoplovi koji se upotrebljavaju iskljućivo za evakuaciju ranjenika i bolesnika te za prijevoz sanitetskog osoblja i opreme, neće biti predmet napada, nego će ih zaraćene stranke poštovati dok lete na visinama, u vrijeme i po rutama kako su se sve zainteresirane zaraćene stranke međusobno izričito sporazumjele.

Oni će, uz državne boje, na donjoj, gornjoj i boćnim površinama nositi jasan znak raspoznavanja predviđen u Članku 38. Bit će opskrbljeni svim drugim oznakama ili sredstvima za identifikaciju, određenima sporazumom između zaraćenih stranaka na poćetku ili tijekom neprijateljstava.

Ako nije drukćije ugovoreno, nadlijetanje nep~ijateljskog područja ili područja pod neprijateljskom okupacijom je zabranjeno.

Sanitetski se zrakopIovi moraju pokoriti svakom natogu za slijetanje. U slućaju tako naloženog slijetanja, zrakoplov s osobama koje se u njemu nalaze može nastaviti let nakon mogućeg pregleda.

U sluća.ju nepredviđenog slijetanja na neprijateljsko područje ili na područje pod neprijateljskom okupacijom, ranjenici i bolesnici, kao i posada zrakoplova, bit će ratni zarobljen ći. Sa sanitetskim će se osobljem postupati u skladu s Članncima 24. i slijedećima.

Članak 37.

Poštujući odredbe drugoga stavka, sanitetski zrakoplovi stranaka sukoba mogu nadlijetati područje neutralnih sila i sletjeti na kopno ili na vodu u slućaju potrebe ili da bi kasnije nastavili let. Neutralnim silama moraju prethodno notificirati svoj prolazak preko njihova područja i pokoravati se svim nalozima za slijetanje na kopno ili na vodu. Od napada će biti za.štićeni samo dok lete na visinama, u vrijeme i po rutama kako su se stranke sukoba i zainteresirane neutralne sile međusobno izričito sporazumjele.

Neutralne sile, međutim, mogu postaviti uvjete ili ogranićenja glede prolaska ili slijetanja sanitetslcih zrakoplova na svoje područje. Takvi se mogući uvjeti ili ogranićenja jednako primjenjuju na sve stranke sukoba.

Ako nije drukčije dogovoreno između neutralne sile i stranaka sukoba, ranjenike i bolesnike koji su, uz pristanak mjesne vlasti, iskrcani iz sanitetskog zrakoplova na neutralno područje zadrzat će neutralna sila, kad to zahtijeva međunarodno pravo, kako ne bi mogli ponovno sudjelovati u ratnim operacijama. Troškove njihova smještaja i interacije snosi sila kojoj ranjenici i bolesnici pripadaju.

 

GLAVA VII.

ZNAK RASPOZNAVANJA

Člariak 38.

Iz poćasti prema Švicarskoj, heraldićki znak crvenog križa na bijelom polju, uoblićen premetanjem saveznih boja, zadržan je kao obilježje i kao znak raspoznavanja sanitetske službe oružanih snaga.

Međutim, za zemlje koje kao znak raspoznavanja, umjesto crvenog križa, već upotrebljavaju crveni polumjesec ili crvenog lava i crveno sunce na bijelom polju, ta su obilježja također priznata u smislu ove Konvencije.

Članak 39.

Obilježje se, pod nadzorom nadležne vojne vlasti, istiće na zastavama, ria trakama oko ruke i na svoj opremi koja se upotrebljava u sanitetskoj službi.

Članak 40.

Osoblje navedeno u Članku 24. i u Članncima 26. i 27. nosi, prićvršćenu na lijevoj ruci, traku otpornu na vlagu sa znakom raspoznavanja, izdatu i žigosanu od vojne vlasti.

To osoblje, osim identifikacijske ploćice predviđene u Članku 16, nosi i posebnu osobnu iskaznicu sa znakom raspoznavanja. Ta iskaznica mora biti otporna na vlagu i biti takve velićine da se može nositi u džepu. Ispisana je na nacionalnom jeziku, sadrži barem prezime i imena, datum rodenja, ćin i matićni broj nosioca, te oznaćuje svojstvo u kojemu on ima pravo na zaštitu ovom Konvencijom. Iskaznica sadrii fotografiju nosioca i, uz to, ili njegov potpis, ili njegove otiske prstiju, ili oboje. Na njoj je utisnut suhi žig vojne vlasti.

Osobna iskaznica mora biti jednoobrazna u istim oružanim snagama i, utoliko koliko je to moguće, po istom uzorku u oružanim snagama visokih stranaka ugovornica. Stranke sukoba mogu se posluiiti uzorkom koji je kao primjer priložen ovoj Konvenciji. Na poćetku neprijateljstava jedna će drugu obavijestiti o uzorku što ga upotrebljava. Svaka se osobna iskaznica, po mogućnosti, izraduje u najmanje dva primjerka, od kojih jedan ćuva sila ćiji je nosilac pripadnik.

Ni u kojem slućaju spomenuto osoblje ne može biti lišeno svojih oznaka ni prava da nosi traku oko ruke. U slućaju da ih izgubi, ima pravo dobiti duplikate iskaznica i zamjenu za oznake.

Članak41.

Osoblje navedeno u Članku 25. nosi, ali samo dok obavlja sanitetske dužnosti, oko ruke bijelu traku s umanjenim znakom raspoznavanja u sredini, izdatu i iigosanu od vojne vlasti.

Vojne osobne iskaznice što ih to osoblje nosi pobliže naznaćuju sanitetsku izobrazbu koju je nosilac stekao, privremenu prirodu njegovih dužnosti i pravo na nošenje trake oko ruke

Članak42.

Zastavu raspoznavanja Konvencije mogu isticati samo one sanitetske jedinice ili ustanove koje, prema Konvenciji. imaju pravo da budu poštovane, i to samo uz pristanak vojnih vlasti.

Na pokretnim jedinicama, kao i na nepokretnim ustanovaa~a, uz nju može biti i državna zastava stranke sukoba kojoj ta jedinica ili ustanova pripada.

Međutim, sanitetske jedinice koje padnu pod vlast neprijatelja istiću samo zastavu Konvencije.

 

Pravo na rekviziciju koje ratni zakoni i obićaji priznaju zaraćenim strankama neće se vršiti, osim u slućaju hitne , potrebe i tek pošto je poloi.aj ranjenika i bolesnika osiguran.

Članak 43.

Sanitetske jedinice neutralnih zemalja koje bi, pod uvjetima predviđenima Člannkom 27, bile ovlaštene da pružaju svoje usluge nekoj zaraćenoj stranki moraju, uz zastavu Konvencije, isticati dri.avnu zastavu te zaraćene stranke, ako se ona koristi mogućnošću koju joj pruža. Članak 42.

Ako nadleine vojne vlasti drukćije ne narede, one u svakoj prilici mogu isticati svoju dr-žavnu zastavu, ćak i ako padnu pod vlast protivnićke stranke.

Članak 44.

Obilježje crvenog križa na bijelom polju i rijeći .Crveni križ" ili -Ženevski krii" mogu se, izuzimajući slućajeve navedene u slijedećim stavcima ovoga Članka, upotrebljavati, bilo u vrijeme mira ili u vrijeme rata, samo radi oznaćavanja ili zaštite sanitetskih jedinica i ustanova, osoblja i materijala zaštićenih ovom Konvencijom i drugim međunarodnim konvencijama koje ureduju slićna pitanja. Isto vrijedi što se tiče obilježja navedenih u Članku 38, stavak drugi, za zemlje koje ih upotrebljavaju. Nacionalna društva Crvenog križa i druga društva navedena u Članku 26. imaju pravo na upotrebu znaka raspoznavanja kojim se prui.a zaštita Konvencije samo u okviru odredaba ovoga stavka.

Uz to, nacionalna društva Crvenog križa (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca) mogu u vrijeme mira, u skladu s nacionalnim zakonodavstvom, upotrebljavati ime i obilježje Crvenog križa za druge svoje aktivnosti koje su u skladu s načelima što su ih formulirale Međunarodne konferencije Crvenog križa. Kad se te aktivnosti nastavljaju u vrijeme rata, uvjeti za upotrebu obilježja moraju biti takvi da se ne bi smatralo da pruža zaštitu Konvencije; obilježje će po velićini biti razmjerno malo i ne moie se staviti na traku oko ruke ili na krovove zgrada.

Međunarodnim organizacijama Crvenog križa i njihovom propisno ovlaštenom osoblju dopušteno je da u svako doba upotrebljavaju znak crvenog križa na bijelom polju.

Iznimno, u skladu s nacionalnim zakonodavstvom i uz izrićito odobrenje nekoga od nacionalnih društava Crvenog križa (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca), može se obilježje ove Konvencije upotrebljavati u doba mira za označavanje vozila koja služe kao ambulantna kola i za označavanje stanica za pomoć iskljućivo namijenjenih pružanju besplatne njege ranjenicima ili bolesnicima.

GLAVA VIII. IZVRŠAVANJE KONVENCIJE

Članak45.

Svaka će stranka sukoba, preko svojih vrhovmih zapovjednika, osigurati podrobno izvršavanje prethodnih Članaka i urediti nepredviđene slućajeve, sukladno općim naće lima ove Konvencije.

Članak 46.

Zabranjene su represalije prema ranjenicima, bolesni cima, osoblju, zgradama ili opremi zaštićenih Konvenci jom.

Članak 47

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će u svojim odnosnim zemljama što je više moguće, u vrijeme mirai u vrijeme rata, vršiti difuziju teksta ove Konvencije i, osobito, da će njegovo proućavanje unijeti u vojne i, po mogućnosti, u civilne obrazovne programe, kako bi se s načelima Konvencije upoznalo cjelokupno stanovništvo, a osobito orui.a.ne snage koje sudjeiuju u borbama, sanitetsko osoblje i vojni svećenici.

Članak 48.

Visoke stranke ugovornice dostavljat će jedna drugoj, posredovanjem Švicarskoga saveznog vijeća, a za vrijeme neprijateijstava posredovanjem sila zaštitnica, službene prijevode ove Konvencije, kao i zakone i pravilnike što bi ih usvojile kako bi osigurale njezinu primjenu.

GLAVA IX.

SUZBIJANJE ZLOUPOTREBA I POVREDA

Članak49.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poduzeti sve zakonodavne mjere potrebne radi utvrđivanja odgovarajućih kaznenih sankcija protiv osoba koje su poćinile ili koje su izdale naredbu da se počini bilo koja od teških povreda ove Konvencije određenih u sljedećem Članku.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica obvezana je da pronalazi osobe osumnjićene da su počinile'ili da su naredile da se poćini bilo koja od tih teških povreda i mora ih, bez obzira na njihovo državljanstvo, izvesti pred svoje sudove. Ako to izabere, ona isto tako može, prema odredbama svoga zakonodavstva, predati te osobe radi sudenja drugoj visokoj stranki ugovornici zainteresiranoj za njihov progon, pod uvjetom da ta visoka stranka ugovornica raspolaže prima faciae dokazima.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica poduzet će potrebne mjere radi suzbijanja svih ćina suprotnih odredbama ove Konvencije koje nisu teške povrede određene u slijedećem Članku.

Optužene će osobe u svakoj prilici uživati jamstva glede propisnog sudenja i obrane, koja neće biti manja od Qnih predviđenih Člancima 105. i slijedećima Ženevske konvencije o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza. 1949.

Članak50.

Teške povrede na koje se odnosi prethodni Članak jesu one koje obuhvaćaju bilo koji od ovih ćina, ako su poćinjeni protiv osoba ili imovine zaštićenih Konvencijom: namjerno ubojstvo, mućenje ili nećovjećno postupanje, ukljućujući biološke pokuse, namjerno prouzrokovanje velikih patnji ili teških oštećenja fizičkog integriteta ili zdravlja te uništenje i prisvajanje imovine, koje nije opravdano vojnim potrebama i koje je izvršeno u velikim razmjerima, protupravno i sa.movoljno.

Članak 51.

Nijedna visoka stranka ugovornica ne može osloboditi sebe, niti drugu visoku stranku ugovornicu, odgovornosti koju ona sama ili ta druga visoka stranka ugovornica snosi za povrede predviđene u prethodnome Članku.

Članak52.

Na zahtjev stranke sukoba mora se zbog svakoga navodnog kršenja Konvencije pokrenuti istraga, na načinšto ga utvrduju zainteresirane stranke.

Ako se ne postigne sporazum o postupku istrage, stranke će se sloiiti o izboru arbitra koji odlućuje o postupku što ga treba provesti.

Članak 53.

Svim pojedincima, društvima ili poduzetnim ili privatnim, osim onima koji na to imaju pravo na temelju ove Konvencije, zabranjena je u svako doba upotreba obilježja ili naziva "Crveni križ. ili "Ženevski križ", kao i svakog znaka ili naziva koji je njihova imitacija, bez obzira na svrhu te upotrebe i na datum njihova usvajanja.

Zbog počasti ukazane Svicarskoj usvajanjem obrnutih saveznih boja i zabune do koje može doći između grba Svicarske i znaka raspoznavanja Konvencije, svim pojedincima, društvima ili poduzećima zabranjena je u svako doba upotreba grbova Svicarske Konfederacije, kao i svakog znaka koji je njihova imitacija, bilo kao proizvodaćki ili uslui.ni žig ili njihov dio, ili u svrhu koja je suprotna trgovačkom poštenju, ili u prilikama kad bi mogla vrijedati švicarski nacionalni osjećaj.

Visoke stranke ugovorniće koje nisu bile stranke Ženevske konvencije od 27. srpnja 1929. mogu, međutim, prijašnjim korisnicima znakova, naziva ili žigova navedenih u prvome stavku, odobriti rok od najviše tri godine od stupanja na snagu ove Konvencije da prestanu s njihovom upotrebom, podrazumijevajući da unutar tog roka ta upotreba u vrijeme rata ne može biti takva da izgleda kao da pru~a zaštitu Konvencije.

Zabrana ustanovljena prvim stavkom ovoga Članka primjenjuje se, također, bez da utjeće na stećena prava prijašnjih korisnika, na obilježja i oznake predviđene u drugom stavku Članka 38.

Članak 54.

Visoke stranke ugovornice, čije zakonodavstvo još nije odgovarajuće, poduzet će potrebne mjere da bi se u svako doba sprijećiie i suzbile zloupotrebe navedene u ćtanku 53.

 

ZAVRŠNE ODREDBE

Članak 55.

Ova je Konvencija sastavljena na engleskom i francuskom jeziku. Oba su teksta jednako vjerodostojna.

Švicarsko savezno vijeće dat će izraditi službene prijevode Konvencije na ruski i španjolski jezik.

Članak 56.

Ova Konvencija, koja nosi današnji datum, otvorena je do 12. veljaće 1950. za potpisivanje u ime sila zastupljenih na Konferenciji koja je zapoćela u Ženevi 21. travnja 1949, kao i sila koje nisu za.stupljene na toj Konferenciji, ali su stranke Ženevskih konvencija iz 1864, iz 1906. ili iz 1929. za poboljšanje položaja ranjenika i bolesnika u vojskama u ratu.

Članak 57

Ova će se Konvencija ratificirati što je prije moguće, a ratifikacije se polažu u Bernu.

O polaganju svake isprave o ratifikaciji sastavlja se zapisnik, kojeg ovjerene prijepise ~vicarsko savezno vijeće dostavlja svim silama u ćije je ime Konvencija potpisana ili čiji je pristup notifiCiran.

Članak58.

Ova Konvencija stupa na snagu šest mjeseci nakon što budu poloi.ene najmanje dvije isprave o ratifikaciji.

 

Poslije toga ona stupa na snagu za svaku visoku stranku ugovornicu šest mjeseci nakon polaganja njezine isprave o ratifikaciji,

Članak 59.

U odnosima Između visokih stranaka ugovornica ova Konvencija zamjenjuje konvencije od 22, kolovoza 1864, od 6. srpnja 1906. i od 27. srpnja 1929.

Članak 60.

Od dana stupanja na snagu ova će Konvencija biti otvorena za pristupanje svakoj sili u ćije ime ova Konvencija nije potpisana.

Članak 61.

Pristupi se pismeno notificiraju Svicarskom saveznom vijsću, a poćinju djelovati šest mjeseci nakon datuma njihova primitka.

švicarsko savezno vijeće obavijestit će o pristupima sve sile u čije je ime Konvencija potpisana ili čiji je pristup notificiran:

Članak 62.

U slućajevima predviđenima u Članncima 2. i 3, za stranke sukoba koje su položile isprave o ra,tifikaciji ili notificirale pristup prije ili nakon poćetka neprijateljstva ili okupacije, Konvencije stupa na snagu odmah. švicarsko će savezno vijeće na najbrii mogući načinobavijestiti o ratifikaciji ili pristupima primljenima od stranaka sukoba.

Članak 63.

Svaka je visoka stranka ugovornica slobodna da otkaže ovu Konvenciju.

Otkaz se pismeno notificira Švicarskom saveznom vijeću. Ono će o notifikaciji obavijestiti vlade svih visokih stranaka ugovornica.

Otkaz poćinje djelovati godinu dana nakon što je notificiran Svicarskom saveznom vijeću. Međutim, otkaz notificiran u vrijeme kad sila koja otkazuje sudjeluje u nekom sukobu ne djeluje do zakljućenja mira i u svakom slućaju tako dugo dok operacije oslobadanja i repatriranja osoba zaštićenih ovom Konvencijom ne budu završene.

Otkaz vrijedi samo za silu koja otkazuje. On ni na koji načinne djeluje na obveze što su ih stranke sukoba dužne ispunjavati na temelju naćela međunarodnog prava koja proizlaze iz obićaja ustanovljenih među civiliziranim narodima, iz zakona ćovjećnosti i iz zahtjeva javne savjesti.

Članak 64.

5vicarsko savezno vijeće registrirat će ovu Konvenciju kod Tajništva Ujedinjenih naroda, Švicarsko će savezno vijeće, također, obavještavati Tajništvo Ujedinjenih naroda o svim primljenim ratifikacijama, pristupima i otkazima što se tiču ove Konvencije. .

U potvrdu toga su potpisani, pošto su poloi.ili svoje odnosne punomoći, potpisali ovu Konvenciju. , Sastavljeno u Ženevi, 12. kolovoza 1949, na engleskom i

francuskom jeziku. Izvornik će se položiti u arhive Švicarske Konfederacije. Švicarsko će savezno vijeće dostaaiti ovjerene prijepise Konvencije svim dr”zavama potpisnicama i onima koje budu pristupile.

PRILOG

PREDLOŽAK SPORAZUMA O SANITETSKIM ZONAMA I MJESTIMA

Članak 1.

Sanitetske su zone strogo namijenjene osobama spomenutima u Članku 23. Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje polo'z.aja ranjenika i bolesnika u orui,anim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949, kao i osoblju odgovornom za organizaciju i upravljanje tim zonama i mjestima te za prui.anje njege osobama koje su tu okupljene.

Međutim, osobe ćije je staIno boravište u tim zonama imaju pravo da tu ostanu.

Članak 2.

Osobe koje se, u bilo kojem svojstvu, nalaze u sanitetskoj zoni ne smiju obavljati nikakav posao koji je u izravnoj svezi s vojnim operacijama ili s proizvodnjom ratnog materijala, bilo unutar zone ili izvan nje.

Članak 3.

Sila koja ustanovljuje sanitetsku zonu poduzet će sve potrebne mjere radi zabrane pristupa u tu zonu svim osobama koje nemaju pravo da u nju udu ili da u njoj borave.

Članak 4.

Sanitetske će zone ispunjavati ove uvjete:

a) one će obuhvatiti samo mali dio područja koje se nalazi pod vlasti sile koja ih je ustanovila;

b) one moraju biti rijetko naseljene u odnosu na svoje mogućnosti smještaja;

c) one će biti udaljene od i lišene svih vojnih ciIjeva i važnih industrijskih postrojenja ili upravnih ustanova;

d) one se neće nalaziti u regijama za koje je vjerojatno da mogu postati važne za vođenje rata.

Članak 5.

Sanitetske će zone biti pod ovim obvezama:

a) prometnice i prijevozna sredstva koja su u njihovu posjedu neće se upotrebljavati za prijevo2 vojnog osoblja ili materijala, čak ni u provozu;

b) one se ni u kojem slučaju ne smiju braniti vojnim sredstvima.

Članak 6.

Sanitetske će zone biti oznaćene crvenim križevima (crvenim polumjesecima, crvenim lavovima i suncima) na bijelom polju, postavljenima na rubovima i na zgradama.

Noću, također, mogu biti oznaćene odgovarajućim osvjetljenjem.

Članak 7.

Još u vrijeme mira ili na poćetku neprijateljstava svaka će sila dostaviti svim visokim strankama ugovornicama spisak sanitetskih zona ustanovljenih na području koje je pod njezinom kontrolom. Ona će ih ohavijestiti i o svakoj novoj zoni koju ustanovi tijekom sukoba.

Cim protivnićka stranka primi gore spomenutu notifikaciju, zona će biti uredno ustanovljena.

Ako, međutim, protivnička stranka smatra da uvjeti postavljeni ovim sporazumom nisu ispunjeni, ona može odbiti priznanje zone hitno obavještavajući o tome stranku kojoj zona pripada, ili moie svoje priznanje uvjetovati uvođenjem kontrole predviđene u Članku 8.

 

Članak 8.

Svaka sila, koja je priznala jednu ili više sanitetskih zona što ih je ustanovila protivnička stranka, ima pravo,zahtijevati da jedna ili više posebnih komisija kontroliraju ispunjavaju li zone uvjete i obveze izloiene u ovom sporazumu.

U tu svrhu Člannovi posebnih komisija imat će u svako doba slobodan pristup u razne zone i moći će ćak u njima stalno boraviti. Njima će se pruiiti sve olakšice kako bi mogli obavljati svoje dui.nosti kontrole.

Članak 9.

Ako posebne komisije ustanove bilo koju činjenicu ko- I ju smatraju suprotnom odredbama ovoga sporazuma, one će o tome odmah obavijestiti silu kojoj zona pripada i dat će joj rok od riajviše pet dana da to ispravi; one će o tome obavijestiti silu koja je zonu priznala.

Ako po isteku tog roka sila kojoj zona pripada ne postupi u skladu s opomenom koja joj je upućena, protivnićka stranka moi.e izjaviti da više nije vezana ovim sporazumom glede te zone.

Članak 10.

Sila koja je ustanovila jednu ili više sanitetskih zona i mjesta, kao i protivnićke stranke kojima je njihovo postojanje notificirano, imenovat će osobe koje bi mogle biti Člannovi posebnih komisija spomenutih u Člancima 8. i 9. ili će pozvati neutralne sile da imenuju te osobe.

Članak 11.

Ni u kakvim okolnostima sanitetske zone ne mogu biti predmet napada, nego će ih u svako doba stranke sukoba poštovati i štititi.

Članak12.

U sućaju okupacije područja, sanitetske zone koje se na njemu nalaze moraju se i dalje poštovati i upotrebljavati kao takve.

Okupacijska sila, međutim, moie promijeniti njihovu namjenu pošto osigura poloiaj osoba koje su u njima smještene.

Članak 13.

Ovaj će se sporazum također primjenjivati na mjesta koja sile namijene istoj svrsi kao i sanitetske zone.

 

ŽENEVSKA KONVENCIJA ZA POBOLJŠANJE POL0ŽAJA RANJENIKA, BOLESNIKA I BRODOLOMACA ORUŽANIH SNAGA NA MORU OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949.

Potpisani opunomoćenici vlada, zastupljenih na Diplomatskoj konferenciji održanoj u Ženevi od 21. travnja do 12. kolovoza 1949. radi revizije X. haške konvencije od 18. listopada 1907. o prilagodbi naćela Ženevske konvencije iz i9o6. na pomorski rat, sporazumjeli su se kako slijedi:

 

GLAVA I. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 1.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poštovati ovu Konvenciju i da će joj osigurati poštovanje u svim okolnostima.

Članak 2.

Osim odredaba koje treba da stupe na snagu još u vrijeme mira, ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati u slućaju objavljenog rata ili svakoga drugoga oruTanog sukoba koji izbije između dviju ili više visokih stranka ugovornica, ćak i ako jedna od njih ne priznaje ratno stanje.

Konvencija će se također primjenjivati u svim slučajevima okupacije čitavoga ili dijela područja visoke stranke ugovornice, i;ak i ako ta okupacija ne naide ni na kakav vojni otpor.

Ako jedna sila u sukobu nije stranka ove Konvencije, sile stranke Konvencije ipak ostaju njome vezane u svojim međusobnim odnosima. One će, osim toga, biti vezane Konvencijom u odnosu na tu silu, ako ta sila prihvaća i primjenjuje njezine odredbe.

Članak 3.

U slućaju oružnog sukoba koji nema međunarodni karakter i koji izbije na području jedne od visokih stranaka ugovornica., svaka stranka sukoba dužna je primjenjivati barem ove odredbe:

1. S osobama koje izravno ne sudjeluju u neprijateljstvima, ukljućujući pripadnike oružanih snaga koji su položili oružje i osobe koje su izvan bojnog ustroja (-hors de combat-) zbog bolesti, rana, lišenja slobode ili bilo kojega drugog razloga, u svakoj će se prilici postupati ćovjećno, bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga na rasi, boji kože, vjeroispovijedi ili uvjerenju, spolu, rodenju ili imovinskom stanju, ili bilo kojem drugom sličnom kriteriju.

U tu su svrhu prema gore navedenim osobama zabranjeni i ostaju za,branjeni, u svako doba i na svakom mjestu, ovi ćini:

a) nasilje protiv života i tijela, osobito sve vrste ubojstava, sakaćenja, okrutnog postupanja i mućenja;

b) uzimanje talaca;

c) povrede osobnog dostojanstva, osobito uvredljivi i poniia.vajući postupci;

d) izricanje i izvršavanje kazni bez prethodnog sudenja pred redovito ustanovljenim sudom, koji pruža sva sudska jamstva priznata kao nuina od civiliziranih naroda.

2. Ranjenici i bolesnici prikupit će se i njegovati. Svaka nepristrana humanitarna organizacija, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Crvenog krii.a, može strankama sukoba ponuditi svoje usluge.

 

S druge strane, stranke sukoba nastojat će posebnim sporazumima osnažiti sve ili dio ostalih odredaba ove Konvencije.

Primjena prethodnih odredaba ne utjeće na pravni položaj stranaka sukoba.

Članak 4.

U stućaju ratnih operacija između kopnenih i pomorskih snaga stranaka sukoba, odredbe ove Konvencije primjenjuju se samo na ukrcane snage.

Iskrcane snage bit će odmah podvrgnute odredbama Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje položaja ranjenika i bolesnika u oružanim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Članak 5.

Neutralne će sile analogno primjenjivati odredbe ove Konvencije na ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce te na Članove sanitetskog i vjerskog os~šlja oruža,nih snaga stranaka sukoba koji budu prihvaćeni ili internirani na njihovu području, kao i na prikupljene mrtve.

Članak 6.

Osim sporazuma izrijekom predviđenih Člancima 10, 18, 31, 38, 39, 40, 43. i 53, visoke stranke ugovornice mogu sklapati druge posebne sporazuma o svakom pitanju za koje budu smatrale da ga treba posebno urediti. Nijedan posebni sporazum ne može pogoršati položaj ranjenika, bolesnika i brodđlomaca te Članova sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja kako je ureden ovom Konvencijom, niti ograničiti prava koja im ova Konvencija priznaje.

Ranjenici, bolesnici i brodolomci, kao i Članovi sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, uživaju pogodnosti iz tih sporazuma dokle god se Konvencija na njih primjenjuje, osim ako su suprotne odredbe izrijekom sadržane u spomenutim ili u kasnijim sporazumima ili ako neka od stranaka sukoba poduzme prema njima povoljnije mjere.

Članak7.

Ranjenici, bolesnici i brodolomci, kao i Članovi sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, ne mogu se ni u kojem slućaju, ni djelomice niti u cijetosti, odreći prava koja im osiguravaju ova Konvencija i posebni sporazumi spomenuti u prethodnome Članku, ako takvih bude.

Članak 8.

Ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati uz sudjelovanje i pod nadzorom sila zaštitnica, čija je dužnost da štite interese stranaka sukoba. U tu svrhu sile zaštitnice mogu, uz svoje diplomatsko ili konzularno osoblje, imenovati delegate među vlastitim državljanima ili među državljanima drugih neutralnih sila. Za te se delegate mora dobiti privola sile kod koje će oni obavljati svoju misiju.

Stranke sukoba u najvećoj će mogućoj mjeri olakšavati zadatak predstavnika ili delegata sila zaštitnica. Predstavnici ili delegati sila zaštitnica ne smiju ni u ko

jem slućaju prekoraćiti okvire svoje misije, kako to proizlazi iz ove Konvencije; oni osobito moraju voditi računa o imperativnim problemima sigurnosti države u kojoj obavljaju svoje dužnosti. Njihovo se djelovanje može ogranićiti, iznimno i privremeno, jedino kad to zahtijevaju imperativne vojne potrebe

Članak 9.

Odredbe ove Konvencije ne prijeće humanitarne aktivnosti koje će Međunarodni odbor Crvenog kriia, kao i sva ka druga nepristrana humanitarna organizacija, uz privolu zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba, poduzimati radi za,štite i pruianja pomoći ranjenicima, bolesnicima i brodolorrv~ima te Članovima sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja.

Članak 10.

Visoke stranke ugovornice mogu se u svako doba složiti o tome da obavljanje zadataka, što ih ova Konvencija postavlja silama zaštitnicama, povjere nekoj organiza.ciji koja pruža, sva jamstva za nepristranost i djelotvornost.

Ako se ranjenici, bolesnici i brodolomci ili Članovi sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja iz bilo kojega razloga ne koriste ili više ne koriste djelovanjem sile zaštitnice ili organiza,cije određene sukladno prvome stavku, sila koja ih drii mora zatražiti od neke neutralne dri,a,ve ili od neke takve organizacije da preuzme funkcije što ih na temelju ove ~Konvencije obavljaju sile zaštitnice određene od stranaka sukoba.

Ako se na taj način zaštita ne može osigurati, sila koja drii ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce ili Članove sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja mora zatražiti od neke humanitarne organizacije, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa, da preuzme humanitarne zadatke što ih na temelju ove Konvencije pbavljaju sile zaštitnice ili mora, sukladno odredbama ovoga Članka, prihvatiti usluge koje joj ponudi neka takva organizacija.

Svaka neutralna sila šli svaka organizacija koju je pozvala zainteresirana sila, ili koja je u navedene svrhe ponudila svoje usluge, mora u svojem djelovanju ostati svjesna odgovornosti prema stranki sukoba i mora pružiti dovoljna jamstva da je u stanju preuzeti odnosne funkcije i nepristrano ih obavljati.

Od prethodnih odredaba ne može se odstupiti posebnim sporazumom između sila od kojih bi jedna, makar i privremeno, prema drugoj sili ili njezinim saveznicima bila ogranićena u slobodi pregovaranja zbog vojnih dogadaja, osobito u slučaju okupacije čitavog ili znatnog dijela njezina područja.

Kad god se u ovoj Konvenciji spominje sila za,štitnica, taj se izraz ujedno primjenjuje i na organizacije koje je zamjenjuju u smislu ovoga Članka.

Članak 11.

U svim slućajevima kad one to budu smatrale korisnim u interesu zaštićenih osoba, osobito u sluća.ju neslaganja između stranaka sukoba o primjeni ili tumaćenju odredaba ove Konvencije, sile zaštitnice pružit će dobre usluge radi rješavanja spora.

U tu svrhu svaka od sila zaštitnica može, na poziv jedne stranke ili samoinicijativno, predložiti strankama sukoba sastanak njihovih predstavnika, osobito organa vlasti odgovornih za ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce te Članove sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, po mogućnosti na prikladno odabranom neutralnom području. Stranke sukoba duine su provesti prijedloge o sastanku koji su im podneseni. Sile zaštitnice mogu, ako je to potrebno, predloiiti strankama sukoba na privolu ličnost koja pripada nekoj neutrainoj sili ili koju uputi Međunarodni odbor Crvenog kriia, a koja će biti pozvana da sudjeluje na tom sastanku.

GLAVA II.

RANJENICI, BOLESNICI I BRODOLOMCI

Članak 12.

Prlpadnici orui.anih snaga i ostale osobe spomenute u slijedećem Članku, koje se nadu na moru i koje su ranjene,

bolesne ili su brodolomci, poštovat će se i štititi u svakoj prilici, podrazumijevajući da izraz "brodolom" znaći brodolom iz bilo kojeg razloga i ukljućuje prisilno spuštanje na more zrakoplovom ili iz njega.

S njima će stranka sukoba; u ćijoj se vlasti budu nalazili postupati čovječno i njegovati ih bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga na spolu, rasi, državljanstvu, vjeroispovijedi, političkom mišljenju ili bilo kojem drugom sličnom kriteriju. Strogo su zabranjeni svaki napad na njihov život i na njihovu lićnost te, uz ostalo, njihovo ubijanje ili istrebljivanje, podvrgavanje mućenju, vršenje nad njima bioloških pokusa, namjerno nepružanje medicinske pomoći ili njege ili njihovo izlaganje u tu svrhu izazvanim opasnostima od zaraze ili infekcije.

Jedino razlozi medicinske hitnosti dopuštaju prednost u pruia,nju njege.

Prema ženama postupat će se sa svim dužnim obi,irima prema njihovu spolu.

Članak 13.

Ova će se Konvencija prirxtjenjivati na brodolomce, ranjenike i bolesnike na moru koji pripadaju ovim kategorijama:

1. pripadnici oružanih snaga stranke sukoba, kao i pripadnici milicija i dobrovoljaćkih odreda koji ulaze u sastav Lih oružanih snaga;

2. pripadnici ostalih milicija i pripadnici ostalih dobrovoljaćkih odreda, ukljućujući i pripadnike organiziranih pokreta otpora, koji pripadaju stranki sukoba i koji djeluju izvan ili unutar vlastitog područja, ćak i ako je ono okupirano, pod uvjetom da te milicije ili dobrovoljački odredi, ukljućujući i te organizirane pokrete otpora, ispunjavaju ove uvjete:

a) da im na ćelu stoji osoba odgovorna za svoje potčinjene; . b) da imaju određeni i na daljinu prepoznatljiv znak raspoznavanja;

c) da otvoreno nose oružje;

d) da svoje operacije izvode u skladu s ratnim zakonima i obićajima;

3. pripadnici redovitih oruianih snaga koji izraze vjernost nekoj vladi ili vlasti koju nije priznala sila u ćijoj su vlasti;

4. osobe koje prate oružane snage a da im neposredno ne pripadaju, kao civilni Članovi posada vojnih zrakoplova, ratni dopisnici, dobavljaći, Člannovi radnih jedinica ćija je dui.nost briga o udobnosti oružanih snaga, pod uvjetom da su za to dobile odobrenje od oružanih snaga koje prate;

5. Člannovi posada, ukljućujući zapovjednike, pilote i vjeibenike, trgovačke mornarice te posade civilnog zrakoplovstva stranaka sukoba, koji ne uživaju povoljniji postupak na temelju drugih odredaba međunarodnog prava;

6. stanovništvo neokupiranog područja koje se prilikom približavanja neprijatelja spontano Jati oružja da bi se oduprlo postrojbama napadaća, ne imajući vremena organizirati se kao redovite oruž.ane snage, ako otvoreno nosi oruije i ako poštuje ratne zakone i obićaje.

Članak 14.

Svaki ratni brod zaraćene stranke može zahtijevati da mu se predaju ranjenici, bolesnici ili brodolomci koji se na laze na vojnim bolnićkim brodovima, na bolnićkim brodo vima društava za pružanje pomoći ili pojedinaca, kao i na trgovačkim brodovima. ~ahtama i dr-ugim plovilrma bez ob zira n~ njihovu drlavnu pripadnost, ako zdravstveno sta nje ranjenika i bolesnika dopušta njihovu predaju i ako rat

ni brod raspolaie odgovarajućom opremom za potrebno lijećenje.

Članak15

Ako ranjenike, bolesnike ili brodolomce primi neutral

ni ratni brod ili neutralni vojni zrakoplov, mora se dobiti jamstvo, kad to zahtijeva međunarodno pravo, kako ne bi mogli ponovno sudjelovati u ratnim operacijama.

Članak 16.

Vodeći računa o odredbama Članka 12, ranjenici, bolesnici i brodolomci zaraćene stranke koji padnu pod vlast protivnika bit će ratni zarobljenici i na njih će se primjenjivati pravila međunarodnog prava o ratnim zarobljenicima. Uzaptitelj moi.e, ovisno 0 okolnostima, odlučiti da li je umjesno da ih zadrii, da ih uputi u neku luku svoje zemlje, u neku neutralnu luku, ili čak u neku protivnićku luku. U potonjem slućaju, ratni zarobljenici koji su tako vraćeni u svoju zemlju ne mogu služiti za, vrijeme trajanja rata.

Članak 17.

Ako nije drukčije dogovoreno, ranjenike, bolesnike ili brodolomce koji. su, uz pristanak mjesne vlasti, iskrcani u neutralnoj luci, zadri.at će neutralna sila, kad to za,htijeva međunarodno pravo, kako ne bi mogli ponovno sudjelovati u ratnim operacijama.

Troškove njihove hospitalizacije i internacije snosi sila kojoj ranjenici, bolesnici ili brodolomci pripadaju.

Članak 18.

Nakon svakog boja stranke sukoba bez odgode će poduzeti sve moguće mjere da se pronadu i prikupe brodolomci, ranjenici i bolesnici, da se oni zaštite od pljaćke i zlostavljanja i da im se osigura potrebna njega, te da se pronadu mrtvi i spriječi da budu opljačkani.

Kad god to prilike dopuste, stranke sukoba sklopit će lokalna utanaćenja radi evakuacije ranjenika i bolesnika morskim putem iz opsjednute ili opkoljene zone i radi prolaska sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja te sanitetske opreme na putu za tu zonu.

Članak 19.

Stranke sukoba moraju, što je bri,e moguće, registrirati sve podatke koji pridonose identifikaciji brodolomaca., ranjenika, bolesnika i mrtvih protivnićke stranke, koji su pali u njihove ruke. Ti bi podaci, po mogućnosti, morali ukljućivati

a) naznaku sile čiji su pripadnici;

b) broj vojne jedinice ili matični broj; c) prezime;

d) ime ili imena;

e) datum rodenja;

f) svaki drugi podatak koji se nalazi u osobnoj iskaznici ili na identifikacijskoj ploćici;

g) datum i mjesto zarobljavanja ili smrti;

h) podatke o ranama, bolesti ili uzroku smrti.

Gore navedeni podaci moraju se što je brie moguće proslijediti informacionom uredu, navedenom u Članku i22 Ženevske konvencije o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od i2. kolovoza 1949, koji će ih, posredovanjem sile zastitnice i Središnje agencije za ratne zarobljenike, dostaviti sili ćije su te osobe pripadnici.

Stranke sukoba izdat će i dostaviti jedna drugoj, na nac in određen u prethodnome stavku, smrtovnice ili propisno

ovjerene spiskove mrtvih. One će, također, prikupiti i dostaviti jedna drugoj, posredovanjem istog ureda, polovicu dvostruke identifikacijske pločice ili, ako se radi o običnoj ~ pločici, samu pločicu, oporuke ili druge dokumente koji se nadu kod mrtvih i koji imaju stvarnu vrijednost ili vrijed-. nost osjećajne prirode. Ti će se predmeti, kao i neidentificirani predmeti, poslati u zapećaćenim paketima, popraćenima izjavom koja sadr:zi sve pojedinosti potrebne za identifikaciju pokojnog vlasnika, kao i popis sadrzaja paketa.

Članak 20.

Stranke sukoba brinu se o tome da potapanju mrtvih, što se obavlja pojedinačno utoliko koliko to okolnosti dopuštaju, prethodi pažljivi, po mogućnosti liječnički pregled leševa radi ustanovljenja smrti, utvrđivanja identiteta i omogućavanja sastavljanja izvještaja. Ako je upotrijebljena dvostruka identifikacijska pločica, polovica te pločice treba da ostane na lešu.

Ako su mrtvi iskrcani, primjenjuju se odredbe Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje položaja ranjenika i bolesnika u oružanim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Članak 21.

Stranke sukoba mogu pozvati zapovjednike neutralnih trgovačkih brodova, jahti ili drugih plovila da izraze svoje milosrde ukrcavanjem i njegovanjem ranjenika, bolesnika ili brodolomaca, te prikupljanjem mrtvih.

Sve vrste plovila koja se odazovu tom pozivu, kao i ona koja samoinicijativno prikupljaju ranjenike, bolesnike ili brodolomce, uživat će posebnu zaštitu i olakšice radi pružanja takve pomoći.

Ni kojem slučaju ona se ne mogu uzaptiti zbog bilo kojega takvog prijevoza; međutim, ako nisu dobila suprotno obećanje, ostaju podložna uzapćenju za povrede neutralnosti koje bi mogla poćiniti.

GLAVA III. BOLNIČKI BRODOVI

Članak 22.

Vojni bolnički brodovi, to jest brodovi koje su sile izgradile i opremile posebno i jedino za pruianje pomoći ranjenicima, bolesnicima i brodolomcima, za njihovo lijećenje i za njihov prijevoz, ne mogu se ni u kakvim okolnostima napasti niti uzaptiti, nego će ih se u svako doba poštovati i štititi, pod uvjetom da se njihova imena i karakteristike notificiraju strankama sukoba deset dana prije njihove upotrebe.

Karakteristike što ih notifikacija mora sadržavati ukljućuju bruto registarsku tonažu, dužinu od krme do pramca te broj jarbola i dimnjaka

Članak23.

Ustanove smještene na obali, koje imaju pravo na zaštitu 2,enevske konvencije za poboljšanje ranjenika i bolesnika u oruianim snagama u ratu od t2 kolovoza 1949, ne smiju se ni napadati niti bombardirati s mora

Članak24.

Bolnićki brodovi što ih upotrebljavaju nacionalna društva Crvenog krii,a, stužbeno priznata društva za pruianje pomoći ili pojedinci uiivaju jednaku zaštitu kao i vojni bolnićki brodovi i izuzeti su od uzapćenja ako ih je stranka sukoba kojoj pripadaju službeno ovlastila i ako se poštuju odredbe Članka 22. o notifikaciji

Ti brodovi moraju imati ispravu nadleine vlasti koja navodi da su bili pod njezinom kontrolom u vrijeme opremanja i prilikom polaska.

Članak 25.

Bolnički brodovi što ih upotrebljavaju nacionaina društva Crvenog križa, službeno priznata društva za pružanje pomoći ili pojedinci iz neutralnih zemalja uiivaju jednaku zaštitu kao i vojni bolnički brodovi i izuzeti su od uzapćenja, pod uvjetom da su se stavili pod kontrolu jedne od stranaka sukoba, uz prethodni pristanak svoje vlade i uz odobrenje te stranke i ako se poštuju odredbe Članka 22. o notifikaciji.

Članak 26.

Zaštita predviđena u Člancima 22, 24. i 25. primjenjuje se na bolnićke brodove bilo koje tonaže i na njihove čamce za spašavanje, ma gdje djelovali. Međutim, da bi se osigurala najveća moguća udobnost i sigurnost, stranke sukoba nastojat će za prijevoz ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca na velike udaljenosti i na otvorenome moru upotrijebiti samo bolničke brodove od preko 2.000 bruto registarskih tona.

Članak 27.

Pod istim uvjetima kakvi su predviđeni u Članncima 22. i 24, mala plovila, što ih države ili službeno priznata društva za pružanje pomoći upotrebljavaju za priobalne operacije spašavanja, također će se poštovati i štititi, utoliko koliko to potrebe operacija dopuštaju.

Isto vrijedi, u granicama mogućnosti, za stalna obalna postrojenja što ih ta plovila iskljućivo upotrebljavaju za svoje humanitarne misije.

Članak 28.

U slućaju borbe na nekome ratnom brodu, brodske će se bolnice poštovati i štedjeti koliko je god to moguće. Te brodske bolnice i njihova oprema ostaju podvrgnuti ratnome pravu, ali im se namjena ne mo2e promijeniti dokle god su potrebni ranjenicima i bolesnicima. Zapovjednik u ćijoj se vlasti nalaze moie, međutim, njima raspolagati u slućaju hitnih vojnih potreba pošto je prethodno osigurao položaj ranjenika i bolesnika koji su tu smješteni.

Članak29.

Svakome bolnićkom brodu koji se nade u luci koja je pala u ruke neprijatelja odobrit će se isplovljenje.

Članak 30.

Brodovi i druga plovila spomenuti u Članncima 22, 24, 25. i 27. pružit će pomoć i potporu ranjenicima, bolesnicima i brodolomcima bez razlike na dri.avljanstvo.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da neće upotrijebiti te brodove i druga plovila ni u kakve vojne svrhe. Ti brodovi i druga plovila neće ni na koji načinometati

pokrete boraca. Za vnjeme i nakon boja djelovat će na vlastiti rizik

Članak 31.

Stranke sukoba imaju pravo kontrole i pregleda brodova i drugih plovila navedenih u Članncima 22, 24, 25. i 27. One mogu odbiti pomoć tih brodova i drugih plovila, narediti irn da se udalje, odrediti im smjer plovidbe, kontrolirati upotrebu njihovih bežićnih i drugih komunikacijskih sredstava i ćak ih zadr-i'ati u trajanju od najviše sedam dana od trenutka pregleda ako težina okolnosti to zahtijeva.

One rnogu privremeno na brod ili na drugo plovilo ukrcati poyerenika. Liji je iskljućivi zadatak da osigura izvršauanp: naredbr danih na temelju odredaba prethodnol;a stavka

Stranke sukoba ce, utoliko koliko je to moguće, upisati u brodski dnevnik bolnićkoga broda, na jeziku razumljivome zapoyedniku bolnićkoga broda, naredbe koje su mu dale

Stranke sukoba mogu, bilo jednostrano ili na temelju posebnog sporazuma, na svoje bolničke brodove ukrcati neutralne promatraće koji će provjeravati strogo poštovanje odredaba ove Konvencije.

Članak 32.

Brodovi i druga plovila navedeni u Člancima 22, 24, 25. i 27. ne izjednaćuju se s ratnim brodovima što se tiče njihova boravka u neutralnoj luci.

Članak 33.

trgovački brodovi koji su pretvoreni u bolnićke brodove ne mogu promijeniti namjenu dokle god traju neprijateljstva.

Članak34.

Zaštita na koju imaju pravo bolnički brodovi i brodske bolnice može prestati samo ako se oni upotrijebe za vršenje, izvan svojih humanitarnih dužnosti, čina štetnih za neprijatelja. Zaštita, međutim, prestaje tek nakon upozorenja koje, u svim odnosnim slućajevima, odreduje razuman rok i pošto je ono ostalo bez ućinka.

Bolnićki brodovi, posebice, ne mogu imati ili upotrebljavati tajne šifre za svoja bežićna i druga komunikacijska sredstva.

Članak 35.

Ne smatraju se razlozima lišavanja bolnićkih brodova ili brodskih bolnica zaštite na koju imaju pravo:

1. cinjenica da je osoblje tih brodova ili bolnica naoruiano i da upotrebljava oružje za održavanje reda, za vlastitu obranu ili obranu ranjenika i bolesnika;

2. činjenica da se na brodu nalaze uredaji iskjučivo namijenjeni osiguravanju plovidbe i odr”zavanju veza;

3. činjenica da se na bolnićkim brodovima ili u brodskim bolnicama nalazi osobno naorui.anje i streljivo koje je oduzeto ranjenicima, bolesnicima i brodolomcima i nije još predano nadležnoj službi;

4. činjenica da se humanitarne aktivnosti bolnićkih brodova i brodskih bolnica ili njihova osoblja proteiu na civile koji su ranjeni, bolesni ili su brodolomci;

5. činjenica da bolnićki brodovi prevoze više sanitetske opreme i sanitetskog osoblja nego što im je obićno potrebno.

GLAVA IV. OSOBLJE

Članak 36

Vjersko, sanitetsko i bolnićko osoblje bolnićkih brodova i njihova posada poštovat će se i štititi: ono se ne može zarobiti dok je u službi tih brodova, bez obzira na to da li na njima ima ili nema ranjenika i bolesnika

Članak37

Vjersko, sanitetsko i bolnićko osoblje namijenjeno medicinskoj ili duhovnoj njezi osoba određenih u člancima 12. i 13, koje padne pod vlast neprijatelja, poštovat će se i štititi; ono može nastaviti obavljati svoje du~nosti dokle ~od je to potrebno za njegu ranjenika i bolesnika Ono će nakon toga biti vraćeno ćim to zapovjednik u ćijoj se vlasti nalazi ocijeni mogućim. Prilikom napuštanja broda sa sobom može ponijeti osobnu imovinu.

Ako se, međutim, pokaže nuinim da se dio to~ osoblja zadr~zi zbog zdravstvenih ili duhovnih potreba ratnih zarobljenika, poduzet će se sve mjere da se iskrca ~to je prije moguće.

Nakon iskrcavanja zadržano se osoblje podvr"ma odredbama Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje polora~a ranjenika i bolesnika u oružanim snagama u ratu od I'? kolovoza 1949.

GLAVA V. SANITETSKI TRANSPORTI

Članak 38.

Brodovi unajmljeni u tu svrhu ovlašteni su da prevoze opremu namijenjenu isključivo njezi ranjenika i bolesnika oruianih snaga ili sprečavanju bolesti, pod uvjetom da su pojedinosti o njihovu putovanju priopćene protivničkoj sili i da je ona na njih pristala. Protivnička sila pridr~zava pravo da te brodove pregleda, ali ne da ih uzapti ili zaplijeni opremu koju prevoze.

Na temelju sporazuma između stranaka sukoba, neutralni se promatrači mogu ukrcati na te brodove da bi provjerili opremu koja se prevozi. U tu svrhu pristup toj opremi mora biti slobodan.

Članak 39.

Sanitetski zrakoplovi, to jest zrakoplovi koji se upotrebIjavaju iskljućivo za evakuaciju ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca te za prijevoz saitltetskog osoblja i opreme, neće biti predmet napada, nego će ih stranke sukoba poštovati dok lete na visinama, u vrijeme i po rutama kako su se sve zainteresirane za.raćene stranke međusobno izričito sporazumjele.

Oni će, uz državne boje, na donjoj, gornjoj i boćnim površinama nositi jasan znak raspoznavanja predviđen u Članku 41. Bit će opskrbljeni svim drugim oznakama ili sredstvima za identifikaciju, određenima sporazumom između stranaka sukoba na poćetku ili tijekom neprijateljstava.

Ako nije drukčije ugovoreno, nadlijetanje neprijateljskog područja ili područja pod neprijateljskom okupacijom je zabranjeno.

Sanitetski se zrakoplovi moraju pokoriti svakom nalogu za slijetanje na kopno ili na vodu. U slućaju tako naloženog slijetanja na kopno ili na vodu, zrakoplov s osobama koje se u njemu nalaze može nastaviti let nakon mogućeg pregleda.

U slučaju nepredviđenog slijetanja, na kopno ili na vodu, na neprijateljsko područje ili na područje pod neprijateljskom okupacijom, ranjenici, bolesnici i brodolomci, kao i posada zrakoplova, bit će ratni zarobljenici. Sa sanitetskim će se osobljem postupati u skladu s Članncima 36. i 37.

Članak40.

Poštujući odredbe drugoga stavka, sanitetski zrakoplovi stranaka sukoba mogu nadlijetati područje neutralnih sila i sletjeti na kopno ili na vodu u slućaju potrebe ili da bi kasnije nastavili let. Neutralnim silama moraju prethodno notificirati svoj prolazak preko njihova područja i pokoravati se svim nalozima za slijetanje na kopno ili na vodu. Od napada će biti zaštićeni samo dok lete na visinama, u vrijeme i po rutama kako su se stranke sukoba i zainteresirane neutralne sile međusobno izrićito sporazumjele.

Neutralne sile, međutim, mogu postaviti uvjete ili ogranićenja glede prolaska ili slijetanja sanitetskih zrakoplova na svoje područje. Takvi se mogući uvjeti ili ogranićenja jednako primjenjuju na sve stranke sukoba.

Ako nije drukćije dogovoreno između neutralne sile i stranaka sukoba, ranjenike, bolesnike ili brodolomce koji su, uz pristanak mjesne vlasti, iskrcani iz sanitetskog zrakoplova na neutralno područje zadriat će neutralna sila, kad to zahtijeva međunarodno pravo, kako ne bi mogli ponovno sudjelovati u ratnim operacijama Troškove njihova smještaja i mternacije snosi sila kojoj ranjenici, bolesnici ili brodolomci pripadaju

 

GLAVA VI.

ZNAK RASPOZNAVANJA Članak 41.

Pod nadzorom nadleine vojne vlasti, obiljeije crvenog križa na bijelom polju istiće se na zastavama, na trakama oko ruke i na svoj opremi koja se upotrebljava u sanitetskoj sluibi.

Međutim, za zemlje koje kao znak raspoznavanja, umjesto crvenog kriia, već upotrebljavaju crveni polumjesec ili crvenog lava i crveno sunce na bijelom polju, ta su obiljeija također priznata u smislu ove Konvencije.

Članak 42.

Osoblje navedeno u člancima 36. i 37. nosi, pričvršćenu na lijevoj ruci, traku otpornu na vlagu sa znakom raspoznavanja, izdatu i žigosanu od vojne vlasti.

To osoblje, osim identifikacijske pločice predviđene u Članku 19, nosi i posebnu osobnu iskaznicu sa znakom raspoznavanja. Ta iskaznica, mora biti otporna na vlagu i biti takve veličine da se moie nositi u diepu. Ispisana je na nacionalnom jeziku, sadiži barem prezime i imena, datum rodenja, čin i matični.broj nosioca te označuje svojstvo u kojemu on ima pravo na zaštitu ovom Konvencijom. Iskaznica sadrzi fotografiju nosioca i, uz to, ili njegov potpis, ili njegove otiske prstiju, ili oboje. Na njoj je utisnut suhi iig vojne vlasti.

Osobna iskaznica mora biti jednoobrazna u istim oruianim snagama i, utoliko koliko je to moguće, po istom uzorku u oruianim snagama visokih stranaka ugovornica. Stranke sukoba mogu se posluiiti uzorkom koji je kao primjer priloien ovoj Konvenciji. Na poćetku neprijateljstava jedna će drugu obavijestiti o uzorku što ga upotrebljava. Svaka se osobna iskaznica, po mogućnosti, izraduje u najmanje dva primjerka, od kojih jedan čuva sila čiji je nosilac pripadnik.

Ni u kojem sluća.ju spomenuto osoblje ne moie biti lišeno svojih oznaka ni prava da nosi traku oko ruke. U slučaju da ih izgubi, ima pravo dobiti duplikate iskaznica i zamjenu za oznake.

Članak 43.

Brodovi i druga plovila navedeni u Člancima 22, 24, 25. i 27. raspoznavat će se ovako:

a) sve će njihove vanjske površine biti bijele;

b) jedan ili više što je moguće većih tamno crvenih kriieva bit će naslikano na svakoj strani trupa i na vodoravnim površinama na takav načinda se osigura najbolja moguća vidljivost s mora i iz zraka.

Svi će bolnički brodovi biti prepoznattjivi isticanjem svoje državne zastave i, uz to, ako pripadaju nekoj neutralnoj državi, zastave stranke sukoba pod čijim se vodstvom nalaze. Bijela se zastava s crvenim kriiem mora vijoriti što je moguće više na glavnom jarbolu.

čamci za spašavanje bolničkih brodova, obalni ćamci za spašavanje i sva mala plovila što ih utporebljava sanitetska sluiba bit će obojeni u bijelo s jasno vidljivim tamno crvenim križevima i na njih se, općenito, primjenjuju gore propisani načini identifikacije bolnićkih brodova

Gore spomenuti brodovi i druga plovila, koji si noću i u uvjetima ogranićene vidljivosti iele osigurati r.a~titu na koju imaju pravo, moraju, uz pristanak stranke sukoba u ći~ol se vlasti nalaze, poduzeti potrebne mjere da bi sv~ju boju i obiljeija raspoznavanja učinili dovoljno uočljivima

 

Bolnićki brodovi što ih je, u skladu sČlannkom 31, neprijatelj privremeno zadrzao, moraju spustiti zastavu stranke sukoba u ćijoj su slui,bi ili čije su vodstvo prihvatili.

Obalnim ćamcima za spašavanje, ako, uz pristanak okupacijske sile, nastave djelovati iz okupirane baze, moie se dopustiti da i dalje ističu vlastite dri.avne boje istodobno sa zastavom s crvenim križem kad se nalaze izvan svoje baze, pod uvjetom prethodne notifikacije svim zainteresiranim strankama sukoba.

Sve odredbe ovoga Članka koje se odnose na crveni krii jednako se primjenjuju na ostala obilježja spomenuta u Članku 41.

Stranke sukoba moraju u svako doba nastojati sklopiti međusobne sporazume radi upotrebe najsuvremenijih sredstava kojima raspolai.u da bi se olakšala indentifikacija brodova i drugih plovila navedenih u ovome Članku.

Članak 44.

Znaci raspoznavanja predviđeni u Članku 43. mogu se, bilo u vrijeme mira iIi u vrijeme rata, upotrebljavati samo radi oznaćavanja ili zaštite spomenutih brodova, izuzimajući slučajeve koji bi bili predviđeni nekom drugom međunarodnom konvencijom ili sporazumom između svih zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba.

Članak 45.

Visoke stranke ugovornice, ćije zakonodavstvo još nije odgovarajuće, poduzet će potrebne mjere da bi se u svako doba sprijećila i suzbila svaka zloupotreba znakova raspoznavanja predviđenih u Članku 43.

GLAVA VII. IZVRŠAVANJE KONVENCIJE

Članak 46.

Svaka će stranka sukoba, preko svojih vrhovnih zapovjednika, osigurati podrobno izvršavanje prethodnih Članaka i urediti nepredviđene slućajeve, sukladno općim načelima ove Konvencije.

Članak 47.

Zabranjene su represalije prema ranjenicima, bolesnicima, brodolomcima, osoblju, brodovima, zgradama ili opremi zaštićenih Konvencijom.

Članak 48.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će u svojim odnosnim zemljama što je više moguće, u vrijeme mira i u vrijeme rata, vršiti difuziju teksta ove Konvencije i, osobito, da će njegovo proućavanje unijeti u vojne i, po mogućnosti, u civilne obrazovne programe, kako bi se s načelima Konvencije upoznalo cjelokupno stanovništvo, a osobito oružane snage koje sudjeluju u borbama, sanitetsko osoblje i vojni svećenici.

Članak 49.

Visoke stranke ugovornice dostavljat će jedna drugoj, posredovanjem ~vicarskoga saveznog vijeća, a za vrijeme neprijateljstava posredovanjem sila zaštitnica, službene prijevode ove Konvencije, kao i zakone i pravilnike sto bi ih usvojile kako bi osigurale njezinu primjenu.

GLAVA VIII.

SUZBIJANJE ZLOUPOTREBA I POVREDA

Članak 50

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poduzeti sve zakonodavne mjere potrebne radi utvrđivanja odgovarajućih kaznenih sankcipL protiv osoba koje su poćinile ili koje su izdale naredbu da se poćini bilo koja od teških povreda ove Konvencije određenih u slijedećem članku.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica obvezana je da pronalazi osobe osumnpćene da su počinile ili da su naredile

da se poćini bilo koja od tih teških povreda f mora ih, bez obzira na njihovo državljanstvo, izvesti pred svoje sudove. Ako to izabere, ona isto tako može, prema odredbama svoga zakonodavstva, predati te osobe radi sudenja drugoj visokoj stranki ugovornici zainteresiranoj za njihov progon, pod uvjetom da ta visoka stranka ugovornica raspolaže prima faciae dokazima.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica poduzet će potrebne mjere radi suzbijanja svih ćina suprotnih odredbama ove Konvencije koji nisu teške povrede određene u slijedećem Članku.

Optužene će osobe u svakoj prilici uživati jamstva glede propisanog sudenja i obrane, koja neće biti manja od onih predviđenih Člancima 105. i slijedećima Ženevske konvencije o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Članak 51.

Teške povrede na koje se odnosi prethodni Članak jesu one koje obuhvaćaju bilo koji od ovih ćina, ako su počinjeni protiv osoba ili imovine zaštićenih Konvencijom: namjerno ubojstvo, mućenje ili nećovječno pustupanje, uključujući biološke pokuse, nam Lerno prouzrokovanje velikih patnji ili teških oštećenja fizičkog integriteta ili zdravlja te uništenje i prisvajanje imovine, koje nije opravdano vojnim potrebama i koje je izvršeno u velikim razmjerima, protupravno i samovoljno.

Članak 52.

Nijedna visoka stranka ugovornica ne može osloboditi sebe, niti drugu visoku stranku ugovornicu, odgovornosti koju ona sama ili ta druga visoka stranka ugovornica snosi za povrede predviđene u prethodnome Članku.

Članak 53.

Na zahtjev stranke sukoba mora se zbog svakoga navodnog kršenja Konvencije pokrenuti istraga, na način što ga utvrduju zainteresirane stranke.

Ako se ne postigne sporazum o postupku istrage, stranke će se složiti o izboru arbitra koji odlučuje o postupku što ga treba provesti.

Pošto je kršenje ustanovljeno, stranke sukoba će ga zaustaviti i suzbiti što je brie moguće.

ZAVRŠNE ODREDBE

Članak 54.

Ova je Konvencija sastavljena na engleskom i francuskom jeziku. Oba su teksta jednako vjerodostojna.

Švicarsko savezno vijeće dat će izraditi službene prijevode Konvencije na ruski i španjolski jezik.

Članak 55.

Ova Konvencija, koja nosi današnji datum, otvorena je do t2. veljaće 1950. za potpisivanje u ime sila zastupljenih na Konferenciji koja je zapoćela u Ženevi 2t. travnja 1949, kao i sila koje nisu zastupljene na toj Konferenciji, ali su stranke X. haške konvencije od I8. listopada 1907. o prilagodbi naćela Ženevske konvencije iz 1906. na pomorski rat ili 2,enevskih konvencija iz 1864, iz 1906. ili iz 1929. za poboljšanje položaja ranjenika i bolesnika u vojskama u ratu

Članak 56.

Ova će se Konvencija ratificirati što je prije moguće, a ratifikacije se polažu u Bernu.

O polaganju svake isprave o ratifikaciji sastavlja se -r.apisnik, kojeg ovjerene prijepise Svicarsko savezno vijeće dostavlja svim silama u čije je ime Konvencija potpisana ili čiji je pristup notificiran.

Članak 57.

Ova Konvencija stupa na snagu šest mjeseci nakon što budu položene najmanje dvije isprave o ratifikaciji.

Poslije toga ona stupa na snagu za svaku visoku stranku ugovornicu šest mjeseci nakon polaganja njezine isprave o ratifikaciji.

Članak 58.

U odnosima između visokih stranaka ugovornica ova Konvencija zamjenjuje X. hašku konvenciju od 18. listopada 1907. o prilagodbi naćela Ženevske konvencije iz 1906. na pomorski rat.

Članak 59.

Od dana stupanja na snagu ova će Konvencija biti otvorena za. pristupanje svakoj sili u čije ime ova Konvencija nije potpisana.

Članak 60.

Pristupi se pismeno notificiraju švicarskom saveznom vijeću, a počinju djelovati šest mjeseci nakon datuma njihova primitka.

Svicarsko savezno vijeće obavijestit će o pristupima sve sile u ćije je ime Konvencija potpisana ili čiji je pristup notificiran.

Članak 61.

U slučajevima predviđenima u Članncima 2. i 3, za stranke sukoba koje su poloiile isprave o ratifikaciji ili notificirale pristup prije ili nakon poćetka neprijateljstava ili okupacije, Konvencija stupa na snagu odmah. ~vicarsko će savezno vijeće na najbrii mogući načinobavijestiti o ratifikacijama ili pristupima primljenima od stranaka sukoba.

Članak 62.

Svaka je visoka stranka ugovornica slobodna da otkaže ovu Konvenciju.

Otkaz se pismeno notificira ~vicarskom saveznom vijeću. Ono će o notifikaciji obavijestiti vlade svih visokih stranaka ugovornica.

Otkaz počinje djelovati godinu dana nakon što je notificiran ~vicarskom saveznom vijeću. Međutim, otkaz notificiran u vrijeme kad sila koja otkazuje sudjeluje u nekom sukobu ne djeluje do zakljućenja mira i u svakom slućaju tak dugo dok operacije oslobadanja i repatriranja osoba za,štićenih ovom Konvencijom ne budu završene.

Otkaz vrijedi samo za silu koja otkazuje. On ni na koji načinne djeluje na obveze što su ih stranke sukoba dui,ne ispunjavati na temetju naćela međunarodnog prava koja proizlaze iz obićaja ustanovljenih među civiliziranim narodima, iz zakona čovječnosti i iz zahtjeva javne savjesti.

Članak 63.

švicarsko savezno vijeće registrirat će ovu Konvenciju kod Tajništva Ujedinjenih naroda. ~vicarsko će savezno vijeća, također, obavještavati Tajništvo Ujedinjenih naroda o svim primtjenim ratifikacijama, pristupima i otkazima što se tiću ove Konvencije.

U potvrdu loga su potpisani, pošto su položili svoje odnosne punomoći, potpisali ovu Konvenciju

Sastavljeno u Ženevi, 12. kolovoza 19a9, na engleskom i francuskom jeziku. Izvornik će se položiti u arhive Svicarske Konfederacije. ~vicarsko će savezno vijeće dostaviti ovjerene prijepise Konvencije svim dr”zavama potpisnicama i onima koje budu pristupile.

ŽENEVSKA KONVENCIJA O POSTUPANJU S RATNIM ZAROBLJENICIMA OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949.

Potpisani opunomoćenici vlada, zastupljenih na Diplomatskoj konferenciji odr'canoj u Ženevi od 21, travnja od t2. kolovoza 1949. radi revizije Konvencije sklopljene u Ženevi 27. srpnja 1929. o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima, sporazumjeli su se kako slijedi:

DIO I. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 1.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poštovati ovu Konvenciju i da će joj osigurati poštovanje u svim okolnostima.

Članak2.

Osim odredaba koje treba da stupe na snagu još u vrijeme mira, ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati u slućaju objavljenog rata ili svakoga drugoga oružanog sukoba koji izbije između dviju ili više visokih stranaka ugovornica, ćak i ako jedna od njih ne priznaje ratno stanje.

Konvencija će se također primjenjivati u svim slućajevima okupacije ćitavoga ili dijela područja visoke stranke ugovornice, čak i ako ta okupacija ne naide ni na kakav vojni otpor.

Ako jedna sila u sukobu nije stranka ove Konvencije, sile stranke Konvencije ipak ostaju njome vezane u svojim međusobnim odnosima. One će, osim toga, biti vezane Konvencijom u odnosu na tu silu, ako ta sila prihvaća i primjenjuje njezine odredbe.

Članak 3.

U slućaju oružanog sukoba koji nema međunarodni karakter i koji izbije na području jedne od visokih stranaka ugovornica, svaka stranka sukoba dužna je primjenjivati barem ove odredbe:

1. S osobama koje izravno ne sudjeluju u neprijateljstvima, ukljućujući pripadnike oruianih snaga koji su poloiili oruije i osobe koje su izvan bojnog ustroja ("hors de combat-) zbog bolesti, rana, lišenja slobode ili bilo kojega drugog razloga, u svakoj će se prilici postupati ćovječno bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga m rasi, boji kože, vjeroispovijedi ili uvjerenju, spolu, rodenji ili imovinskom stanju, ili bilo kojem drugom slićnom krite riju.

U tu su svrhu prema gore navedenim osobama zabra njeni i ostaju zabranjeni, u svako doba i na svakom mjestu ovi ćini

a) nasilje protiv života i tijela, osobito sve vrste ubojsta va, sakaćenja, okrutnog postupanja i mućenja;

b) uzimanje talaca.

c) povrede osobno~ dostojanstva. osobito uvredljivi poniž.avajući postupci:

d) izricanje i izvršaeanje kazni bez prethodnog sudenj. pred redovito ustanovljenirn sudorn, koji pruža sva sudsk jamstv"a prizuata kao nužna od civilizir,rnih naroda

2. Ranjenici i holesnicr prikupit će se i njegovatiSvaka nepr-istrana hurnanitarna organizacija, kao št je Međunarodni odbor Crvenog kriia, rnože strankama st koba ponuditi svoje usluge

S druge strane, stranke sukoba nastojat će posebnimT sporazumima osnaiiti sve ili dio ostalih odredaba ove Konvencije. .

Primjena ptethodnih odredaba ne utjeće na pravni poloiaj stranaka sukoba.

Članak 4.

A. Ratni zarobljenici, u smislu ove Konvencije, jesu osobe koje pripadaju jednoj od ovih kategorija, a koje su pale pod vlast neprijatelja:

1. pripadnici oruianih snaga stranke sukoba, kao i pripadnici milicija i dobrovoljačkih odreda koji ulaze u sastav tih oružanih snaga;

2. pripadnici osta.lih milicija i pripadnici ostalih dobrovoljačkih odteda, uključujući i pripadnike organiziranih pokreta otpora, koji pripadaju stranki sukoba i koji djeluju izvan ili unutar vlastitog područja, čak i ako je ono okupirano, pod uvjetom da te milicije ili dobrovoljački odredi, uključujući i te organizirane~pokrete otpora, ispunjavaju ove uvjete:

a) da im na ćelu stoji osoba odgovorna za svoje potćinjene;

b) da imaju određeni i na daljinu prepoznatljiv znak raspoznavanja;

c) da otvoreno nose orui.je;

d) da svoje operacije izvode u skladu s ratnim zakonima i običajima;

3. pripadnici redovitih oruianih snaga koji, izraze vjernost nekoj vladi ili vlasti koju nije priznala sila u ćijoj su vlasti;

4. osobe koje prate oružane snage a da im neposredno ne pripadaju, kao i civilni Člannovi posada vojnih zrakoplova, ratni dopisnici, dobavljači, Članovi radnih jedinica čija je duinost briga o udobnosti oruianih snaga, pod uvjetom da su za to dobile odobrenje od oružanih snaga koje prate i koje su im u tu svrhu izdale osobnu iskaznicu slićnu priloienom uzorku;

5. Članovi posada, uključujući zapovjednike, pilote i vježbenike, trgovačke mornarice te posade civilnog zrakoplovstva stranaka sukoba, koji ne uživaju povoljniji postupak na temelju drugih odredaba međunarodnog prava;

6. stanovništvo neokupiranog područja koje se prilikom približavanja neprijatelja spontano lati oružja da bi se oduprlo postrojbama napadača, ne imajući vremena organizirati se kao redovite oružane snage, ako otvoreno nosi oruije i ako poštuje ratne zakone i običaje,

B. Isto će tako pogodnosti postupka prema ratnim zarobljenicima na temelju ove Konvencije uživati:

1. osobe koje pripadaju ili su pripadale oruianim snagama okupirane zemlje ako, zbog te pripadnosti, okupacijska sila, čak i ako ih je prvo pustila na slobodu dok su se neprijateljstva nastavila izvan područja što ga ona okupira, smatra potrebnim da ih internira, osobito nakon neuspjelog pokušaja tih osoba da se spoje s oružanim snagama kojima pripadaju i koje sudjeluju u borbi, ili ako se ne pokore nalogu koji im je dan radi internacije;

2. osobe koje pripadaju nekoj od kategorija nabrojanih u ovome Članku i koje su neutralne ili nezaraćene sile primile na svoje podtučje, a koje su te sile na temelju međunarodnog prava dužne internirati, ne dirajući u svaki povoljniji postupak što im ga te sile mogu priznati i izuzimajući odredbe Članaka 8, 10, t 5, 30, stavak peti, 58. do 67, 92 i 126 te, kad između stranaka sukoba i dotične neutralne ili ne

zaraćene sile postoje diplomatski odnosi, odredbe koje ~se odnose na silu zaštitnicu. Kad takvi diplomatski odnosi postoje, stranke sukoba o kojima te osobe ovise ovlaštene su da glede njih obavljaju funkcije koje na temelju ove Konvencije pripadaju sili zaštitnici, ne dirajući u funkcije što ih te stranke redovito obavljaju sukladno diplomatskim i konzularnim obićajima i međunarodnim ugovorima.

C. Ovaj Članak ne utjeće na status sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja kako je predviđen Člannkom 33. ove Konvencije.

Članak 5.

Ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati na osobe navedene u Članku 4. ćim padnu pod vlast neprijatelja pa do njihova konaćno oslobodenja i repatrijacije.

Ako postoji sumnja pripadaju li osobe koje su izvršile neki ratni čin i koje su pale u ruke neprijatelju nekoj od kategorija nabrojanih u Članriku 4, te će osobe uživati zaštitu ove Konvencije sve dok nadležni sud ne utvrdi njihov status.

Članak6.

Osim sporazuma izrijekom predviđenih Članncima 10, 23, 28, 33, 60, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 109, l 10, 118, 119, 122. i 132, visoke stranke ugovornice mogu sklapati druge posebne sporazume o svakom pitanju za koje budu smatrale da ga treba posebno urediti. Nijedan posebni sporazum ne moie pogoršati položaj ratnih zarobljenika kako je ureden ovom Konvencijom, niti ogranićiti prava koja im ova Konvencija priznaje.

Ratni zarobljenici uživaju pogodnosti iz tih sporazuma dokle god se Konvencija na njih primjenjuje, osim ako su suprotne odredbe izrijekom sadržane u spomenutim ili u kasnijim sporazumima ili ako neka od stranaka sukoba poduzme prema njima povoljnije mjere.

Članak 7.

Ratni zarobljenici ne mogu se ni u kojem slućaju, ni djelomice niti u cijelosti, odreći prava koja im osiguravaju ova Konvencija i posebni sporazumi spomenuti u prethodnome Članku, ako takvih bude

Članak 8.

Ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati uz sudjelovanje i pod nadzorom sila zaštitnica, ćija je dužnost da štite interese stranaka sukoba. U tu svrhu sile zaštitnice mogu, uz svoje diplomatsko ili konzularno osoblje, imenovati delegate među vlastitim državljanima ili rnedu državljanima drugih neutralnih sila. Za te se delegate mora dobiti privola sile kod koje će oni obavljati svoju misiju

Stranke sukoba u najvećoj će mogućoj mjeri olakšavati zadatak predstavnika ili delegata sila zaštitnica. Predstavnici ili delegati sile za5titnica ne smiju ni u ko

jem slućaju prekoraćiti okvire swoje misije, kako to proizlazi iz ove Konvencije; oni osobrto rnoraju voditi računa o imperativnim potrebama sigurnostr države u kojoj obavljaju svoje dužnosti.

Članak 9.

Odredbe ove Konvencrje ne pryeće humanitarne aktivnosti koje će Međunarodni odbor-C:rvenog križa, kao i svaka druga neprist.rana humannarna organi-r.acija. uz privolu zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba. podu-rirnati radi zaštite i pružanja pomoći ratmm zarot~l~ernc~ma

Članak 10.

Visoke stranke ugovornice mogu se u svako doba složi- , ti o tome da obavljanje zadataka, što ih ova Konvencija postavlja silama zaštitnicama, povjere nekoj organizaciji koja pruža sva jamst.va za nepristranost i djelotwrnost

Ako se ratni zarobljenici iz bilo kojega razloga ne koriste ili više ne koriste djelovanjem sile zaštitnice ili organizacije određene sukladno prvome stavku, sila koja ih drži mora zatražiti od neke neutralne dri.ave ili od neke takve organiza.cije da preuzme funkcije što ih na temelju ove Konvencije obavljaju sile zaštitnice određene od stranaka sukoba.

Ako se na taj načinne može osigurati, sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike mora zatražiti od neke humanitarne organizacije, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Grvenog križa, da preuzme humanitarne zadatke što ih na temelju ove Konvencije obavljaju sile zaštitnice ili mora, sukladno odredbama ovoga Članka, prihvatiti usluge koje joj ponudi neka takva organizacija. . . .

Svaka neutralna sila ili svaka organizacija koju je pozvala zainteresirana sila, ili koja je u navedene svrhe ponudila svoje usluge, mora u svojem djelovanju ostati svjesna odgovornosti prema stranki sukoba i mora pružiti dovoljna jamstva da je u stanju preuzeti odnosne funkcije i nepristrano ih obavljati.

Od prethodnih odredaba ne može se odstupiti posebnim sporazumom između sila od kojih bi jedna, makar i privremeno, prema drugoj sili ili njezinim saveznicima bila ogranićena u slobodi pregovaranja zbog vojnih dogadaja, osobito u slućaju okupacije ćitavog ili znatnog dijela njezina područja.

Kad god se u ovoj Konvenciji spominje sila zaštitnica, taj se izraz ujedno primjenjuje i na organizacije koje je zamjenjuju u smislu ovoga Članka.

Članak 11.

U svim slućajevima kad one to budu smatrale korisnim u interesu zaštićenih osoba, osobito u slućaju neslaganja između stranaka sukoba o primjeni ili tumaćenju odredaba ove Konvencije, sile zaštitnice pružit će dobre usluge radi rješavanja spora.

U tu svrhu svaka od sila zaštitnica može, na poziv jedne stranHe ili samoinicijativno, predložiti strankama sukoba sastanak njihovih predstavnika, osobito organa vlasti odgovornih za ratne zarobljenike, po mogućnosti na prikladno odabranom neutralnom području. Stranke sukobadužne su provesti prijedloge o sastanku koji su im podneseni. Sile zaštitnice mogu, ako je to potrebno. predložiti strankama sukoba na privolu lićnost koja pripada nekoj neutralnoj sili ili koju uputi Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa, a koja će biti pozvana da sudjeluje na tom sastanku.

D I O II.

OPĆA ZAŠTITA RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA

Članak 12.

Ratni su zarobljenici u vlasti neprijateljske sile, ali ne pojedinaca ili vojnih jedinica koji su ih -rarobili Neovisno od individualnih odgovornosti koje mogu postojati, sila koja ih c~rii odgovorna je za postupak koji se prema njima primjenjuje.

e Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike mo~e ih predati samo sili koja je stranka ove Konvencije i pošto se sila koja~h drži uvjeri da je dotična sila voljna i u stanju primjenjivati Konvenciju. Kad su ratni zarobljenici na taj načinpredani.

odgovornost za primjenu Konvencije snosi sila koja je pristala da ih primi za, vrijeme za koje su joj oni povjereni. '

Međutim, ako ta sila ne izvrši odredbe Konvencije glede bilo kojega važnog pitanja, sila koja je predala ratne zarobljenike mora, nakon notifikacije sile zaštitnice, poduzeti djelotvorne mjere radi otklanjanja takvog stanja ili zahtijevati da joj se ratni zarobljehici vrate. Takvom se zahtjevu mora udovoljiti.

Članak 13.

S ratnim se zarobljenicima u svako doba mora postupati ćovječno. Svaki protupravni ćin ili propust sile koja iz drži, a koji prouzroći smrt ili dovede u ozbiljnu opasnost zdravlje ratnog zarobljenika koji se nalazi u njezinoj vlasti, zabranjen je i smatra se teškom povredom ove Konvencije. Posebice, nijedan ratni zarobljenik ne smije biti podvrgnut fizičkom sakaćenju ili medicinskom ili znanstvenom pokusu bilo koje prirode, ako to nije opravdano lijećenjem ratnog zarobljenika i nije u njegovu interesu.

Ratni se zarobljenici isto tako moraju u svako doba osobito štititi od svakog ćina nasilja ili zastrašivanja, uvreda i javne radoznalosti.

Zabranjene ,su represalije prema ratnim zarobljenicima.

Članak 14.

Ratni zarobljenici imaju u svakoj prilici pravo na poštovanje svoje ličnosti i ćasti.

Prema ženama se mora postupati sa svim dužnim obzirima prema njihovu spolu i one u svakom slučaju moraju uživati jednako povoljan postupak kao što je onaj koji se jamći muškarcima.

Ratni za,robljenici zadržavaju svoju punu pravnu osobnost kakva je postojala u trenutku zarobljavanja. Sila koja iz drži može ogranićiti vršenje prava koja proizlaze iz te osobnosti, bilo na svom području ili izvan njega, samo u onoj mjeri u kojoj to zarobljeništvo zahtijeva.

Članak 15.

Sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike mora osigurati njihovo besplatno uzdržavanje i pružiti im besplatnu medicinsku njegu koju zahtijeva njihovo zdravstveno stanje

Članak 16.

Vodeći računa o odredbama ove Konvencije koje se odnose na ćin, kao i na spol, i uz rezervu povlaštenog postupka koji bi se priznao ratnim zarobljenicima zbog njihova zdravstvenog stanja, dobi ili strućne kvalifikacije, sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike postupat će sa svima njima na isti način, bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga na rasi, dri.avljanstvu, vjeroispovijedi, političkom mišljenju ili bilo kojem drugom slićnom kriteriju.

D I O III.

ZAROBLJENIŠTVO

ODJELJAK I

POĆETAK ZAROBLJENIŠTVA

Članak 17.

Svaki ratni zarobljenik mora reći, kad o tome bude ispitivan, samo svoje prezime, imena i ćin, datum rođenja i matićni broj ili, u nedostatku toga, naznaku jednake crydnosti.

Ako on namjerno prekrši to pravilo, izlaže se opasnoso da mu se ogranići uživanje pogodnosti koje ae prizn~ju zarobljenicima njegova ćina i poloiaja

Svaka stranka sukoba mora opskrbiti svaku osobu koja se nalazi pod njezinom jurisdikcijom, a koja može postati ratni zarobljenik, osobnom iskaznicom koja sadrii njezino ' prezime, imena i ćin, matični broj ili naznaku jednake vrijednosti i datum rodenja. Ta osobna iskaznica moie, osim ~ toga, sadržavati potpis ili otiske prstiju, ili oboje, kao i sve druge naznake koje stranke sukoba budu željele dodati o osobama koje pripadaju njihovim oružanim snagama. Utoliko koliko je to moguće, ona je veličine 6,5 x ~0 cm i izdaje se u dva primjerka. Ratni zarobljenik mora pokazati tu osobnu iskaznicu na svaki zahtjev, ali mu se ona ni u kojem slučaju ne može oduzeti.

Nad ratnim zarobljenicima ne smije se vršiti nikakvo fizičko ili mentalno mućenje, niti ikakva prisila da bi se od njih dobile informacije bilo koje vrste. Zarobljenicima koji odbiju odgovarati ne smije se prijetiti, ne smiju se vrijedati,niti mogu biti izloieni bilo kakvom neugodnom ili nepovoljnom postupku.

Ratni zarobljenici koji su, s obzirom na svoje fizičko ili mentalno stanje, nesposobrri dati svoje osobne podatke, predat će se sanitetskoj službi. Identitet tih za,robljenika ustanovit će se svim raspoloživim sredstvima, u okviru odredaba prethodnoga stavka.

Ratni se zarobljenici ispituju na jeziku koji razumiju.

Članak 18.

Sve stvari i predmeti za osobnu upotrebu - osim oružja, konja, vojne opreme i vojnih dokumenata - ostaju u posjedu ratnih zarobljenika, kao i metalni šljemovi, za,štitne maske protiv plinova i svi drugi predmeti koji su im bili dani radi njihove osobne zaštite. U njihovu posjedu također ostaju stvari i predmeti koji sluie za njihovo odijevanje i ishranu, čak i ako te stvari i predmeti pripadaju njihovoj sluibenoj vojnoj opremi.

Ratni zarobljenici ni u jednom trenutku ne smiju biti bez osobne isprave. Sila koja ih drii izdat će takvu ispravu ratnim zarobljenicima koji je nemaju.

Oznake čina i državljanstva, odlikovanja i predmeti koji imaju pretežno osobnu vrijednost ili vrijednost osjećajne prirode ne smiju se oduzeti ratnim zarobljenicima.

Novac koji ratni zarobljenici imaju kod sebe smije im se oduzeti samo po naredbi časnika, nakon što se na poseban popi~ zabitježe iznos i podaci o njegovu vlasniku i nakon što mu se izda priznanica sa svim pojedinostima, uključujući ćitku naznaku imena, ćina i jedinice osobe koja je izdala tu priznanicu. Novac u valuti sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike ili koji je, na zahtjev ratnog zarobijenika, zamijenjen za tu valutu, uknjiiit će se u korist računa zarobljenika, u skladu s Člannkom 64.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike može im oduzeti dragocjenosti samo zbog sigurnosti. U tom slućaju primijenit će se isti postupak kao i prilikom oduzimanja novca.

Te predmete, kao i novac koji je oduzet u nekoj drugoj valuti, koja nije valuta sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike i ćiji vlasnik nije tražio zamjenu, mora ćuvati sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike i oni se zarobljeniku, po svršetku njegova zarobljeništva, moraju vratiti u njihovom prvobitnom obliku.

Članak 19.

Ratni će se zarobljenici po svom zarobljavanju, u najkraćem mogućem roku, evakuirati u logore dovoljno udaljene od bojne zone, kako bi bili izvan opasnosti.

Mogu se, privremeno, zadržati u opasnoj zoni samo oni ratni zarobljenici koji bi, zbog rana ili bolesti, bili izloieni većoj opasnosti prilikom evakuacije nego kad bi ostali tamo gdje jesu.

Dok oćekuju svoju evakuaciju iz bojne zone, ratni se zarobljenici ne smiju nepotrebno izlagati opasnosti.

Članak 20.

Ratni će se zarobljenici uvijek evakuirati ćovječno i u uvjetima sličnim onima što ih sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike osigurava svojim jedinicama prilikom pokreta.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike opskrbit će evakuirane ratne zarobljenike dostatnim kolićinama pitke vode i hrane, kao i potrebnom odjećom i medicinskom njegom; ona će poduzeti sve prikladne mjere opreza radi osiguranja njihove sigurnosti za vrijeme evakuacije i ustanovit će, čim to bude moguće, spisak evakuiranih zarobljenika.

Ako ratni zarobljenici, za vrijeme evakuacije, moraju proći kroz prolazne logore, njihov boravak u tim logorima bit će što je moguće kraći.

ODJELJAK II. INTERNIRANJE RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA

GLAVA I.

OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 21.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike može ih internirati. Ona im može nametnuti obvezu da se ne udaljuju izvan određene granice logora u kojem su internirani ili, ako je taj logor ograden, da ne prijedu njegovu ogradu. Uz rezervu odredaba ove Konvencije koje se odnose na kaznene i disciplinske sankcije, ti se zarobljenici mogu zatvoriti samo ako je to potrebno radi zaštite njihova zdravlja i to samo tako dugo i3ok traju okolnosti koje su to zatvaranje ućinile potrebnim.

Ratni se zarobljenici mogu djelomice ili potpuno pustiti na slobodu na riječ ili uz obećanje utoliko koliko to dopuštaju zakoni sile čiji su pripadnici. Ta će se mjera osobito primjenjivati u slučajevima kad može pridonijeti poboljšanju zdravstvenog stanja zarobljenika. Nijedan se zarobljenik neće prisiliti da prihvati oslobodenje na rijeć ili uz obećanje.

Čim započnu neprijateljstva, svaka stranka sukoba notificirat će protivnićkoj stranki zakone i pravilnike koji dopuštaju ili zabranjuju njezinim drLavljanima da prihvate oslobodenje na rijeć ili uz obećanje. Zarobljenici koji su pušteni na slobodu na rijeć ili uz obećanje, sul<ladno zakonima i pravilnicima koji su tako notificirani, moraju, vezani svojom osobnom ćašću, savjesno ispunjavati preuzete obveze i prema sili čiji su pripadnici i prema onoj koja ih je zarobila. U takvim slučajevima sila ćiji su oni pripadnici ne smije zahtijevati niti primiti od njih bilo kakvu uslugu koja je u suprotnosti s danom rijeći ili obećanjem.

Članak 22.

Ra.tni zarobljenici mogu biti internirani samo u prostorijama koje se nalaze na kopnu i koje u potpunosti ispunjavaju higijenske i zdravstvene uvjete; osim u posebnim slućajevima, kad to opravdava interes samih zarobljenika. njih se neće zatvarati u kaznene zavode.

Ratni zarobljenici internirani u nezdravim regyama ili u regijama gdje je podneblje za njih štetno, preselit će se ćim to bude moguće u regiju s povoljnijim podnebljem

Sila koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike okupit će rh u lo~ore ili u odjele logora vodeći računa o njihovu dri.avljansmu jeziku i običajima, pod uvjetom da ti zarobljenrcme buciu odvojeni od ratnih zarobljenika koji pripadaju oru7anim snagama u kojima su sluiili u trenutku kad su zarobl~em, osim ako sami na to pristanu.

Članak 23.

Nijedan se t-atni zarobljenik ne može ni u jednom tre- . nutku poslati ili zadriati u nekoj regiji u kojoj bi bio izložen vatri bojne zone, niti se smije upotrijebiti za to da svojom . nazoćnosti zaštiti od vojnih operacija određena mjesta ili određene regije.

Ratni će za,robljenici imati, u istoj mjeri kao i lokalno civilno stanovništvo, skloništa od bombardiranja iz zraka i drugih ratnih opasnosti; izuzimajući one među njima koji sudjeluju u zaštiti svojih logora od tih opasnosti, oni mogu otići u skloništa što je brie moguće, ćim bude dana uzbuna. Svaka druga zaštitna mjera koja bude poduzeta u korist stanovništva, primjenjuje se i na njih.

Sile koje dri.e ratne zarobljenike priopćavat će jedna drugoj, posredovanjem sila zaštitnica, sve korisne informacije o geografskom poloiaju zarobljeničkih logora.

Kad god obziri vojne prirode to dopuste, logori ratnih za,robljenika oznaćit će se po danu slovima PG ili PW, tako postavljenima da se jasno vide-iz zraka. Za,interesirane sile se, međutim, mogu sporazumjeti i o drukčijem načinu oznaćavanja. Na taj se načinmogu oznaćiti samo logori ratnih zarobljenika.

Članak 24.

Stalni prolazni logori ili stalni logori za razvrstavanje uredit će se u uvjetima slićnim onima koji su predviđeni u ovom odjeljku, a ratni će zarobljenici u njima uživati isti postupak kao i u drugim logorima.

GLAVA II.

SMJEŠTAJ, ISHRANA I ODLJEVANJE RATNIH ZAROBLIENIKA

Članak 25.

Uvjeti smještaja ratnih zarobljenika bit će jednako povoljni kao i oni koji su osigurani postrojbama sile koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike, a koje su smještene u istoj regiji. Ti uvjeti moraju odgovarati obićajima i navikama ratnih zarobljenika i ne smiju, ni u kojem slućaju, biti štetni za njihovo zdravlje.

Prethodne odredbe osobito će se primjenjivati na spavaonice ratnih zarobljenika, kako glede ukupne površine i minimalne z&premnine zraka, tako i opreme i posteljine, ukljućujući pokrivaće.

Prostorije namijenjene pojedinaćnoj ili zajednićkoj upotrebi ratnih zarobljenika moraju biti potpuno zaštićene od vlage, dostatno zagrijane i osvijetljene, osobito između sumraka i vremena kad se gasi svjetlost. Protiv opasnosti od poža.ra moraju se poduzeti sve mjere opreza.

U svim logorima u kojima borave žene ratni zarobljenici istodobno kad i ratni zarobljenici muškarci, moraju se osigurati odvojene spavaonice.

Članak 26.

Osnovni svakodnevni obrok bit će po količini, kakvoći i raznovrsnosti dostatan da bi se zarobljenici odri.ali u dobrom zdravlju i sprijećilo gubljenje na težini ili neishranjenost. Vodit će se također računa o načinu ishrane na koji su zarobljenici navikli.

Sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike davat će zarobljenicima koji rade dodatak u hrani potreban za obavljanje posla na kojem su zaposleni.

Ratnim će se zarobljenicima osigurati pitka voda u dostatnoj kolićini. Dopustit će se upotreba duhana.

Ratni će razobljenici sudjelovati, koliko je god to moguće, u pripremanju svojih obroka; u tu će svrhu oni moći biti zaposleni u kuhinjama. Njima će se, osim toga, pružiti mogućnost da sami pripremaju dodatke ishrani kojima budu raspolagali.

Za blagavaonice i menze moraju se osigurati prikladne prostorije.

Zabranjene su sve kolektivne disciplinske mjere koje se odnose na hranu.

Članak 27.

Sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike osigurat će im dostatnu količinu odjeće, rublja i obuće, vodeći pri tome računa o podneblju regije u kojoj se zarobljenici nalaze. Odore neprijateljske vojske koje je zaplijenila sila koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike moraju se upotrijebiti za odijevanje ratnih zarobljenika ako odgovaraju podneblju te zemlje.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike brinut će se o redovitoj zamjeni i popravku tih stvari. Uz to, ratni zarobljenici koji rade dobivat će prikladnu odjeću gdje god priroda posla to bude zahtijevala.

Članak 28.

U svim će logorima biti otvorene kantine u kojima ratni zarobljenici mogu nabavljati živežne namirnice, predmete redovite upotrebe, sapun i duhan, kojih prodajna cijena ne smije ni u kojem slućaju premašiti cijenu na mjesnom tr~zištu.

Dobit od kantina mora se upotrijebiti u korist ratnih zarobljenika; u tu će se svrhu ustanoviti poseban fond. Zarobljenićki predstavnik ima pravo surađivati u upravljanju kantinom i tim fondom.

Prilikom raspuštanja nekog logora, aktiva posebnog fonda predat će se nekoj međunarodnoj humanitarnoj organizaciji da bi se upotrijebila u korist ratnih zarobljenika istog dri,avljanstva kojeg su bili i zarobljenici koji su stvorili taj fond. U slućaju opće repatrijacije, ta aktiva ostaje sili koja drii ratne zarobljenike, osim ako se među zainteresiranim silama sklopi drukćiji sporazum.

GLA VA III.

HIGIJENA I MEDICINSKA NJEGA

Članak 29.

Sila koja dri,i ratne zarobljenike dužna je poduzeti sve higijenske mjere potrebne za osiguranje ćistoće i zdravlja u logoru i za sprečavanje epidemija.

Ra.tnim će zarobljenicima, danju i noću, stajati na raspolaganju higijenski uredaji i oni će se održavati u stalnom stanju čistoće. U logorima u kojima borave iene ratni zarobljenici, moraju im se osigurati odvojeni uredaji.

Uz to, osim kupaonica i tuševa kojima će logori biti opskrbljeni, ratnim će se zarobljenicima osigurati dostatna količina vode i sapuna za odr-i.avanje svakodnevne tjelesne ćistoće i za pranje rublja; za to će im se osigurati potrebni uredaji, olakšice i vrijeme.

Članak 30.

Svaki će logor imati prikladnu ambulantu gdje će ratni zarobljenici dobivati njegu koja im zatreba, kao i odgovarajući načinishrane. Ako bude potrebno, za bolesnike oboljele od zaraznih ili mentalnih bolesti predvidjet će se prostorije za izolaciju.

Ra,tni zarobljenici oboljeli od neke teške bolesti ili ćije stanje zahtijeva posebno lijećenje, kiruršku inten~enciju ili primanje u bolnicu, moraju se primiti u svaku vojnu ili civilnu ustanovu pozvanu da ih lijeći, ćak i ako je njihova repatrijacija predviđena u bliskoj budućnosti. Posebne će se olakšice dati za njegu invalida, osobito slijepima, kao i na njihovo osposobljavanje za samostalan život, u međuvremenu dok ne budu repatrirani.

Članak31.

Zdravstveni kontrolni pregledi ratnih zarob(jenika obavljaju se najmanje jednom mjesećno. Oni obuhvaćaju kontrolu i bilježenje težine sva.kog zarobljenika. Njihova je posebna svrha kontrola"općeg zdravstvenog stanja i ishrane, ćistoće, kao i otkrivanje zaraznih bolesti, osobito tuberkuloze, malarije i spolnih bolesti. U tu će se svrhu primjenjivati najdjelotvornije raspoloiive metode, na primjer, povremeno rendgensko snimanje u serijama na mikrofilmovima radi ranog otkrivanja tuberkuloze.

Članak 32.

Od ratnih zarobljenika koji su lijećnici, zubari, bolnićari i bolnićarke, iako nisu pripadali sanitetskoj službi svojih oružanih snaga, sila koja drži zarobljenike može zahtijevati da obavljaju svoje sanitetske dužnosti u interesu ratnih zarobljenika koji se nalaze u vlasti iste sile kao i oni sami. U tom slučaju oni i dalje ostaju ratni zarobljenici, ali će se prema njima primjenjivati isti postupak kao i prema odgovarajućim Članovima sanitetskog osoblja koje je zadriala sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike. Oni će biti oslobodeni svakoga drugog rada koji bi im se mogao nametnuti na temelju Članka 49.

GLAVA IV.

SANITETSKO l VJERSKO OSOBLJE ZADRŽANO RADI PRUŽANJA POMOĆI RATNIM ZAROBLJENICIMA

Članak 33.

Članovi sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja koje je sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike zadržala radi pružanja pomoći ratnim zarobljenicima ne smatraju se ratnim zarobljenicima. Oni će, međutim, uživati barem sve pogodnosti i zaštitu ove Konvencije, kao i sve potrebne olakšice koje im omogućuju pružanje medicinske njege i vjerske pomoći ratnim zarobljenicima

Oni će nastaviti obavljati, u okviru vojnih zakona i pravilnika sile koja drli ratne zarobljenike, a pod nadzorom njezinih nadle~nih službi i u skladu sa svojom profesionalnom savjesti, svoje sanitetske i duhovnićke funkcije u korist ratnih zarobljenika, poglavito onih koji pripadaju oruianim snagama ćiji su i oni Člannovi. Uz to, u obavljanju svoje sanitetske i duhovne misije, oni uživaju i ove olakšice:

a) Ovlašteni su povremeno posjećivali ratne zarobljenike .koji se nalaze u radnim jedinicama ili u bolnicama smje~tenirna izvan logora. Vlast koja ih drii stavit će im na raspolaganje, u tu svrhu, potrebna prijevozna sredstva.

b) U svakom logoru vojni lijećnik najstariji po položaju u najvišem ćinu odgovara pred vojnim vlastima logora za sv"e što se tiče aktivnosti zadrlanoga sanitetskog osoblja. Ćim zapoćnu neprijateljstva, u tu će se svrhu stranke suko

ba sporazumjeti o odgovarajućim činovima svoga sanitetskog osoblja, ukljućujući i osoblje društava spomenutih u Članku 26. Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje sudbine ranjenika i bolesnika u oru~anim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza. 1949. Glede svih pitanja koja se odnose na njihove dužnosti, taj lijećnik, kao uostalom i vojni svećenici, imaju izravan pristup nadležnim logorskim vlastima, koje će im pružiti sve olakšice potrebne za korespondenciju koja se odnosi na ta pitanja.

c) Unatoć tome što je podvrgnuto unutrašnjoj disciplini logora u kojemu se nalazi, zadržano se osoblje ne može siliti ni na kakav rad kof i je stran njegovim sanitetskim ili vjerskim dužnostima.

Tijekom neprijateljstava, stranke sukoba sporazumjet će se o mogućoj razmjeni zadržanog osoblja i utvrdit će načine i postupak za to.

Nijedna od prethodnih odredaba ne oslobada silu koja dcii ratne zarobljenike njezinih obveza prema njima na sanitetskom i duhovnom polju.

GLAVA V

VJERSKE, INTELEKTUALNE I FIZIČKE AKTIVNOSTI

Članak 34.

Ratnim će se zarobljenicima pružiti najšire mogućnosti za ispovijedanje svoje vjere, ukljućujući i nazoćnost vjerskim obredima, pod uvjetom da se ravnaju prema postojećim disciplinskim mjerama koje su propisale vojne vlasti.

Za vjerske obrede osigurat će se prikladne prostorije.

Članak 35.

Vojnim svećenicima, koji padnu u ruke neprijateljskoj sili i koji ostanu ili budu zadri,ani radi pružanja pomoći ratnim zarobljenicima, dopustit će se da im pružaju svoje svećenićke usluge i da slobodno obavljaju duhovničku dužnost među ratnim zarobljenicima iste vjeroispovijedi, u skladu sa svojim vjerskim uvjerenjem. Oni se rasporeduju po raznim logorima i radnim jedinicama gdje se nalaze ratni zarobljenici koji pripadaju istim oružanim snagama i koji govore istim jezikom ili pripadaju istoj vjeroispovijedi. Oni se koriste potrebnim olakšicama, osobito prijevoznim sredstvima predviđenima u Članku 33, radi posjećivanja ratnih zarobljenika izvan njihova logora. Uz ogranićenja cenzurom, o pitanjima koja se tiću njihovih vjerskih dužnosti oni uživaju slobodu korespondencije s crkvenim vlastima zemlje koja ih drii i s međunarodnim vjerskim organizacijama. Pisma i dopisirice koje u tu svrhu budu slali dodaju se kontingentu predviđenome u Članku 71.

Članak36.

Ratni zarobljenici koji su svećenici neke vjeroispovijedi, a nisu bili vojni svećenici u vlastitoj vojsci, dobit će, bez obzira na svoj ćin, dozvolu da u potpunosti obavljaju sluibu među osobama iste vjeroispovijedi. Zbog toga se s njima postupa kao i s vojnim svećenicima koje je zadriala sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike. Oni se neće siliti ni na kakav drugi rad.

Članak 37.

Kad ratnim zarobljenicima ne stoje na raspolaganju usluge zadržanoga vojnog svećenika niti zarobljenika svećenika njihove vjeroispovijedi, onda se na zahtjev zainteresiranih zarobljenika za obavljanje te sluibe imenuje svećenik koji pripada bilo njihovoj vjeroispovijedi, bilo slićnoj vjeroispovijedi ili, u nedostatku toga, sposoban svjetovnjak. kad je to moguće s gledišta te vjeroispovijedi. To imenowinje, koje podliježe odobrenju site koja dri_i ratne zarobljenike, vrši se sporazumno sa zaiednicom zainteresiranih zarobljenika i, tamo gdje je to potrebno, uz odobrenje mjesne

vjerske vlasti iste vjeroispovijedi. Tako imenovana osoba mora se ponašati po svim propisima koje je donijela sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike u interesu discipline i vojne sigurnosti.

Članak 38.

Poštujući osobne sklonosti svakog zarobljenika, sila koja drzi ratne zarobljenike poticat će intelektualne, obrazovne, rekreacijske i športske aktivnosti ratnih zarobljenika; ona će poduzimati potrebne mjere radi osiguranja njihova ostvarenja, stavljajući im na raspolaganje odgovarajuće prostorije i potrebnu opremu.

Ratnim se zarobljenicima mora omogućiti da se posvete fizičkim vježbama, uključujući športove i igre, i da borave na otvorenom prostoru. U tu se svrhu u svim logorima osigurava dovoljno slobodnog prostora.

GLAVA Vl.

DISCIPLINA

Članak 39.

Svaki se logor ratnih zarobljenika stavlja pod neposrednu vlast odgovornog časnika koji pripada redovitim oružanim snagama sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike. Taj će ćasnik posjedovati tekst ove Konvencije, brinut će se da se s njezinim odredbama upozna osoblje koje se nalazi pod njegovim zapovjedništvom i, pod nadzorom svoje vlade, odgovara za njezinu primjenu.

Ratni zarobljenici, osim ćasnika, moraju pozdravljati sve ćasnike sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike i ukazivati im vanjske znakove štovanja koji su predviđeni propisima koji vrijede u njihovoj vlastitoj vojsci.

časnici ratni zarobljenici moraju pozdravljati samo ćasnike višeg ćina te sile; oni, međutim, moraju pozdravljati zapovjednika logora ma koji bio njegov čin,

Članak 40.

Nošenje oznaka ćina i državljanstva, kao i odlikovanja, mora se dopustiti.

Članak 41.

U svakom logoru, na mjestima dostupnima svim ratnim zarobljenicima izložit će se, na jeziku zarobljenika, tekst ove Konvencije i njezinih priloga te sadržaj svih posebnih sporazuma predviđenih u Članku 6. Ti će se tekstovi priopćiti, na njihov zahtjev, zarobljenicima koji se ne mogu upoznati s izloženim tekstom.

Propisi, naredbe, upozorenja i obavijesti svake vrste koji se odnose na ponašanje ratnih zarobljenika moraju im se priopćiti na jeziku koji razumiju; ti će se tekstovi izložiti pod gore navedenim uvjetima, a njihovi se primjerci urućuju zarobljeničkom predstavniku. Sve naredbe i zapovijedi upućene zarobljenicima pojedinačno moraju, također, biti na jeziku koji razumiju.

Članak 42

Upotreba oružja protiv ratnih zarobljenika, osobito protiv onih koji bježe ili pokušavaju pobjeći, samo su krajnje sredstvo kojemu će uvijek prethoditi upozorenja prilagodena okolnostima.

GLAVA VII.

ČINOVI RATNlH ZAR0BLJENIKA

Članak 43.

Cim zapoćnu neprijateljstva, stranke sukobtr jedna će drugoj priopćiti zvanja i činove svih osoba spomenutih u Članku' 4. ove Konvencije, kako bi se osigurao jednaki postupak prerna zarobljenicima jednakog ćina; ako su zvanja i činovi kasnije ustanovljeni, bit će predmet sličnih priopćenja.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike priznat će unapređenja ratnih zarobljenika o kojima je sila kojoj oni pripadaju propisno obavijesti.

Članak 44.

S časnicima i ratnim zarobljenicima istog poloiaja postupa se s duinim obzirima prema njihovu činu i njihovoj dobi.

Da bi se osigurala sluiba u časnićkim logorima, dodijelit će im se dostatan broj vojnika ratnih zarobljenika istih oruianih snaga koji, ako je to moguće, govore istim jezikom, vodeći pri tome računa o ćinu časnika i zarobljenika istog poloiaja; njih se ne moie prisiljavati ni na kakav drugi rad.

časnicima će se na sve moguće načine olakšati da sami organiziraju svoju svakodnevnu ishranu.

Članak 45.

S ratnim za.robljenicima koji nisu časnici i zarobljenicima istog poloi.a.ja postupa se s dužnim obzirima prema njihovu ćinu i njihovoj dobi.

Zarobljenicima će se na sve moguće načine olakšati da sami organiziraju svoju svakodnevnu ishranu.

GLA VA Vlll

PREMJESTANJE RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA NAKON NJIHOVA DOLASKA U LOGOR

Članak 46.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike mora, prilikom odlučivanja o njihovu premještaju, voditi računa o interesima samih zarobljenika, osobito da se time ne povećaju teškoće njihove repatrijacije.

Ratni će se zarobljenici uvijek premještati ćovjećno i u uvjetima koji ne smiju biti nepovoljniji od onih što ih prilikom premještanja uživaju jedinice sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike. Uvijek će se voditi računa o uvjetima podneblja na koje su ratni zarobljenici navikli i uvjeti premještanja ne smiju ni u kojem slućaju štetiti njihovu zdravlju.

Sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike opskrbit će ih, za vrijeme premještanja, dostatnim količinama pitke vode i hrane da bi se odriali u dobrom zdravlju, kao i potrebnom odjećom, smještajem i medicinskom njegom. Ona će poduzeti sve odgovarajuće mjere opre2a, osobito u slućaju putovanja morem ili zrakom, kako bi osigurala njihovu sigurnost za vrijeme premještanja i sastavit će prije polaska potpuni spisak zarobljenika koji se premještaju.

Članak 47.

Bolesni ili ranjeni ratni zarobljenici neće se premještati sve dok putovanje moie ugroziti njihovo ozdravljenje, osim ako to njihova sigurnost imperativno zahtijeva.

Ako se bojišnica približava nekom logoru, ratni se zarobljenici neće premještati iz tog logora, osim ako se mogu premjestiti u zadovoljavajućim sigurnosnim uvjetima ili ako se, ostajući gdje jesu, izlažu većim opasnostima nego da se premještaju.

Članak 48.

Ako se premještaju, ratni se zarobljenici moraju sluibeno obavijestiti o odlasku i o novoj poštanskoj adresi; ta im se obavijest mora dati pravodobno kako bi mogli pripremiti svoju prtljagu i izvijestiti svoju obitelj.

Dopustit će im se da sa sobom ponesu svoje osobne stvari, svoju korespondenciju i pakete prispjele na njihovu adresu; teiina tih stvari može se ograničiti, ako to okolnosti premještanja zahtijevaju, na ono 5to zarobljenik može razumno ponijeti, ali dopuštena težina ni u kojem slućaju ne smije prijeći dvadeset pet kilograma.

Korespondencija i paketi upućeni na njihov stari logor dostavit će im se bez odgode. Zapovjednik logora poduzet će, u sporazumu sa zarobljenićkim predstavnikom, potrebne mjere kako bi se osigurao prijevoz zajedničke imovine ratnih zarobljenika i prtljage koju zarobljenici ne mogu sa sobom ponjeti 2boe oeranićerlja donijetoga na temelju drugoga stavka ovoga Članka.

Troškove prouzroćene premještajima snosi sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike.

ODJELJAK III.

RAD RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA

Članak 49.

Sila koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike može upotrebljavati zdrave ratne zarobljenike kao radnike, vodeći računa o njihovoj dobi, spolu, činu i fizički m sposobnostima, osobito da bi ih održala u dobrom stanju fizičkog i mentalnog zdravlja.

Doćasnici ratni zarobljenici mogu obavljati samo nadzorne poslove. Oni koji ne bi bili podvrgnuti tim poslovima mogu tražiti neki drugi posao koji im odgovara i koji će im se pružiti u granicama mogućnosti.

Ako ćasnici ili osobe istog položaja traže neki posao koji im odgovara, naći će im se takav posao u granicama mogućnosti. Oni se ni u kojem slućaju ne mogu prisiliti da rade.

Članak 50.

Osim poslova u svezi s upravom, uredivanjem ili održavanjem svoga logora, ratni se zarobljenici mogu podvrgnuti samo poslovima koji pripadaju ovim kategorijama

a) poljoprivreda;

b) industrija u svezi s proizvodnjom ili vadenjem sirovina i tvornićke industrije, izuzimajući topionićarsku, st.rojarsku i kemijsku industriju, javne radove i gradevinarstvo vojne prirode ili s vojnom namjenom;

c) prijevoz te utovar i istovar, koji nisu vojne prirode niti imaju vojnu namjenu;

d) trgovačke ili umjetnićke djelatnosti; e) kućanski poslovi;

F) javne službe koje nisu vojne prirode niti imaju vojnu namjenu.

U slućaju kršenja navedenih odredaba ratni se zarobIjenici mogu koristiti pravom žalbe, u skladu s Člannkom 78

Članak 51.

Ratnim se zarobljenicima moraju osigurati primjereni uvjeti rada, osobito što se tiče smještaja, ishrane, odjeće i opreme: ti uvjeti ne smiju biti lošiji od onih koje uživaju državljani sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike zaposleni na slićnim poslovima; vodit će se također računa o uvjetima podneblja.

Sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike i koja se koristi njihovim radom osigurat će, u regijama u kojima ti zarobljenici rade, primjenu domaćih zakona o zaštiti na radu i, posebice. propisa o sigurnosti radnika.

Ratni zarobljenici moraju proći izobrazbu i biti op skrbljeni zaštitnim sredstvima koja su prilagodena poslu koji moraju obavljati, a koja su slićna onima predviđenima za državljane sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike. U okvirima odredaba iz Članka 52, ratni se zarobljenici mogu izloiiti uobićajenim rizicima kojima je izloženo civilno radnistvo.

 

Uvjeti rada ne mogu se i ni u kojem slnćaju oteiati disciplinskim mjerama.

Članak 52.

Nijedan se ratni zarobljenik, osim ako se za to sam dobrovoljno javi, ne smije zaposliti na opasnim poslovima i na poslovima štetnim za zdravlje.

Nijedan se ratni zarobljenik neće dodijeliti na neki posao koji bi se mogao smatrati pot~iža,vajućim za pripadnika oružanih snaga sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike.

Čišćenje mina i drugih sličnih naprava smatra se opasnim poslom.

Članak 53.

Dužina radnog dana ratnih zarobljenika, ukljućujući i vrijeme potrebno za odlazak na posao i za povratak s posla, ne smije biti pretjerana i ne smije, ni u kojem slučaju, prijeći dužinu radnog dana dopuštenu za civilne tadnike te regije, dri,a.vljane sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike, koji su zaposleni na istom poslu.

Ratnim se zarobljenicima obvezatno mora dati, sredinom dnevnog rada, odmor ne kraći od jednoga sata; taj će odmor biti isti kao i odmor predviđen za radnike sile koja drzi ratne zarobljenike, ako je potonji duži. Uz to će im se svakoga tjedna dati neprekidan odmor od dvadeset ćetiri sata, poglavito nedjeljom ili onoga dana koji se u njihovoj zemlji uzima kao dan odmora. Povrh toga, svaki zarobljenik koji je radio godinu dana ima pravo na odmor od osam uzastopnih dana, za koje mu se vrijeme plaća naknada za rad.

Ako se primjenjuju načini rada kao što je rad po komadu, ti načini ne smiju trajanje radnog vremena pretjerano produžiti.

Članak 54.

Naknada za rad koja se plaća ratnim zarobljenicima utvrduje se prema odredbama Članka 62. ove Konvencije. Ratni zarobljenici koji su žrtve ozljede na radu ili koji

se razbole tijekom rada ili zbog njega, dobit će svu njegu koju njihovo stanje za,htijeva. Uz to, sila koja drii ratns zarobljenike izdat će mu liječnićku potvrdu koja će im omogućiti da ostvare svoja prava kod sile ćiji su pripadnici, a poslat će i prijepis te potvrde Središnjoj agenciji za ratne zarobljenike predviđenoj u Članku 123.

Članak 55.

Sposobnost za rad ratnih zarobljenika povremeno-će se provjeravati lijećnićkim pregledima, a najmanje jednom mjesećno. Prilikom tih pregleda osobito se mora voditi računa o prirodi poslova kojima su ratni zarobljenici podvrgnuti.

Ako neki ratni zarobljenik smatra da je nesposoban za rad, mora mu se dopustiti da se prijavi nadležnom lijećniku svoga logora; lijećnici imaju pravo predložiti da se oni zarobljenici koji su, po njihovu mišljenju, nesposobni za rad, oslobode rada

Članak 56.

Režim radnih jedinica izdvojenih iz lagora slićan je režimu koji postoji u logorima ratnih zarobljenika.

Svaka radna jedinica ostaje pod kontrolom nekoga zarobljenićkog logora i od njega će ovisiti što se tiče uprave. Vojne vlasti i zapovjednik tog logora odgovorni su, pod nadzorom svoje vlade, za p'oštovanje odredaba ove Konvencije u radnoj jedinici

Zapovjednik logora vodit će uredan spisak radnih jedinica koje pripadaju njegovu logoru i priopćavat će ga dele

gatima sile zaštitnice, Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog kriTa, ili drugih organizacija koje pruiaju pomoć ratnim zarobljenicima, koji bi posjetili logor.

Članak 57.

Postupak prema ratnim za.robljenicima koji rade za raćun privatnika, ćak i kad su potonji odgovorni za njihovo čuvanje i za,štitu, bit će barem jednak onome koji je predviđen ovom Konvencijom; sila koja drLi ratne zarobljenike, vojne vlasti i zapovjednik logora kojemu pripadaju ti za.robljenici primaju na sebe punu odgovornost za uzdržavanje, njegu, postupak i plaćanje naknade za rad što se tiče tih ratnih zarobljenika.

Ti ratni zarobljenici imaju pravo ostati u vezi sa zarobljeničkim predstavnicima logora kojima pripadaju.

ODJELJAK IV.

NOVČANA SREDSTVA RATNIH ZAROBLIENIKA

Članak58.

Čim započnu neprijateljstva i dok se o tom pitanju ne postigne sporazum sa silom zaštitnicom, sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike može utvrditi najviši iznos u gotovu novcu ili u nekome sličnom obliku koji ratni zarobljenici mogu imati kod sebe. Svaki višak koji su zakonito posjedovali, a koji im je oduzet ili zadrian, stavlja se, kao i svaki drugi novac koji su oni dali na ćuvanje, na njihov raćun i on se ne može zamijeniti u neku drugu valutu bez njihova pristanka.

Kad se ratnim zarobljenicima dopusti da izvan logora kupuju ili da se koriste uslugama, plaćajući u gotovu novcu, te će isplate obavaljati sami ratni zarobljenici ili uprava logora, koja će teretiti račune dotičnih ratnih zarobljenika. Sila koja dai ratne zarobljenike donosi o tom pitanju potrebna pravita.

Članak 59.

Novćani iznosi u valuti sile koja dr~zi ratne zarobljenike, a koji su im oduzeti u trenutku njihova zarobljavanja, uknjižuju se u skladu s Člankom t8. u korist računa svakoga od njih, u skladu s odredbama Članka 64. ovog odjeljka.

Takoder će se, na taj račun, uložiti novćani iznosi u valuti sile koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike, do kojih je došlo konverzijom novćanih iznosa iz drugih valuta, a koji su oduzeti ratnim zarobljenicima u tom istom trenutku.

Članak 60.

Sila koja dr'zi ratne zarobljenike unaprijed isplaćuje svim ratnim zarobljenicima određeni iznos na ime mjesećne plaće, ćija se visina utvrduje konverzijom ovih iznosa u valutu spomenute sile:

kategorija I: zarobljenici ćina nižeg od vodnika: osam švicarskih franaka;

kategorija II: vodnici i drugi doćasnici ili zarobljenici njima ravnog ćina: dvanaest švicarskih franaka; kategorija III: časnici do ćina satnika ili zarobljenici

njima ravnog ćina: pedeset švicarskih franaka;

kategorija IV: bojnici, pukovnici, brigadiri ili zarobljenici njima ravnog ćina: šezdeset švicarskih franaka; kategorija V: generali ili zarobljenici njima ravnog ći

na sedamdeset pet švicarskih franaka.

Zainteresirane stranke sukoba mogu, međutim, posebnim sporazumima izmijeniti visinu iznosa koji ratnim zarobljenicima gore nabrojenih kategorija pnpada na ime mjesećne plaće

Osim toga, ako bi iznosi predviđeni u prvome stavku bili pretjerano visoki u usporedbi s plaćom koja se daje padnicima oruia,nih snaga sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike ili ako bi oni, iz bilo kojega drugog razloga, bili uzrok ozbil jnih neugodnosti za tu silu, ona će, očekujući da se zbog iz” mjene tih iznosa sklopi poseban sporazum sa silom čiji su pripadnici ratni zarobljenici: `

a) nastaviti kreditirati račune ratnih zarobljenika u iznosima naznačenima u prvome stavku;

b) privremeno moći ograničiti na razumnu visinu iznose koji se unaprijed isplaćuju na ime plaće, a koje če stavljati na raspolaganje ratnim zarobljenicima za, njihovu upotrebu; međutim, za zarobljenike kategorije I. te svote nikad neće biti niie od onih koje sila koja d~i ratne zarobljenike isplaćuje pripadnicima vlastitih oruža,nih snaga.

Razlozi za svako takvo ograničenje bez odgode će se priopćiti sili za,štitnici.

Članak 61.

Sila koja dr~zi ratne za.robljenike primat će novčane pošiljke koje im sila ćiji su pripadnici ratni zarobljenici dostavlja kao dodatak plaći, pod uvjetom da iznosi budu isti za svakoga zarobljenika iste kategorije, da se šalju svim zarobljenicima te kategorije koji pripadaju toj sili i da se knjiže, što prije moguće, u korist osobnih računa pojedinih zarobljenika, u skladu s odredbama članka 64. Ti dodaci plaći ne oslobadaju silu koja drii ratne zarobljenike ni od jedne obveze na temelju ove Konvencije.

Članak 62.

Ra.tni zarobljenici primaju, izravno od vlasti koje ih drie, pravićnu naknadu za. rad, visinu koje utvrduju te vlasti, ali koja nikada ne može biti nii.a od ćetvrtine švicarskoga franka za jedan cijeli radni dan. Sila koja drzi ratne zarobljenike upoznat će zarobljenike, kao i silu čiji su oni pripadnici, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice, s visinom dnevnih naknada za rad koju bude utvrdila.

Vlasti koje dc ie ratne zarobljenike isto će tako isplaćivati naknadu za rad i onim zarobljenicima koji su stalno dodijeljeni na dužnosti ili na zanatske poslove u svezi s upravom, unutrašnjim uredivanjem ili odr~zavanjem logora, kao i zarobljenicima od kojih se zahtijeva da obavljaju duhovne ili sanitetske dužnosti u korist svojih drugova.

Naknada za rad zarobljeničkog predstavnika, njegovih pomoćnika i, eventualno, njegovih savjetnika isplaćuje se iz fonda koji se popunjava dobiti od kantine; visinu te naknade utvrduje zarobijenićki predstavnik, a odobrava zapovjednik logora. Ako taj fond ne postoji, vlasti koje drže ratne zarobljenike isplaćivat će tim zarobljenicima pravićnu naknadu za njihov rad.

Članak 63.

Ratnim će se zarobljenicima dopustiti da primaju novčane pošiljke koje im se upućuju pojedinačno ili kolektivno. Svaki ratni zarobljenik raspolaže aktivom svoga raču

na onako kako je to predviđeno u slijedećem članku, u granicama utvrdenima od sile koja drLi ratne zarobljenike i koja će isptaćivati tražene iznose. Osim financijskih ili deviznih ogranićenja što ih ona smatra nuinima, ratnim će se zarobljenicima dopustiti da obavljaju plaćanja u inozemstvu. U tom će slućaju sila koja drLi ratne zarobljenike osobito olakšavati isplate koje ratni zarobljenici upućuju osobama koje uzdri.avaju.

U svakom slućaju, ratni zarobljenici mogu, ako sila ćiji su pripadnici na to pristane, obavljati plaćanja u vlastitoj zemlji po ovom postupku: sila koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike dostavit će spomenutoj sili, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice, obavijest koja sadrii sve potrebne podatke o ratnom zarobljeniku i o korisniku plaćanja, kao i visinu iznosa koji se

mora isplatiti, izraženu u valuti sile koja drii ratne zarobIjenike; tu obavijest potpisuje zainteresirani zarobljenik i supotpisuje za,povjednik logora. Sila koja drLi ratne zarobljenike zadužit će raćun ratnog zarobljenika tim iznosom; iznose kojima je on tako zadui,en ona će odobriti sili kojoj pripadaju zarobljenici.

Radi primjene prethodnih odredaba sila koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike može se koristiti Predloškom pravilnika koji je sadrian u Prilogu V. ovoj Konvenciji.

Članak 64.

Sila koja drži ratne zarobljenike vodi za svakoga od njih raćun koji sadcii barem ove podatke:

1. iznose koji se duguju zarobljeniku ili koje je on pri” mio na ime plaće, naknade za rad ili po bilo kojoj drugoj osnovi; iznose, u valuti sile koja dtii ratne zarobljenike, oduzete zarobljeniku; iznose koji su oduzeti zarobljeniku i pretvoreni, na njegov zahtjev, u valutu spomenute sile;

2. iznose predane zarobljeniku u gotovu novcu ili u slićnom obliku; obavljena plaćanja za njegov račun i na njegov zahtjev; iznose prenesene na temelju stavka trećega prethodnog Članka.

Članak 65.

Svaku stavku unesenu u raćun ratnog zarobljenika mora supotpisati ili parafirati taj zarobljenik ili zarobljenički predstavnik koji djeluje u njegovo ime.

Ratnim će se zarobljenicima u svako doba dati razumne olakšice radi pregleda njihova računa i dobivanja prijepisa tog računa; raćun mogu provjeravati i predstavnici sile zaštitnice prilikom posjeta logoru.

Prilikom premještaja ratnih zarobljenika iz jednog logora u drugi, njihov će osobni raćun ići za njima. U slućaju da se ratni zarobljenici premještaju od jedne sile koja ih dr”zi drugoj, za njima će ići i iznosi koji im pripadaju, a koji nisu u valuti sile koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike; za sve ostale novćane iznose koji budu na aktivi njihova raćuna, izdat će im se potvrda.

2,a,interesirane stranke sukoba mogu se sporazumjeti da jedna drugoj dostav(jaju, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice i u određenim vremenskim razmacima, izvatke iz raćuna ratnih zarobljenika.

Članak 66.

Po prestanku zarobljeništva, oslobodenjem ratnog zarobljenika ili njegovom repatrijacijom, sila koja ga je drlala izdat će mu izjavu potpisanu od nadležnog ćasnika, kojom se Potvrđuje iznos potraživanja koji mu se duguje. S druge strane, sila koja je driala ratne zarobljenike dostavit će sili ćiji su pripadnici ratni zarobljenici, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice, spiskove sa svim podacima o zarobljenicima ćije je zarobljeništvo prestalo zbog repatrijacije, oslobodenja, bijega, smrti ili na bilo koji drugi način i kojima se potvrduju iznosi potraživanja po njihovim raćunima. Svaki list tih spiskova službeno ovjerava ovlašteni predstavnik sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike

Zainteresirane sile mogu, posebnim sporazumom, potpuno ili djelomice izmijeniti ~ore izlo7ene odredbe.

Sila ćiji je pripadnik ratni zarobljenik nastojat će mu narniriti potraživanje koje mu po prestanku njegova zarobIjenistva du~uje sila koja ~a je drLala u zarobljeništvu

Članak 67.

tznosi koji su na ime plaće isplaćeni ratnirn zarobljenicima u skladu s Člankom 60 smatrat će se kao da su izvršeni u ime sile ćiji su oni pripadnici, ti iznosi isplaćeni na ime plaće. kao i sva plaćanja obavljena od spomenute sile na

temelju Članka 63, stavka trećeg, i članka 68, bit će, po prestanku neprijateljstava, predmet sporazuma između zairiteresiranih sila.

Članak 68.

Svaki zahtjev za naknadu koji postavi ratni zarobljenik zbog ozljede ili druge onesposobljenosti prouzroćene na radu, propćit će se sili ćiji je on pripadnik posredovanjem sile zaštitnice. U skladu s odredbama Članka 54, sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike predat će u svakom slučaju ratnom zarobljeniku izjavu kojom se potvrduju priroda ozljede ili onesposobljenosti, okolnosti u kojima je do nje došlo i daju podaci o medicinskoj i bolničkoj njezi koje su mu pružene. Tu izjavu potpisuje odgovorni časnik sile koja d~i ratne zarobljenike, a podatke medicinske prirode Potvrđuje liječnik sanitetske službe.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike isto će tako dostaviti sili čiji su oni pripadnici svaki zahtjev za odštetu koji podnese neki zarobljenik s obzirom na osobne stvari, novac ili dragocjenosti što su mu bili oduzeti na temelju Članka 18, a nisu mu vraćeni prilikom repatrijacije, kao i svaki zahtjev za naknadu u svezi s nekim gubitkom koji zarobljenik pripisuje pogreški sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike ili nekog od njezinih slui.benika. Sa svoje strane, sila koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike nabavit će o svom trošku osobne stvari koje bi zarobljeniku bile potrebne za vrijeme njegova zarobljeništva. U svakom slućaju, sila koja dr-ži ratne zarobljenike predat će zarobljeniku izjavu koju potpisuje odgovorni časnik i koja sadrii sve potrebne informacije o razlozima zbog kojih mu te stvari, novac ili dragocjenosti nisu bili vraćeni. Prijepis te izjave dostavlja se sili ćiji je zarobljenik pripadnik posredovanjem Središnje agencije za ratne zarobljenike predviđene u članku 123.

ODJELJAK V.

ODNOSI RATNIH ZAROBLIENIKA S VANJSKIM SVIJETOM

Članak 69.

Svim ratni zarobljenici dospiju pod njezinu vlast, sila koja ih drži obavijestit će njih i silu ćiji su pripadnici, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice, o mjerama koje su predviđene za izvršavanje odredaba ovog odjeljka; ona će im isto tako priopćiti svaku promjenu izvršenu u tim mjerama.

Članak 70.

Svakom će se ratnom zarobljeniku pružiti mogućnost, čim bude zarobljen ili, najkasnije, tjedan dana nakon njegova dolaska u logor, ćak i ako je to prolazni logor, a isto tako i u slućaju bolesti ili premještaja u vojnu bolnicu ili u neki drugi logor, da izravno uputi svojoj obitelji, s jedne strane, i Središnjoj agenciji za ratne zarobljenike predviđenoj u Članku 123, s druge strane, kartu po mogućnosti slićnu uzorku priloi,enom ovoj Konvenciji, kojom će ih obavijestiti o svojem zarobljavanju, o svojoj adresi i o stanju svoga zdravlja. Spomenute će se karte proslijediti što je brie moguće i njihovo se slanje ni na koji način ne može odgadati.

Članak 71.

Ratnim će se zarobljenicima dopustiti da šalju i da primaju pisma i dopisnice. Ako sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike smatra potrebnim da tu korespondenciju ogranići, mora dopustiti slanje najmanje dvaju pisama i ćetiriju dopisnica mjesećno (i to ne raćunajući karte o zarobljavanju predviđene u Članku 70), što je moguće slićnijih uzorcima koji su priloi,eni ovoj Konvenciji. Druga se ogranićenja mogu nametnuti samo ako sila zaštitnica opravdano ocjenjuje da su

ona u interesu samih zarobljenika, zbog teškoća na koje sila koja drzi ratne zarobljenike nailazi u pronalaženju dostatnog broja strućnih prevoditelja za obavljanje potrebne cenzure. Ako se korespondencija upućena zarobljenicima mora ogranićiti, tu odluku može donijeti samo sila čiji su oni pripadnici, eventualno na zahtjev sile koja dai ratne zarobljenike. Ta se pisma i dopisnice moraju otpremiti najbriim sredstvima kojima sila I~oja drii ratne zarobljenike raspolaže; njihova se otprema ne može odgadati niti zadr”zavati iz disciplinskih razloga.

Ratnim 2arohljenicima koji su dugo vremena bez vijesti od svoje obitelji, ili onima koji ih ne mogu dobiti ili ih dostaviti redovitim putem, kao i onima koji se nalaze na velikoj udaljenosti od svojih domova, dopustit će se da šalju brzojave kojih se troškovi stavljaju na teret njihova raćuna kod sile koja ih drži ili se plaćaju novcem kojim raspolažu. Zarobljenici će se tom mjerom također koristiti u hitnim slučajevima.

Korespondencija zarobljenika vodit će se, u pravilu, na njihovom materinskom ježiku. Stranke sukoba mogu dopustiti korespondenciju i na drugim jezicima.

Vreće sa zarobljenićkom poštom moraju biti pažljivo zapećaćene, obilježene oznakama koje će jasno ukazivati na njihov sadri.aj i adresirane na pošte odredišta.

Članak 72.

Rstnim će se zarobljenicima dopustiti da poštom i"li na svaki drugi način primaju pojedinaćne ili kolektivne pošiljke koje sadrže osobito živežne namirnice, odjeću, lijekove i predmete namijenjene zadovoljenju njihovih potreba glede vjere, ili zabave, ukljućujući knjige, vjerske predmete, znanstveni materijal, ispitne materijale, muzićke instrumente, športsku opremu i materijal kojim se zarobljenicima omogućava nastavak njihovih studija ili umjetničkih aktivnosti.

Te pošiljke ni na koji način ne oslobadaju sila koja dr~i ratne zarobljenike obveza koje su joj nametnute na temelju ove Konvencije.

Jedina ograničenja koja se mogu postaviti tim pošiljkama su ona što ih predloži sila zaštitnica, u interesu samih ratnih zarobljenika, ili što ih, zbog iznimne preopterećenosti prijevoznih ili komunikacijskih sredstava, predlože, i to samo glede svojih pošiljaka, Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa ili neka druga organizacija koja pruža pomoć ratnim zarobljenicima.

Naćini otpreme pojedinaćnih ili kolektiYnih pošiljaka mogu biti, bude li potrebno, predmet posebmh sporazuma između zainteresiranih sila, koji ni u kojem slućaju ne mogu adgadati raspodjelu pošiljaka pomoći ratnim zarobljenicima. Knjige se ne mogu slati u istim pošiljkama sa živežnim namirnicama ili odjećom; sanitetski materijal kao pomoć šalje se, u pravilu, u kolektivnim pošiljkama.

Članak 73.

U nedostatku posebnih sporazuma između zainteresiranih sila o načinima koji se tiću primitka i raspodjele pošiljaka kolektivne pomoći, primjenjuje se Pravilnik o kolektivnoj pomoći koji je priložen ovoj Konvenciji.

Gore predv"ideni posebni sporazumi ne mogu ni u kojem slućaju ogranićiti pravo zarobljenićkih predstavnika da preuzimaju pošiljke kolektivne pomoći koje su namijenjene ratnim zarobljenicima, da pristupaju njihovoj raspodjeli i da njima raspolažu u interesu zarobljenika

Ti sporazumi ne mogu ogranićiti ni prava predstavnika sile zaštitnice, Međunarodnog odbora Cwenog križa, niti bilo koje druge organizacije koja pruža pomoć zarobIjenicima i koja bi preuzela dostavu tih kolektivnih pošilja

ka. da nadziru njihovu raspodjelu onima kojima su namijenjene.

članak 74.

Sve pošiljke pomoći namijenjene ratnim zarobljenicima oslobodene su svih uvoznih, carinskih i drugih pristojbi.

Korespondencija, pošiljke pomoći i dopuštene novčane pošiljke upućene ratnim zarobljenicima ili koje oni šalju poštom, bilo izravno ili posredovanjem informacionih ureda koji su predviđeni u članku 122. i Središnje agencije za ratne zarobljenike koja je predviđena u Članku 123, oslobodene su svih poštanskih pristojbi, kako u zemljama otpreme i u zemljama primitka, tako i u zemljama kroz koje prolaze.

Prijevozne troškove za pošiljke pomoći namijenjene ratnim zarobljenicima, koje im, zbog svoje težine ili bilo kojega drugog razloga, ne mogu biti dostavljene poštom, snosi sila koja drr.i ratne zarobijenike na svim područjima koja se nalaze pod njezinom vlasti. Ostale sile stra.nke Konvencije snose prijevozne troškove na svojim područjima.

U nedostatku posebnih sporazuma među za.interesiranim silama, troškove koji proistjeću iz prijevoza. tih pošiljaka, a koji nisu pokriveni gore predviđenim oslobodenjima, snosi pošiljatelj.

Visoke stranke ugovornice nastojat će sniziti, koliko je god to moguće, pristojbe za. brzojave koje ratni zarobljenici šalju ili koje se njima upućuju.

Članak 76.

Ako bi vojne operacije sprijećile zainteresirane sile u izvršavanju svoje obveze da osiguraju prijevoz pošiljaka predviđenih u Člancima 70, 71, 72. i 75, zainteresirane sile ~ zaštitnice, Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa i svaka druga organizacija koju prihvate stranke sukoba mogu preuzeti osiguranje prijevoza tih pošiljaka odgovarajućim sredstvima (vagonima, kamionima, brodovima ili zrakoplovima itd.) U tu će svrhu visoke stranke ugovornice nastojati nabaviti ta prijevozna sredstva i omogućiti im prolazak, osobito izdavanjem potrebnih dozvola.

Ta se prijevozna srestva mogu, također, upotrijebiti za slanje:

a) korespondencije, spiskova i izvještaja razmijenjenih između Središnje informacione agencije, koja je predviđena u Članku 123, i nacionalnih ureda koji su predviđeni u Članku 122;

b) korespondencije i izvještaja o ratnim zarobljenicima što ih sile za,štitnice, Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa ili svaka druga organizacija koja pruža pomoć zarobljenicima razmjenjuju bilo sa svojim delegatima ili sa strankama sukoba.

Te odredbe ni u ćemu ne ogranićavaju pravo svake stranke sukoba da organizira, ako to izabere, druge načine prijevoza. i da izdaje dozvole pod uvjetima koji se sporazumno odrede.

U nedostatku posebnih sporazuma, troškove izazvane upotrebom tih prijevoznih sredstava razmjerno snose stranke sukoba ćiji se državljani koriste'tim uslugama.

Članak 76.

Cenzura korespondencije upućene ratnim zarobljenicima ili one koju oni šalju mora se obaviti u najkraćem mogućem roku. Cenzurirati moi.e samo država pošiljatelj i država primatelj, i to svaka samo po jedanput.

Pošiljke namijenjene ratnim zarobljenicima ne smiju se pregledavati u takvim uvjetima da se izloži opasnosti od

rr.anje hrane koju pošiljke sadrie, a pregledavat će se, osim ako se radi o nekoj pisanoj ili tiskanoj stvari, u nazoćnosti primatelja ili nekoga njegovoga propisno opunomoćenog druga. Predaja pojedinaćnih ili kolektivnih pošiljaka zarobIjenicima ne smije se odgadati uz izgovor teškoća u svezi scenzurom.

Svaka zabrana korespondencije donijeta od stranke sukoba iz vojnih ili političkih razloga moi.e biti samo privremena i po Lrajanju što je moguće kraća.

Članak 77.

Sile koje drie ratne zarobljenike osigurat će sve olakšice za dostavu, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice ili Središnje agencije za ratne zarobljenike predviđene u Članku 123, pismena i dokumenata namijenjenih ratnim zarobljenicima ili koji od njih potječu, a osobito punomoći i oporuka.

U svim slućajevima sile koje dri,e ratne zarobljenike olakšavat će im sastavljanje tih dokumenata; one će im posebice dopustiti da potraže savjet nekog pravnika i poduzet će potrebne mjere da se ovjeri vjerodostojnost njihova potpisa.

ODJEL1AK VI.

ODNOSI RATNIH ZAROBLIENIKA S VLASTIMA

GLAVA I.

PRITUŽBE RATNIH ZAROBIJENIKA KOJE SE TlČU ZAROBLIENIČKOG REŽIMA

Članak 78.

Ratni zarobljenici imaju pravo da vojnim vlastima u ćijoj se vlasti nalaze podnose i,albe na zarobljenićki režim kojemu su podvrgnuti.

Oni također imaju, bez ogranićenja, pravo da se obraćaju, bilo preko zarobljenićkog predstavnika ili izravno, ako to smatraju potrebnim, predstavnicima sila zaštitnica da bi im ukazali na pitanja o kojima žele podnijeti pritui,be u svezi sa zarobljenićkim režimom.

Te žalbe i pritužbe nisu ogranićene, niti se smatraju sastavnim dijelom kontingenta korespondencije koji je spomenut u Članku 71. One se moraju hitno dostavljati. One ne mogu biti povod nikakvom kažnjavanju, ćak i kad se utvrdi da su neosnovane.

Zaj obljenićki predstavnici mogu slati predstavnicima sila za~stitnica povremene izvještaje o stanju u logorima i potrebama ratnih zarobljenika.

GLAVA lI. PREDSTAVNICI RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA

Članak 79.

U svim mjestima u kojima se nalaze ratni zarobljenici, osim mjesta gdje se nalaze ćasnici, zarobljenici će, slobodno i tajnim glasovanjem, svakih šest mjeseci i kad su mjesta ispražnjena, birati zarobljenićke predstavnike ćija je durnost da ih predstavljaju pred vojnim vlastima, silama za5titnicama, Međunarodnim odborom Crvenog kri~a i svakom drugom organizacijom koja bi im pritekla u pomoć Ti zarobljenićki predstavnici mogu biti ponovno birani

l. logorima ćasnika i osoba istog položaja ili u mješovitim logorima, za zarobljenićkog predstavnika priznat će se onaj ćasnik ratni zarobljenik koji je najstariji u najvišem ćinu l' ćasnićkim logorima njemu će pomagati jedan ili više sayetnika koje izaberu ćasnici; u mješovitim logorima njegovi pomoćnici birat će se između i od ratnih zarobljenika koji nisu ćasnici.

U radnim logorima ratnih zarobljenika postavit će se časnici ratni zarobljenici istog dr'zavljanstva radi obavljanja upravnih dužnosti za koje su u logoru odgovorni ratni zarobljanici. Osim toga, ti se ćasnici mogu birati za zarobljeničke predstavnike u skladu s odredbama stavka prvoga ovoga članka. U tom slućaju, pomoćnici zarobljeničkog predstavnika birat će se između ratnih zarobljenika koji nisu ćasnici.

Izbor svakog zarobljenićkog predstavnika mora odobriti sila koja diii ratne zarobljenike prije no što on stupi na dužnost. Ako sila koja drii ratne za.robljenike odbije da odobri izbor ratnog zarobljenika kojega su izabrali njegovi drugovi u zarobljeništw, mora obavijestiti silu zaštitnicu o razlozima svog odbijanja.

U svim slućajevima dr"zavljanstvo, jezik i obića,ji zarobIjenićkog predstavnika moraju biti isti kao i ratnih zarobljenika koje predstavlja. Tako će ratni zarobljenici koji su rasporedeni po raznim odjelima jednog logora prema svojemu drža,vljanstyu, jeziku i obićajima, imati, za svaki odjel, svoga vlastitog predstavnika, u skla,du s odredbama prethodnih stavaka.

Članak 80.

Zarobljenički predstavnici moraju pridonositi fizičkom, moralnom i intelektualnom blagostanju ratnih zarobIjenika.

Osobito ako bi ratni zarobljenici odlućili da međusobno organiziraju uzajamno pomaganje, to će organiziranje biti u nadtežnosti zarobljeničkih predstavnika, neovisno od posebnih zadataka koji su im povjereni drugim odredbama ove Konvencije.

Zbog same ćinjenice što obavljaju svoje dužnosti zarobljenićki predstavnici ne odgovaraju za prekršaje koje poćine ratni zarobljenici.

Članak 81.

Za.robljenički se predstavnici neće podvrgnuti nikakovome drugom poslu ako bi to oteža.lo obavljanje njihovih dui.nosti.

Zarobljenički povjerenici mogu među zarobljenicima odrediti pomoćnike koji su im potrebni. Njima će se da.ti sve stvarne olakšice, osobito određena sloboda kretanja potrebna za obavljanje njihovih zadataka (posjeti radnim jedinicama izdvojenima iz logora, primanje pošiljaka koje sadae pomoć itd.).

Zarobljeničkim će se predstavnicima dopustiti posjećivanje prostorija u kojima su internirani ratni zarobljenici, a ovi će imati pravo da se slobodno dogovaraju sa svojim predstavnikom.

Zarobljenićkim se predstavnicima pružaju i sve olakšice potrebne za odr-iavanje poštanske i brzojavne korespondencije s vlastima koje da.e ratne zarobljenike, sa silama zaštitnicama, s Međunarodnim odborom Crvenog križa i njihovim delegatima, s mješovitim lijećnićkim komisijama, kao i s organizacijama koje bi pružale pomoć ratnim zarobljenicima. Zarobljenićki predstavnici radnih jedinica uživaju iste olakšice u svojoj korespondenciji s predstavnikom glavnog logora. Ta se korespondencija neće ograničavati, niti će se smatrati da ćini sastavni dio kontingenta spomenutog u Članlcu 7l.

Nijedan se zarobljenićki predstavnik ne može premjestiti prije nego što mu se ostavi dovoljno vremena da svoga nasljednika uputi u tekuće poslove.

U slućaju uklanjanja s dužnosti, razlozi za donošenje takve odluke moraju se priopćiti sili zaštitnici.

GLAVA IIL

KAZNENE I DISCIPLINSKE SANKCIJE

1. Opće odredbe

članak 82.

Ratni su zarobljenici podvrgnuti zakonima, pravilnićima i naredbama koji vrijede u orui.anim snagama sile koja dr~zi ratne zarobljenike. Ona je ovlaštena poduzeti sudske ili disciplinske mjere prema svakome ratnom zarobljeniku koji povrijedi te zakone, pravilnike ili naredbe. Nije, međutim, dopušten nikakav progon niti kažnjavanje suprotno odredbama ove glave.

Ako zakoni, pravilnici ili naredbe sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike proglašavaju kažnjivima ćine koje poćini ratni zarobljenik, a da ti čini nisu kažnjivi ako ih poćini pripadnik oružanih snaga sile koja dr~zi ratne zarobljenike, ti ćini mogu za sobom povlaćiti samo disciplinske sankcije.

Članak 83.

Kad se postavi pitanje da li za djelo koje poćini ratni zarobljenik treba da bude kažnjen disciplinski ili sudski, sila koja dai ratne zarobljenike nastojat će da nadležne vlasti postupaju najblai.e u procjenjivanju tog pitanja i da, kad je god to moguće, radije pribjegavaju disciplinskim mjerama nego sudskom progonu.

Članak 84.

Ratnom zarobljeniku može suditi samo vojni sud, osim ako zakonodavstvo sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike izričito ne ovlašćuje civilne sudove da sude pripadnicima oružanih snaga te sile za isto djelo zbog kojega se goni ratni zarobIjenik.

Ratni zarobljenik ne može ni u kojem slućaju biti izveden pred bilo koji sud koji ne pruža općepriznata jamstva za nezavisnost i nepristranost i, posebice, postupak kojega mu ne bi osiguravao prava i sredstva obrane predviđena u Članku 105.

Članak 85.

Ratni zarobljenici koji se, na temelju zakonodavstva sile koja ih drii, gone za djela koja su poćinili prije no što su zarobljeni, koristit će se, ćak i ako su osudeni, odredbama ove Konvencije.

Članak 86.

R,atni zarobljenik mo~e biti kažnjen samo jedanput za isti ćin ili na temelju iste optužbe.

Članak 87.

Vojne vlasti i sudovi sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike mogu ratnim zarobljenicima izricati samo one kazne koje su za ista djela predviđene i za pripadnike oružanih snaga te sile

Prilikom odredivanja kazne, sudovi ili vlasti sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike uzet će u obzir, u što je moguće većoj mjeri, ćinjenicu da optuienik, budući da nije državljanin sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike, nema prema njoj nik~ikvu obvezu vjernosti, te da se u njezinoj vlasti nalazi zbo(; okolnosti neoW snih od svoje volje. Ti sudovi i te vlasti mogu slobodno ublažiti kaznu predviđenu za djelo za koje se optu7uje zarobljenik i u tu se svrhu ne moraju ravnati prema propisanom minimumu kazne.

Ztrbranjeni su svako kolekt.ivno ka7njavanje za pojedinaćne ćine. svaka tjelesna kazna, svako zatvaranje u prostorije koje nisu osvijetljene dnevnim svjetlom i, uopće, svaki oblik rnućenja ili okrutnosti

Uz to, sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike ne moie nijednoga od njih lišiti čina, niti ga sprijećiti da nosi svoje oznake.

Članak 88.

Ćasnici, doćasnici ili vojnici ratni zarobljenici, kad izdržavaju neku disciplinsku ili sudsku kaznu, ne smiju se podvrgnuti strožem postupku od onoga koji je za istu kaznu predviđen za pripadnike oružanih snaga sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike, a koji imaji isti ćin.

Žene ratni zarobljenici neće se kažnjavati strožim kaznama, niti će se s njima, dok izdržavaju kaznu, postupati strože nego sa i.enama koje pripadaju oružanim snagama sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike, a koje su kažnjene za. slićno djelo.

Ni u kojem se slućaju žene ratni zarobljenici ne mogu kažnjavati strožim kaznama, niti se s njima, dok izdr~zavaju kaznu, može postupati strože nego s muškarcem koji je pripadnik oružanih snaga sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike, a koji je kažnjen za slično djelo.

S ratnim se zarobljenicima, nakon što izdcž.e disciplinske ili sudske kazne na koje su osudeni, ne može postupati drukćije nego s ostalim zarobljenicima.

II. Disciplinske sankcije

Članak 89.

Disciplinske kazne koje se mogu primijeniti na ratne zarobljenike jesu:

1. novćana kazna do 50 posto od iznosa što ga primaju na ime plaće i naknade za rad kako je predviđeno u Člancima 60. i 62, i to za vrijeme koje ne može prijeći trideset dana;

2. ukidanje pogodnosti danih iznad onoga što je glede postupka predviđeno ovom Konvencijom:

3. prisilan rad koji ne može prijeći dva sata dnevno; 4.zatvor.

Kazna navedena pod brojem 3. ne moie se primijeniti na ćasnike.

Disciplinske kazne ni u kojem slućaju neće biti nećovjećne, surove ili opasne za zdravlje ratnih zarobljenika.

Članak 90.

Trajanje pojedine kazne ne može nikada prijeći trideset dana U slućaju disciplinskog prekršaja vrijeme provedeno u pritvoru prije rasprave ili izricanja kazne odbija se od izrećene kazne.

Gore predviđeni maksimum od trideset dana ne moie se prekoraćiti ćak ni u slućaju da neki ratni zarobljenik mora disciplinski odgovarati za veći broj djela u trenutku kad mu se izriće kazna, pa bila ta djela u stjecaju ili ne.

Između disciplinske odluke i njezina izvršenja neće proteći više od mjesec dana.

Kad ratni zarobljenik bude kažnjen novom disciplinskom kaznom, izvršenje svake kazne dijelit će vremenski razmak od najmanje tri dana ćim je dužina jedne od njih deset dana ili više.

Članak 91.

Bijeg ratnog zarobljenika smatrat će se uspjelim:

I) kad se on ponovno pridru~i oruianim snagama sile ćiji je pripadnik ili oružanim snagama neke saveznićke sile;

2) kad napusti područje koje se nalazi u vlasti sile koja drži ratne zarobljenike ili područje neke njezine saveznice;

3) kad se nade na brodu [coji vijori zastavu sile čiji je pripadnik ili neke saveznićke sile, a taj se brod nalazi u teritorijalnim vodama sile koja drii ratne za.robljenike, pod uvjetom da brod nije u vlasti potonje.

Ratni zarobljenici, koji; pošto im je uspio bijeg u smislu ovoga članka, budu ponovno zarobljeni, ne podliježu nikakvoj kazni za svoj raniji bijeg.

Članak 92.

Ratni zarobljenik koji pokuša pobjeći pa bude uhvaćen prije nego što uspije u bijegu u smislu Članka 91. moi.e biti kažnjen za to djelo, ćak i u slućaju povrata, samo disciplinskom kaznom.

Uhvaćenog zarobljenika predat će se što je prije moguće nadlei.nim vojnim vlastima.

Iznimno od Članka 88, stavak ćetvrti, ratni zarobljenici kažnjeni nakon neuspjelog bijega mogu biti podvrgnuti posebnom režimu nadzora, ali pod uvjetom da taj režim ne bude štetan za njihovo zdravlje, da se izdr~zava u logoru za ratne zarobljenike i da ne povlači za sobom ukidanje nijednog od jamstava što ih zarobljenicima prui.a ova Konvencija.

Članak 93.

Bijeg, ili pokušaj bijega, ćak i u povratu, ne smatra se kao otegotna okolnost u slučaju kad ratni zarobljenik bude izveden pred sud za djelo poćinjeno tijekom bijega ili pokušaja bijega.

Sukladno odredbama Članka 83, djela koja poćine ratni za,robljenici s jedinom namjerom da sebi olakšaju bijeg i koja ne ukljućuju nikakvo nasilje protiv osoba, bilo da se radi o kaznenim djelima protiv javne imovine, o kradi bez namjere za bogaćenjem, o pribavljanju i upotrebi lažnih isprava ili o nošenju gradanskog odijela, povlaće za sobom samo disciplinske kazne.

Ra.tni zarobljenici koji su surađivali u bijegu ili u pokušaju bijega mogu na temelju toga biti kažnjeni samo disciplinskom kaznom.

Članak 94.

Ako je odbjegli ratni zarobljenik uhvaćen, o tome će se, a način predviđen u Članku 122, obavijestiti sila ćiji je on pripadnik, ako joj je njegov bijeg bio priopćen.

Članak 95.

Ratni zarobljenici optuženi za disciplinske prekršaje neće do donošenja odluke biti pritvoreni, osim ako se ista mjera primjenjuje i na pripadnike orui,anih snaga sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike za slićna djela ili ako to zahtijevaju viši interesi održavanja reda i discipline u logoru.

Za sve će se ratne zarobljenike pritvor u slućaju disciplinskih prekršaja svesti na prijeko potreban minimum i ne može trajati duže od ćetrnae~t dana.

Odredbe Članaka 97 i 98. ove glave primjenjuju se na ratne zarobljenike koji su u pritvoru zbog disciplinskih prekršaja.

Članak 96.

Načini koji su disciplinski prekršaj odmah se podvrgavaju istrazi.

Ne dirajući u nadležnost sudova i viših vojnih vlasti, disciplinske kazne može izricati samo ćasnik koji vrši disciplinsku vlast u svojsmu zapovjednika lo~ora, ili odgovorni ćasnik koji zamjenjuje ili na kojega je on prenio svoje disciplinske ovlasti

Te se ovlasti ni u kojem slućaju ne mogu prenijeti na ratnog zarobljenika, niti ih može vršiti ratni zarobljenik.

Prije svakog izricanja disciplinske kazne, optuženi će se ratni zarobljenik toćno obavijestiti o ćinjenicama kojima ga se tereti. Dat će mu se mogućnost da objasni svoje pona” šanje i da se brani. Dopušta mu se da se pozove na svjedoke i može se poslužiti, ako je potrebno, uslugama strućnog prevoditelja. Odluka se priopćuje ratnom zarobljeniku i zarobljenićkom predstavniku.

Za.povjednik logora mora voditi registar izrećenih disciplinskih kazni~ ta.j registar stoji na raspolaganju predstavnicima sile zaštitnice.

Članak 97.

Ra.tni se zarobljenici ni u kojem slućaju neće premještati u kaznene ustanove (zatvore, kaznionice, tamnice itd.) da bi tamo izdržavali disciplinske kazne.

Sve prostorije u kojima se izdržavaju disciplinske kazne odgovarat će higijenskim uvjetima predviđenima u Članku 25. Kažnjenim ratnim zarobljenicima pružit će se mogućnost da održavaju osobnu ćistoću, u skladu s odredbama Članka 29.

Ćasnici i osobe istog položaja ne smiju izdržavati zatvor u istim prostorijama s dočasnicima i vojnicima.

Žene ratni zarobljenici koje izdržavaju disciplinsku kaznu driat će se u prostorijama odvojenima od onih u kojima su muškarci i stavit će se pod neposredan nadzor žena.

Članak 98.

R.atni zarobljenici koji se nalaze u zatvoru zbog disciplinske kazne i dalje će uživati pogodnosti odredaba ove Konvencije, osim ako samo njihovo zatvaranje čini te odredbe neprimjenjivima. Međutim, pravo koje imaju na temelju Članaka 78. i t26. ne može im se ni u kojem slućaju uskratiti.

Ratni zarobljenici koji su kažnjeni disciplinski ne mogu biti lišeni povlastica vezanih uz svoj čin.

Ratnim zarobljenicima koji su kažnjeni disciplinski omogućit će se svakog dana kretanje i boravak na svježem zraku najmanje dva sata.

Dopustit će im se, na njihov zahtjev, da se javljaju na svakodnevni lijećnićki pregled; pružit će im se njega koju zahtijeva njihovo zdravstveno stanje i, ako je potrebno, prenijet će ih se u logorsku ambulantu ili u neku bolnicu.

Dopustit će im se da ćitaju i da pišu, kao i da šalju i da primaju pisma. Međutim, paketi i novćane pošiljke mogu im se urućiti tek nakon isteka kazne; do tada, o njima će se brinuti zarobljenićki predstavnik koji će živežne namirnice podložne kvarenju, koje se nalaze u paketima, predati ambulanti.

III. Sudski program

Članak 99.

Ni jedan se ratni zarobijenik ne može goniti niti osuditi za ćin koji nije izrijekom predviđen kao kažnjiv po zakonodavstvu sile koja dr~i ratne zarobljenike ili po međunarodnom pravu, važećem u vrijeme kad je taj ćin poćinjen

Nikakva se moralna niti fizička prisila ne može vršiti nad ratnim zarobljenikom kako bi se on naveo da prizna da je kriv za ćin za koji je optužen.

Nijedan se ratni zarobljenik ne može osuditi prije nego što mu je pružena mogućnost da se brani i bez da mu je pru~ena pomoć kvalificiranoga branitelja.

Članak 100.

Ratni zarobljenici i sile zaštitnice obavještavaju se što je prije moguće o djelima koja povlače smrtnu kaznu na iemelju za.konodavstva sile koja drzi ratne zarobljenike.

Nakon toga nijedno drugo djelo ne može biti kažnjivo smrtnom kaznom bez suglasnosti sile ćiji su pripadnici ratni zarobljenici.

Smrtna se kazna zarobljeniku može izreći samo ako je, u skladu s Člankom 87, stavak drugi, pozornost suda bila osobito skrenuta na ćinjenicu da optui.enik, s obzirom na to da nije drža.vljanin sile koja dr~zi ratne zarobljenike, nije prema njoj vezan nikakvom obvezom vjernosti i da se on u njezinoj vlasti nalazi zbog okolnosti neovisnih od svoje volje.

Članak 101.

Ako je ratnom zarobljeniku izrećena smrtna kazna, presuda se neće izvršiti prije isteka roka od najmanje šest mjeseci, raćunajući od trenutka kad podrobno priopćenje predviđeno u članku 107. pi-ispije sili zaštitnici na označenu adresu.

Članak 102.

Ratni zarobljenik može biti pravovaljano osuden samo ako su presudu izrekli isti sudovi i po istom postupku kao i osobama koje pripadaju oruianim snagama sile koja dcii ratne zarobljenike i ako su, osim toga, poštovane odredbe ove glave.

Članak 103.

Svaka sudska istraga protiv ratnog zraboljenika vodit će se brzo, koliko god to okolnosti dopuštaju, i na takav način da se sudenje obavi što je prije moguće. Nijedan se ratni zarobljenik ne smije driati u pritvoru, osim ako se ista mjera primjenjuje i na pripadnike sile koja dr-ži ratne zarobljenike za slična djela ili ako interes nacionalne sigurnosti to zahtijeva. Taj pritvor ni u kojem slućaju neće trajati duže od tri mjeseca.

Trajanje pritvora ratnog zarobljenika odbija se od trajanja kazne lišenja slobode na koju bude osuden; o tome će se voditi raćuna u trenutku odredivanja kazne.

Za vrijeme dok su u pritvoru, na ratne će se zarobljenike i dalje primjenjivati odredbe Članaka 97. i 98. ove glave.

Članak 104.

U svim stućajevima kad sila koja dai ratne zarobljenike odlući poduzeti sudski progon protiv ratnog zarobljenika, obavijestit će o tome silu zaštitnicu što je prije moguće, a najmanje tri tjedna prije poćetka rasprave. Taj rok od tri tjedna poćinje teći tek od trenutka kad ta obavijest dospije do sile zaštitnice, na adresu koju je potonja prethodno naznaćila sili koja dr~i ratne zarobljenike_

Ta obavijest sadrii ove podatke

1) imena i prezime ratnog zarobljenika, njegov ćin, matićni broj, datum rodenja i, ako je to potrebno, njegovo zanimanje;

2) mjesto internacije ili zatoćenja.

3) opis djela ili djela za koja će ratni zarobljenik biti optuien, uz navođenje primjenjivih zakonskih odredaba,

4) naznaku suda koji će suditi u toj stvari, kao i datum i mjesto predviđeno za poćetak rasPrave

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike uputit će istu obavijest predstavniku ratnog zarobljenika.

Ako na poćetku rasprave nije podnesen dokaz da su sila zaštitnica, ratni zarobljenik i zainteresirani zarobljenićki predstavnik primili navedenu obavijest najmanje tri tjedna prije poćetka rasprave, rasprava se ne moie odriati i odgada se.

Članak 105.

Ratnom se za.robljeniku mora dati pravo da ga prati jedan od njegovih drugova zarobljenika, da ga brani kvalificirani odvjetnik kojega sam izabere, da se pozove na svjedoke i da zatraii, ako to smatra nužnim, uslugu ovlaštenog prevoditelja. Sila u ćijem se zarobljeništvu nalazi obavijestit će ga pravodobno, prije rasprave, o tim pravima.

Ako ratni zarobljenik nije izabrao branitelja, pribavit će mu ga sila zaštitnica.; u tu svrhu ona ima na raspolaganju najmanje tjedan dana: Na zahtjev sile zaštitnice, sila koja drži ratne zarobljenilse dostavit će joj spisak kvalificiranih osoba kako bi se osigurala obrana. U slućaju da ni ratni zarobljenik niti sila zaštitnica nisu izabrali branitelja, sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike odredit će po sluibenoj duinosti kvalificiranog odvjetnika koji će ga braniti.

Za pripremu obrane optuienoga ratnog zarobljenika branitelju će se, prije početka sudenja, staviti na raspolaganje rok od najmanje dva tjedna, kao i druge potrebne olakšice; on osobito ima pravo slobodno posjećivati optuienika i s njim razgovarati bez svjedoka. On ima pravo razgovarati sa svim svjedocima koji svjedoče u prilog optuieniku, uključujući i ratne za.robljenike. On te olakšice uiiva sve do isteka rokova za podnošenje priziva.

Optuienom ratnom zarobljeniku pravodobno će se, prije poćetka rasprave, priopćiti, na jeziku koji razumije, optuinica kao i akti koji se, općenito, priopćavaju optuieniku na temelju vaiećih zakona u vojsci sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike. Isto se mora, pod jednakim uvjetima, priopćiti i njegovu branitelju.

Predstavnici sile zaštitnice imaju pravo prisustvovati raspravi osim ako se rasprava mora, iznimno, odriati u tajnosti, u interesu državne sigurnosti; u tom će slućaju sila koja drži ratnog zarobljenika obavijestiti silu zaštitnicu o toj okolnosti.

Članak 106.

Svaki ratni zarobljenik ima pravo, pod istim uvjetima kao i pripadnici oruianih snaga sile koja drzi ratne zarobIjenike, protiv svake presude koja se njega tiče, podnijeti priziv radi poništenja ili preinačenja presude ili ponovnog sudenja. On će biti potpuno obaviješten o svojim pravima na podnošenje priziva, kao i o postojećim rokovima za osts"arenje tih prava.

Članak l07.

O svakoj presudi izrećenoj ratnom zarobljeniku odmah se obaa"ještasa sila zaštitnica, u obliku sai.etog priopćenja i s naznakom ima li ratni zarobljenik pravo podnijeti priziv radi poništenja ili preinaćenja presude ili ponovnog sudenja To se priopćenje daje i zainteresiranom zarobljenićkom predstavniku. Ono se daje i ratnom zarobljeniku, i to na jeziku koji razurnije, ako nije prisustvovao izricanju presude Uz to, sila koja dr-ži ratnog zarobljenika odmah će priopćiti sili zaštitnici odluku ratnog zarobljenika ieli li se ili ne ieli koristiti svojom pravom na podnošenje priziva.

Osim toga, u slučaju da je presuda postala izvršnom i, ako je u pitanju smrtna kazna, u slučaju presude donesene u prvom stupnju, sila koja drzi ratnog zarobljenika uputit će sili zaštitnici, što je prije moguće, podrobno priopćenje koje sadrii:

1. toćan.tekst presude;

2. kratak izvještaj o istrazi i raspravama, istićući osobito elemente optužbe i obrane;

3. naznaku, kad je to potrebno, ustanove u kojoj će se izdržavati kazna.

Priopćenja predviđena u prethodnim stavcima upućuju se sili zaštitnici na adresu koju je ona prethodno dostavila sili koja dcii ratnog zarobljenika.

Članak 108.

Kazne izrečene ratnim zarobljenicima, na temelju presude koje su na redoviti način postale izvršne, izdcžavaju se u istim ustanovama i u istim uvjetima koji vrijede i za pripadnike oružanih snaga sile koja dr-ii ratne zarobljenike. Ti će uvjeti u svakom slućaju odgovarati zahtjevima higijene i ćovjećnosti.

Žena ratni zarobljenik kojoj bude izrećena takva kazna smjestit će se u odvojene prostorije i nalazit će se pod nadzorom žena.

U svakom slućaju, ratni zarobljenici osudeni na kaznu lišenja slobode zadr-iavaju pogodnosti odredaba članaka 78. i 126. ove Konvencije. Osim toga, njima će se dopustiti da se dopisuju, da primaju barem jedan paket, kao pomoć, mjesećno i da redovito iztaze na svježi zrak; pruža.t će im se medicinska njega koju zahtijeva njihovo zdravstveno stanje, kao i duhovna pomoć koju bi mogli zai,eljeti. Kazne koje se na njih mogu primijeniti bit će u skladu s odredbama Članka 87, stavak treći.

D I O IV. PRESTANAK ZAROBUENIŠTVA

ODJELJAK I. 1

NEPOSREDNA REPATRIJACIJA I SMJESTANJE U NEUTRALNE ZEMLJE

Članak 109.

Stranke sukoba moraju, poštujući odredbe stavka trećeg ovoga Članka, vratiti u njihovu zemlju, bez obzira na broj i na ćin i nakon što ih pripreme za prijevoz, teško bolesne i teško ranjene ratne zarohtjenike, u skladu sa stavkom prvim slijedećega Članka.

Za vrijeme trajanja neprijateljstava, stranke sukoba nastojat će, uz sudjelovanje zainteresiranih neutralnih sila, organizirati smještanje u neutralne zemlje ranjenih ili bolesnih zarobljenika spomenutih u stavku drugom slijedećega Članka; one, osim toga, mogu sklopiti sporazume radi neposredne repatrijacije ili internacije u neutralnu zemlju zdravih zarobljenika koji su dugo vremena proveli u zarobljeništvu.

Nijedan ranjeni ili bolesni ratni zarobljenik koji je predviđen za repatrijaciju u skladu sa stavkom prvim ovoga Članka ne može se repatrirati suprotno s~~ojoj volji dok traju neprijateljstva

Članak 110

Neposredno će se repatrirati

1. neizljećivi ranjenici i bolesnici, ćija mtt~kektualna ili fizička sposobnost izgleda da je znatno sm<injena,

2. ranjenici i bolesnici koli se, prenrr lyećnićkim predvidanjima, ne mogu izlijećiU u tijeku godine dana, ćije sta

nje zahtijeva lijećenje i ćija intelektualna ili fizička sposobnost izgleda da je znatno smanjena;

3. izliječeni ranjenici i bolesnici ćija intelektualna ili fizička sposobnost izgleda da je znatno i trajno smanjena. Mogu se smjestiti u neutralne zemlje:

1. ranjenici i bolesnici čije se izljećenje moie očekivati u tijeku godine dana nakon toga ranjavanja ili poćetka bolesti ako lijećenje u neutralnOj zemlji obećava sigurnije i brze ozdravljenje;

2. ratni zarobljenici čije je mentalno ili fizičko zdravlje, prema liječničkim predvidanjima, ozbiljno ugroieno dr~zanjem u zarobljeništvu, ali ćijim bi se smještanjem u neutralne zemlje ta opasnost mogla otkloniti.

Uvjeti koje moraju ispunjavati ratni zarobljenici koji su smješteni u neutralnoj zemlji da bi bili repatrirani utvrduju se, kao i njihov status, sporazumom između zainteresiranih sila. U pravilu, repatri~at će se ratni zarobljenici smješteni u neutralnoj zemlji koji pripadaju ovim kategorijama:

1. oni ćije se zdravstveno stanje pogoršalo tako da ispunjavaju uvjete za neposrednu repatrijaciju;

2. oni čija je intelektualna ili fizička sposobnost nakon liječenja znatno smanjena.

Ako između zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba nisu sklopljeni posebni sporazumi za utvrđivanje slućajeva nesposobnosti ili bolesti, koji za. sobom povlaće neposrednu repatrijaciju ili smještanje u neutralne zemlje, ti će se slućajevi utvrđivati u skladu s načelima koja se nalaze u Predlošku sporazuma o neposrednoj repatrijaciji i smještanju u neutralne zemlje ranjenih i bolesnih ratnih zarobljenika i u Pravilniku o mješovitim lijećnićkim komisijama koji su priloženi ovoj Konvenciji.

Članak 111.

Sila koja dri,i ratne zarobljenike, sila ćiju su oni pripadnici i neutralna sila, koju te dvije sile izaberu, nastoajt će sklopiti sporazume koji će omogućiti internaciju ratnih za,robljenika na području spomenute neutralne sile do prestanka neprijateljstava.

Članak 112.

Čim zapoćne sukob odredit će se mješovite lijećnićke komisije za pregled bolesnih i ranjenih zarobljenika i donošenje svih potrebnih odluka u svezi s njima. Imenovanje, zadaci i djelovanje tih komisija moraju biti u skladu s odredbama Pravilnika priloienoga ovoj Konvenciji.

Međutim, zarobljenici koji su, po mišljenju liječnićkih vlasti sile koja ih dr-ži, oćito teški ranjenici ili teški bolesnici mogu se repatrirati i bez pregleda mješovite lijećnićke komisije.

Članak 113.

Osim onih koje odrede lijećnićke vlasti sile koja ih dri,i, ranjeni ili bolesni zarobljenici koji pripadaju niie nabrojanim kategorijama imaju pravo izići na pregled pred mješovite lijećnićke komisije predviđene u prethodnome Članku:

i ranjenici ili bolesnici koje predloii lijećnik, njihov zemljak ili državljanin sile stranke sukoba koja je saveznica sile ćiji su oni pripadnici, a koji obavlja svoje funkcije u logoru.

2 ranjenici i bolesnici koje predloži njihov zarobljenićki predstavnik;

3. ranjenici i bolesnici koje predloii sila čiji su pripad-nici ili organizacija koju je priznala ta sila, a koja pruža pomoć zarobljenicima.

Ratni zarobljenici koji ne pripadaju nekoj od triju gornjih kategorija mogu ipak izići na pregled pred mješovite liječničke komisije, ali će biti pregledani tek nakon zarobljenika iz navedenih kategorija.

Lijećnik zemtjak ratnih zarobljenika koji su podvrgnuti pregledu mješovite lijećnićke komisije i njihov zarobljenički predstavnik imaju pravo prisustvovati tom pregledu.

Članak 114.

Ratni zarobljenici i.rtve nezgoda, izuzimajući one koji su se namjerno ozlijedili, koristit će se, glede repatrijacije i eventualnog smještanja u neutralne zemlje, odredbama ove Konvencije.

Članak 115.

Nijedan se ratni zarobljenik kai.njen disciplinskom kaznom, koji ispunjava uvjete predviđene za repatrijaciju ili za smještanje u neutralnu zemlju, ne smije za.drža,ti zbog toga što nije izdriao kaznu.

Ratni zarobljenici koji su sudski gonjeni ili osuđeni, a koji su predviđeni za repatrijaciju ili za smještanje u neutralne zemlje, mogu se koristiti tim mjerama prije okončanja postupka ili prije izvršenja kazne, ako sila koja ih drii na to pristane.

Stranke sukoba jedna će drugoj priopćavati imena onih zarobljenika koji će biti zadt iani do okonćanja postupka ili izvršenja kazne.

Članak 116.

Troškove repatrijacije ratnih zarobljenika ili njihova prijevoza u neutralnu zemlju snosi sila kojoj pripadaju ti zarobljenici, poćevši od granice sile koja ih drii.

Članak 117.

Nijedna se repatrirana osoba ne može zapos(iti u djelatnu vojnu službu.

ODJEL.JAK II.

OSLOBAĐANJE I REPATRIRANJE RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA PO PRESTANKU NEPRIJATELJSTAVA

Članak 118.

Ratni će se zarobljenici nakon prestanka aktivnih neprijateljstava bez odgode osloboditi i repatrirati

Ako sporazum sklopljen između stranaka sukoba radi prestanka neprijateljstava ne sadrii odredbe o tome, ili ako takvog sporazuma nema, svaka od sila koje dri.e ratne zarobljenike sama će izraditi i izvršiti bez odgode ptan o njihovoj repatrijaciji u skladu s naćelom izloi,enrm u prethodnome stavku.

I u jednom i u drugom slućaju usvojene se mjere priopćuju ratnim zarobljenicima.

Troškovi repatrijacije ratnih -r.arobljenik~s podijelit će se u svakom slučaju pravično između sile koia drii ratne zarobljenike i sile điji su oni pripadnici U tu wrhu u toj se podjeli poštuju ova načela

a) kad te dvije sile graniće jedna s dru~om, sila ćiji au pripadnici ratni zarobljenici snosi troškove yihove repatri jacije počevši od granice sile koja rh dru.r.

b) kad te dvije sile ne graniće jedna s drugom, sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike snosi troškove prijevoza ratnih iarobljenika na svojem području do svoje granice ili do svoje luke ukrcaja koja je najbliža sili čiji su oni pripadnici. Sto se tiče ostalih troškova prouzročenih repatrijacijom, zainteresirane stranke će se sporazumjeti da ih pravilno podijele između sebe. Sklapanje takvoga sporazuma ne može ni u kojem slučaju biti razlog za i najmanju odgodu repatrijacije ratnih zarobljenika.

Članak 119.

Repatrijacija će se izvršiti u uvjetima sličnim onima koji su predviđeni Člancima 46. do zaključno 48. ove Konvencije za premještanje ratnih zarobljenika i vodeći računa o odredbama članka 118, kao i onima iz slijedećih stavaka.

Prilikom repatrijacije, dragocjenosti koje su oduzete ratnim zarobljenicima, u skladu s odredbama Članka 18, i novac u stranoj valuti koji nije bi zamijenjen u valutu sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike vratit će im se. Dragocjenosti i novac u stranoj valuti koji, iz bilo kojega razloga, ne bi bili vraćeni ratnim zarobljenicima prilikom njihove repatrijacije, predat će se Informacionom uredu predviđenome u Članku t22.

Ratnim će se zarobljenicima dopustiti da sa sobom ponesu svoje osobne stvari, svoju korespondenciju i pakete prispjele na njihovu adresu; težina tih stvari može se ograničiti, ako to okolnosti repatrijacije zahtijevaju, na ono što zarobljenik može razumno ponijeti; u svakom slučaju, svaki zarobljenik moi.e ponijeti najmanje dvadeset pet kilograma.

Ostale osobne stvari zarobljenika koji je repatriran čuvat će sila koja ga je dr:zala; ona će mu ih dostaviti čim bude sklopila sa silom ćiji je zarobljenik pripadnik sporazum kojim se utvrduju načini prijevoza tih stvari i plaćanje troškova koje taj prijevoz prouzroći.

Ratni zarobljenici koji se nalaze pod kaznenom istragom za zločin ili djelo po općem kaznenom pravu mogu biti zadri,ani sve do okonćanja postupka, a, ako se radi o takvom slućaju, sve dok ne izdrie kaznu. Isto će se tako postupiti i s onima koji su osudeni za zloćin ili djelo po općem kaznenom pravu.

Stranke sukoba priopćit će jedna drugoj imena ratnih zarobljenika koji će biti zadr-iani do okončanja postupka ili dok ne izdrže kaznu

Stranke sukoba sporazumjet će se o osnivanju komisija za traženje raspršenih ratnih zarobljenika i o osiguranju njihove repatrijacije u najkraćem roku.

ODJELJAK III.

SMRT RATNIH ZAROBLIENIKA

Članak 120.

Oporuke ratnih zarobljenika sastavljaju se tako da ispunjavaju uvjete za valjanost koji su propisani zakonodavstvom zemlje njihova podrijetla, koja će poduzeti potrebne mjere da s tim uvjetima upozna silu koja drži ratne zarobljenike. Na zahtjev ratnog zarobljenika, a u svakom slućaju nakon njegove smrti, oporuka se bez odgode dostavlja sili zaštitnici, a ledan se owjereni prijepis predaje Središnjoj informacionoj agenciji.

Smrtovnice, prema uzorku koji je pnložen ovoj Konvenciji, ili spiskom, koje ovjerava odgovorni ćasnik, svih ratnih zarobljenika koji su urnrli u zarobljeništvu, u najkraćem će se roku uputiti Informacionom uredu za ratne zarobljenike kop je ustanovljen u skladu s Člankom 122. Podaci o idenUtetu koji su nabrojani u stavku trećem članka

f17, mjesto i datum smrti, uzrok smrti, mjesto i datum pokopa, kao i svi podaci potrebni radi identifikacije grobova moraju se unijeti u te smrtovnice ili u te spiskove.

Pokopu ili spaljivanju mora prethoditi liječnićki pregled leša radi ustanovljenja smrti, omogućavanja sastavljanja izvještaja i, ako se ukaie potreba, radi utvrđivanja pokojnikova identiteta.

Vlasti koje drie ratne zarobljenike brinu se o tome da ratni zarobljenici koji umru u zarobljeništvu budu dostojno pokopani, po mogućnosti u skladu s obredima vjeroispovijedi kojoj su pripadali i da njihovi grobovi budu poštovani, uredno održavani i ta,ko oznaćeni da se uvijek mogu pronaći. Kad je god to moguće, umrli ratni zarobljenici koji su pripadnici iste sile pokapaju se na istom mjestu.

Umrli ratni zarobljenici pokapaju se pojedinačno, osim u slučaju više sile koji bi nalagao upotrebu zajedničke grobnice. Leševi se mogu spaljivati samo ako to nalaiu higijenski razlozi, ili zbog vjeroispovijedi pokojnika, ili ako je on sam izrazio takvu ielju. U slučaju spaljivanja u smrtovnicu se o tome unosi napomena, uz navođenje razloga zbog kojih je leš spaljen.

Da bi se grobovi uvijek mogli pronaći, sluiba za grobove koju ustanovljava sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike mora registrirati sve podatke koji se odnose na pogrebe i na grobove. Spiskovi grobova i podaci koji se odnose na ratne zarobljenike~koji su pokopani na grobljima ili na drugom mjestu dostavljaju se sili čiji su pripadnici bili ti ratni zarobljenici. Sila koja kontrolira to područje mora se brinuti o tim grobovima i zabiljeiiti svaki kasniji prijenos leševa. Ove se odredbe primjenjuju i na pepeo umrlih koji ćuva sluiba za grobove, dok je zemlja podrijetla ne upozna s konaćnim mjerama koje glede toga ieli poduzeti.

Članak 121.

Svaka smrt ili teško ranjavanje ratnog zarobljenika koje je prouzročio ili za koje postoji sumnja da ih je prouzroćio neki straia.r, drugi ratni zarobljenik ili bilo koja druga osoba, kao i svaki smrtni slučaj kojega je uzrok nepoznat, bit će odmah predmet sluibene istrage od strane sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike.

O tom se slučaju odmah obavještava sila zaštitnica. Prikupit će se izjave svjedoka, osobito izjave ratnih zarobIjenika; izvještaj s tim izjavama dostavlja se spomenutoj sili.

Ako istraga utvrdi krivnju jedne ili više osoba, sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike poduzet će sve mjere za sudski progon odgovorne ili odgovornih osoba.

D I O V.

INFORMACIONI UREDI I DRUŠTVA ZA PRUŽAN7E POMOĆI RATNIM ZAROBUENICIMA

Članak 122.

Ćim zapoćne sukob i u svim slućajevima okupacije, svaka od stranaka sukoba osnovat će sluibeni informacioni ured za ratne zarobljenike koji se nalaze u njezinoj vlasti; neutralne ili nezaraćene sile, koje na svoje područje prihvate osobe koje pripadaju nekoj od kategorija koje su predviđene Člankom 4, postupit će prema tim osobama nu isti način. Za.interesirana'će se sila pobrinuti da informacioni ured dobije potrebne prostorije, materijal i osoblje, kako bi uspješno mogao djelovati. Ona ima pravo da tu raposli ratne zarobljenike, poštujući uvjete utvrdene u odjeljku ove Konvencije koji se odnosi na rad ratnih zarobljenika.

Svaka od stranaka sukoba daje svom uredu, u najkraćem mogućem roku, informacije o kojima je rijeć u Ćetvrtom, petom i šestom stavku ovoga članka, a koje se tiću svake neprijateljske osobe koja pripada nekoj od kategorija koje su predviđene u Članku 4. i koje su pale pod njezinu vlast. Neutralne ili nezaraćene sile postupaju na isti način prema onim osobama iz tih kategorija koje prihvate na svoje područje.

Te informacije ured hitno i najbriim sredstvima prosljeduje zainteresiranim silama posredovanjem, s jedne strane, sila zaštitnica i, s druge, Središnje agencije predviđene u Članku 123.

Te informacije trebaju omogućiti da se brzo obavijeste zainteresirane obitelji. Ako njima informacioni ured raspolaže, te informacije sadrie za svakoga ćatnog zarobljenika, u okvirima odredaba Članka l7, prezime, imena,.ćin, matićni bI-oj, mjesto i potpuni datum rodenja, naznaku sile ćiji je pripadnik, ime oca i djevojaćko prezime majke, prezime i adresu osobe koja mora biti obaviještena, kao i adresu na koju se može zarobljeniku-uputiti korespondencija.

Informacioni ured prima od raznih nadlei,nih službi podatke o promjenama, oslobodenjima, repatrijacijama, bjegovima, hospitalizacijama i smrtnim slućajevima i dostavlja ih na način koji je predviđen gore u stavku trećem.

Isto se tako redovito dostavljaju, po mogućnosti svakog tjedna, informacije o zdravstvenom stanju teško bolesnih ili ranjenih ratnih zarobljenika.

Dužnost je informacionog ureda, također, da odgovara na sva pitanja koje mu se upućuju u svezi s ratnim zarobljenicima, ukljućujući tu i one koji su umrli u zarobljeništvu; ured će poduzeti i potrebne istrage kako bi pribavio traiene informacije kojima ne raspolaže.

Sva pismena priopćenja koja neki ured daje moraju se ovjeriti potpisom ili pećatom.

Uz to, duinost je informacionog ureda da prikuplja i dostavlja zainteresiranim silama sve osobne dragocjenosti, ukljućujući i novac u drugoj valuti nego što je valuta sile koja dr~zi ratne zarobljenike, kao i dokumente koji imaju vrijednost za bliske rodake, a koje su ratni zarobljenici ostavili prilikom repatrijacije, oslobodenja, bijega ili smrti. Ti se predmeti šalju u paketima zapećaćenima od ureda; tim se paketima prikljućuju izjave kojima se toćno ustanovljuje identitet osoba kojima su ti predmeti pripadali, kao i potpuni sadriaj paketa. Ostale osobne stvari tih zarobljenika dostavljaju se u skladu sa sklopljenim sporazumima između zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba.

Članak 123

U nekoj neutralnoj zemlji osnovat. će se Središnja informaciona agencija za ratne zarobljenike Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa predlo7it će zainteresrranim silama, ako to smatra potrebnim, organiziranje takve agencije

Dužnost će te Agencije biti prikupljaye smh inf ormacija o ratnim zarobljenicima do kojih moi.e doći slui?benim ili privatnim putem: ona će ih dostavliac 5to je brte moguće zemlji podrijetla zarobljenika ili sili ćijr su oni pripzLdnici. Radi obavljanja tih posloua strxnke sukc~bzi pru7.at Ce joj sve olakšice

Pozivaju se visoke stranke yov'm'rm:e, a osobito one ćiji se pripadnici korrste uslugtrma Srednsye <t~;<~ncye. da joj ukazuju potrebnu financijsku pomoć

Prethodne se odredbe ne smyu tummćm km da ogranićavaju humanitarnu djelatnust !~1c"drrotir"dnc>~ odbora

Svaka od stranaka sukoba daje svom uredu, u najkraćem mogućem roku, informacije o kojima je rijeć u Ćetvrtom, petom i šestom stavku ovoga članka, a koje se tiću svake neprijateljske osobe koja pripada nekoj od kategorija koje su predviđene u Članku 4. i koje su pale pod njezinu vlast. Neutralne ili nezaraćene sile postupaju na isti način prema onim osobama iz tih kategorija koje prihvate na svoje područje.

Te informacije ured hitno i najbriim sredstvima prosljeduje zainteresiranim silama posredovanjem, s jedne strane, sila zaštitnica i, s druge, Središnje agencije predviđene u Članku 123.

Te informacije trebaju omogućiti da se brzo obavijeste zainteresirane obitelji. Ako njima informacioni ured raspolaže, te informacije sadrie za svakoga ćatnog zarobljenika, u okvirima odredaba Članka l7, prezime, imena,.ćin, matićni bI-oj, mjesto i potpuni datum rodenja, naznaku sile ćiji je pripadnik, ime oca i djevojaćko prezime majke, prezime i adresu osobe koja mora biti obaviještena, kao i adresu na koju se može zarobljeniku-uputiti korespondencija.

Informacioni ured prima od raznih nadlei,nih službi podatke o promjenama, oslobodenjima, repatrijacijama, bjegovima, hospitalizacijama i smrtnim slućajevima i dostavlja ih na način koji je predviđen gore u stavku trećem.

Isto se tako redovito dostavljaju, po mogućnosti svakog tjedna, informacije o zdravstvenom stanju teško bolesnih ili ranjenih ratnih zarobljenika.

Dužnost je informacionog ureda, također, da odgovara na sva pitanja koje mu se upućuju u svezi s ratnim zarobljenicima, ukljućujući tu i one koji su umrli u zarobljeništvu; ured će poduzeti i potrebne istrage kako bi pribavio traiene informacije kojima ne raspolaže.

Sva pismena priopćenja koja neki ured daje moraju se ovjeriti potpisom ili pećatom.

Uz to, duinost je informacionog ureda da prikuplja i dostavlja zainteresiranim silama sve osobne dragocjenosti, ukljućujući i novac u drugoj valuti nego što je valuta sile koja dr~zi ratne zarobljenike, kao i dokumente koji imaju vrijednost za bliske rodake, a koje su ratni zarobljenici ostavili prilikom repatrijacije, oslobodenja, bijega ili smrti. Ti se predmeti šalju u paketima zapećaćenima od ureda; tim se paketima prikljućuju izjave kojima se toćno ustanovljuje identitet osoba kojima su ti predmeti pripadali, kao i potpuni sadriaj paketa. Ostale osobne stvari tih zarobljenika dostavljaju se u skladu sa sklopljenim sporazumima između zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba.

Članak 123

U nekoj neutralnoj zemlji osnovat. će se Središnja informaciona agencija za ratne zarobljenike Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa predlo7it će zainteresrranim silama, ako to smatra potrebnim, organiziranje takve agencije

Dužnost će te Agencije biti prikupljaye smh inf ormacija o ratnim zarobljenicima do kojih moi.e doći slui?benim ili privatnim putem: ona će ih dostavliac 5to je brte moguće zemlji podrijetla zarobljenika ili sili ćijr su oni pripzLdnici. Radi obavljanja tih posloua strxnke sukc~bzi pru7.at Ce joj sve olakšice

Pozivaju se visoke stranke yov'm'rm:e, a osobito one ćiji se pripadnici korrste uslugtrma Srednsye <t~;<~ncye. da joj ukazuju potrebnu financijsku pomoć

Prethodne se odredbe ne smyu tummćm km da ogranićavaju humanitarnu djelatnust !~1c"drrotir"dnc>~ odbora

Crvenog križa i društava za pružanje pomoći koja su spomenuta u Članku 125.

Članak 124.

Nacionalni informacioni uredi i Središnja informaciona agencija uživat će oslobodenje od poštanskih pristojbi, kao i sva oslobodenja predviđena u Članku 74. i, u granicama mogućnosti, oslobodenje od plaćanja brzojavnih pristojbi ili barem znatno smanjenje tih pristojbi.

Članak125.

Ne dirajući u mjere koje bi smatrale prijeko potrebnima radi zaštite svoje sigurnosti ili radi svake druge razumne potrebe, sile koje dri.e ratne zarobljenike pru~at će predstavnicima vjerskih organizacija, društava za pružanje pomoći ili svake druge organizacijs koja bi pritekla u pomoć ratnim za.robljenicima, ili njihovim propisno akreditiranim delegatima, sve olakšice kako bi mogli posjećivati ratne zarobljenike, raspodjeljivati pomoć i materijal iz bilo kojeg izvora, namijenjen u vjerske, obrazovne ili rekreacijske svrhe ili kao pomoć u organiziranju njihova slobodnog vremena u krugu logora. Takva društva ili organizacije mogu se osnovati na području sile koja drii ratne zarobljenike, u nekoj drugoj zemlji ili mogu imati međunarodni karakter.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike može ograničiti broj društava i organizacija ćiji su delegati ovlašteni da obavljaju svoje aktivnosti na njezinu području i pod njezinim nadzorom, pod uvjetom, u svakom slučaju, da takvo ograničenje ne ometa pruianje djelotvorne i dostatne pomoći svim ratnim zarobljenicima.

Poseban poloia.j Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa na tom polju u svako će se doba priznavati i poštovati. čim pomoć ili materijal namijenjen u navedene svrhe

bude urućen ratnim zarobljenicima, ili odmah nakon toga, društvu za pruia,nje pomoći ili organizaciji pošiljatelju dostavljaju se priznanice za svaku pošiljku, koje potpisuje zarobljenički predstavnik. Priznanice koje se odnose na te pošiljke istodobno predaju i upravne vlasti odgovorne za čuvanje zarobljenika.

D I O VI. IZVRŠAVAN7E KONVENCI7E

ODJELJAK I. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 126.

Predstavnicima ili delegatima sila zaštitnica dopustit ' će se da posjećuju sva mjesta gdje se nalaze ratni zarobljenici, osobito mjesta internacije, mjesta zatoćenja i mjesta gdje rade; oni imaju pristup u sve prostorije kojima se koriste zarobljenici. Oni su isto tako ovlašteni posjećivati sva mjesta o~lakle odlaze, kuda prolaze ili kamo dolaze zarobljenici koji se premještaju. Oni mogu razgovarati sa zarobljenicima bez svjedoka, a posebice s njihovim zarobljenićkim predstavnikom, ako je to potrebno, preko prevoditelja.

Predstavnicima i delegatima sila zaštitnica daje se puna stoboda glede izbora mjesta koja i.ele posjetiti; trajanje i ućestalost tih posjeta ne mogu se ogranićiti. Ti se posjeti mogu zabraniti samo zbog imperativne vojne potrebe te samo iznimno i privremeno.

Sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike i sila ćiji su pripadnici zarobljenici koji se posjećuju mogu se sporazumjeti, ako za time postoji potreba, da se zemljacima tih zarobljenika dopusti da prisustvuju posjetima.

Iste povlastice ui.ivaju i delegati Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog krii.a. Imenovanje tih delegata uvjetovano ,je privolom sile u čijoj se vlasti nalaze ratni za.robljenici koji se posjećuju. .

Članak 127.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će u svojim odnosnim zemljama što je više moguće, u vrijeme mira i u vrijeme rata, vršiti difuziju teksta ove Konvencije i, osobito, I da će njegovo proučavanje unijeti u vojne i, po mogućnosti, civilne obrazovne programe, kako bi se s načelima Konvencije upoznale sve orui"ane snage i cjelokupno stanovništvo.

Vojne ili druge vlasti, koje u vrijeme rata preuzimaju odgovornost s obzirom na ratne zarobljenike, moraju posjedovati tekst Konvencije i biti posebno poučene o njezinim odredbama.

članak 128.

Visoke stranke ugovornice dostavljat će jedna drugoj, posredovanjem švicarskoga- saveznog vijeća, a za vrijeme neprijateljstava posredovanjem sila zaštitnica, sluibene prijevode ove Konvencije, kao i zakone i pravilnike što bi ih usvojile kako bi osigurale njezinu primjenu.

Članak 129.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poduzeti sve zakonodavne mjere potrebne radi utvrđivanja odgova- I rajućih kaznenih sankcija protiv osoba koje su počinile ili koje su izdale naredbu da se počini bilo koja od teških povreda ove Konvencije određenih u slijedećem Članku.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica obvezana je da pronalazi osobe osumnjićene da su poćinile ili da su naredile da se poćini bilo koja od tih teških povreda i mora ih, bez obzira na njihovo državljanstvo, izvesti pred svoje sudove. Ako to izabere, ona isto tako može, prema odredbama svoga zakonodavstva, predati te osobe radi suderija drugoj visokoj stranki ugovornici zainteresiranoj za njihov progon, pod uvjetom da ta visoka stranka ugovornica raspolaže prima faciae dokazima.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica poduzet će potrebne mjere radi suzbijanja svih čina suprotnih odredbama ove Konvencije koji nisu teške povrede određene u slijedećem Članku.

Optuiene će osobe u svakoj prilici uživati jamstva glede propisanog sudenja i obrane, koja neće biti manja od onih predviđenih Člancima i05. i slijedećima ove Konvencije.

Članak 130.

Teške povrede na koje se odnosi prethodni Članak jesu one koje obuhvaćaju bilo koji od ovih ćina, ako su poćinjeni protiv osbba ili imovine zaštićenih Konvencijom: namjerno ubojstvo, mućenje ili nečovječno postupanje, ukljućujući biološke pokuse, namjerno prouzrokovanje velikih patnji ili teških oštećenja fizičkog integriteta ili zdravlja, prisiljavanje ratnog zarobljenika da sluii u orW anim snagama neprijateljske sile ili njegovo lišavanje prava da mu se pošteno i nepristrano sudi prema odredbama ove Konvencije

Članak 131.

Nijedna visoka stranka ugovornica ne rnože osloboditi sebe, niti drugu visoku stranku ugovornicu, odgovornosti koju ona sama ili ta druga visoka stranka ugovornica snosi za povrede predviđene u prethodnome Članku

Članak 132

Na zahtjev stranke sukoba mora se zbog svakoga navodnog kršenja Konvencije pokrenuti istraga, na naćln što ga utvrduju zainteresirane stranke

Ako se ne postigne sporazum o postupku istrage, stranke će se složiti o izboru arbitra koji odlučuje o postupku što ga treba provesti.

Pošto je kršenje ustanovljeno, stranke sukoba će ga'zaustaviti i suzbiti što je brie moguće. .

ODJELIAK II. ZAVRŠNE ODREDBE

Članak 133.

Ova je Konvencija sastavljena na engleskom i francuskom jeziku. Oba su teksta jednako vjerodostojna.

Švicarsko savezno vijeće dat će izraditi službene prijevode Konvencije na ruski i španjolski jezik.

Članak 134.

U odnosima između visokih stranaka ugovornica ova Konvencija zamjenjuje Konvenciju od 27. srpnja 1929.

Članak 136.

U odnoslma između sila koje su vezane Haškom konvencijom o zakonima i običajima rata na kopnu, bilo da se radi o onoj od 29. srpnja 1899. ili onoj od 18. listopada 1907, i koje su stranke ove Konvencije, potonja dopunjuje glavu II. Pravilnika priloženoga spomenutim konvencijama.

Članak 136.

Ova Konvencija, koja nosi današnji datum, otvorena je do 12. veljače 1950. za potpisivanje u ime sila zastupljenih na Konferenciji koja je započela u Ženevi 21. travnja 1949, kao i sila koje nisu zastupljene na toj Konferenciji, ali su stranke Konvencije od 27. srpnja 1929.

Članak 137.

Ova će se Konvencija ratificirati što je prije moguće, a ratifikacije se polaiu u Bernu.

O polaganju svake isprave o ratifikaciji sastavlja se zapisnik, kojeg ovjerene prijepise švicarsko savezno vijeće dostavlja svim silama u ćije je ime Konvencija potpisana ili ćiji je pristup notificiran.

Članak 138.

Ova Konvencija stupa na snagu šest mjeseci nakon što budu položene najmanje dvije isprave o ratifikaciji.

Poslije toga ona stupa na snagu za svaku visoku stranku ugovornicu šest mjeseci nakon polaganja njezine isprave o ratifikaciji.

Članak 139.

Od dana stupanja na snagu ova će Konvencija biti otvorena za pristupanje svakoj sili u čije ime ova Konvencija nije potpisana.

Članak 140.

Pristupi se pismeno notificiraju ~vicarskom saveznom vijeću, a poćinju djelovati šest mjeseci nakon datuma njihova pimitka.

Švicarsko savezno vijeće obavijestit će o pristupima notificiran.

Članak 141.

U slućajevima predviđenima u člancima 2. i 3, za stranke sukoba koje su položile isprave o ratifikaciji ili notificirale pristup prije ili nakon početka neprijateljstava ili okupacije, Konvencija stupa na snagu odmah. -Švicarsko će savezno vijeće na najbrži mogući način obavijestiti o ratifikacijama ili pristupima primljenima od stranaka sukoba.

Članak 142.

Svaka je visoka stranka ugovornica slobodna da otkaže ovu Konvenciju.

Otkaz se pismeno notificira Svicarskom saveznom vijeću. Ono će o notifikaciji obavijestiti vlade svih visokih stranaka ugovornica.

Otkaz počinje djelovati godinu dana nakon što je notificiran Švicarskom sa.veznom vijeću. Međutim, otkaz notificiran u vrijeme kad sila koja otkazuje sudjeluje u nekom sukobu ne djeluje do zaključenja mira i u svakom slučaju tako dugo dok operacije oslobadanja i repatriranja osoba zaštićenih ovom Konvencijom ne budu završene.

Otkaz vrijedi samo za silu koja otkazuje. On ni na koji na,čin ne djeluje na obveze što su ih stranke sukoba duisie. ispunjavati na temelju načela međunarodnog prava koja proizlaze iz obii:aja ustanovljenih među civiliziranim narodima, iz zakona čovječnosti i iz zahtjeva javne savjesti.

Članak 143.

Švicarsko savezno vijeće registrirat će ovu Konvencijw kod Tajništva Ujedinjenih naroda. Švicarsko će savezno vijeće, također, obavještavati Tajništvo Ujedinjenih naroda o svim primljenim ratifikacijama, pristupima i otkazima što se tiču ove Konvencije.

U potvrdu toga su potpisani, što su poloiili svoje odnosne punomoći, potpisali ovu Konvenciju.

Sasta.vljeno u Ženevi, 12. kolovoza 1949, na engleskom i francuskom jeziku. Izvornik će se položiti u arhive ~vicarske Konfederacije. Švicarsko će savezno vijeće dostaviti ovjerene prijepise Konvencije svim dri.avama potpisnicama i onima koje budu pristupile.

PRILOG I.

PREDLOŽAK SPORAZUMA O NEPOSREDNOJ REPATRIJACIJI I SMJEŠTANJU U NEUTRALNE ZEMLIE RANJENIH I BOLESNIH RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA (vidi članak 110)

1. NAĆELA ZA NEPOSREDNU REPATRIJACIJU ILI ZA SMJESTANJE U NEUTRALNE ZEMLIE

A. Neposredna repatrijacija Neposredno će se repatrirati:

1. Svi ratni zarobljenici s ovim oštećenjima organizma nastalima kao posljedica ozljede: gubitak jednog ekstremiteta, paraliza, oštećenje zglobova ili druga oštećenja, pod uvjetom da se oštećenje sastoji najmanje u gubitku jedne šake ili jednog stopala ili da je ravno gubitku jedne šake ili jednog stopala.

Ne isključujući mogućnost šireg tumaćenja, ovi se slučajevi smatraju ravnima gubitku jedne šake odnosno jednog stopala:

a) gubitak šake, svih prstiju ili palca i kažiprsta jedne ruke; gubitak stopala ili svih prstiju i metatarzalnih kostiju jednog stopala;

bj ukoćenje zgloba, gubitak koštanog tkiva, oiiljasto skvrčenje koje onemogućuje funkciju jednoga od yelikih zglobova ili svih zglobova prstiju jedne ruke;

c) lažni zglob dugih kostiju;

d) deformacije kao posljedica prijeloma kostiju ili drugih ozljeda koje prouzrokuju ozbiljno smanjenje radne sposobnosti i sposobnosti nošenja tereta.

2. Svi ranjeni ratni zarobljenici čije je stanje postalo kronično do te mjere da se, i uz liječenje, prognostički iskijučuje mogućnost izlječenja u roku godine dana od ranjavanja, kao na primjer u slučaju:

a) projektila u srcu, ća.k i ako mješovita liječnićka komisija pregledom nije mogla utvrditi tei,e poremećaje;

b) metalnog ivera u mozgu ili u plućima, čak i ako mješovita liječnička komisija pregledom nije mogla utvrditi lokalnu ili opću reakciju;

c) gnojna upala kosti ćije izlječenje ne izgleda moguće tijekom jedne godine od ranjavanja, a koja će jamačno dovesti do ukočenja nekog zgloba ili do drugih promjena koje su ravne gubitku jedne šake ili jednog stopala;

d) penetrantne i gnojne rane pekoga od velikih zglobova;

e) ozljede lubanje s gubitkom ili pomakom koštanog tkiva;

f) ozljede ili opekotine lica s gubitkom tkiva i funkcionalnim oštećenjima;

g) ozljede ledne moždine;

h) oštećenja perifernih živaca, ćije su posljedice ravne gubitku jedne šakeili jednog stopala, a za čije je izljećenje potrebno više od godinu dana nakon ozljede, kao na primjer: ozljeda brahijalnog ili lumbosakralnog živčanog spleta, medijalnog ili ishijatićnog živca, kao i istodobne ozljede radijalnog i kubitalnog živca ili peronealnog i tibijalnog iivca,, itd. Ozljeda radijalnog, kubitalnog, peronealnog i tibijalnog živca sama za sebe ne opravdava repatrijaciju, osim u slućaju kontraktura ili ozbiljnih neurotrofićnih poremećaja;

i) ozljede mokraćnog trakta koje ozbiljno remete njegovu funkcioniranje.

3. Svi bolesni ratni zarobljenici ćija je bolest u takvom kroničnom obliku da se, i uz lijećenje, prognostički iskljućuje mogućnost izlječenja u roku godine dana od poćetka bolesti, kao na primjer u slućaju:

a) progresivne tuberkuloze bilo kojeg organa, koja se prema liječnićkim predvidanjima ne može više izlijećiti ili barem znatno poboljšati liječenjem u neutralnoj zemlji;

b) upale porebrice s izljevom;

c) teških bolesti dišnih organa netuberkulozne prirode, koje se smatraju neizlječivima, na primjer: teški emfizem pluća (sa ili bez bronhitisa); kronična astma;` kronični bronhitis* koji u zarobljeništvu traje više od godine dana; bronhiektazije; itd.

d) teških kroničnih bolesti krvotoka, na primjer: oštećenja srča,nih zalisaka srćanog mišića* koja su tijekom zarobljeništva pokazivala znakove dekompenzacije, ćak i ako mješovita lijećnićka komisija, pregledom, ne moi,e utvrditi ni jedan od tih znakova; bolest srčane ovojnice i krvnih sudova (Burgerova bolest, aneurizme velikih krvnih sudova); itd.

e) teških kroničnih bolesti probavnih organa, na primjer: ćir na želucu i dvanaesniku; posljedica kirurške intervencije na i.elucu izvršene u zarobljeništvu; kronična

' Odluka mješovite liječničke komisije temeljit će se dobrim dijelom na nalazima logorskih liječnika i liječnika zemljaka ratnih zarobljenika ili na pregledu lijećnika specijalista koji pripadaju sili koja drii ratne zarobljenike.

upala sluznice želuca, tankog ili debelog crijeva, koja traje duže od godinu dana i koja ozbiljno remeti opće stanje organizma; ciroza jetre; kronične bolesti žućne kese;* itd.

f) teških kroničnih bolesti spolnih i mokraćnih organa, na primjer: kronićne bolesti bubrega s prouzroćenim funkcionalnim poremećajima; uklanjanje tuberkuloznog bubrega; kronićna upala bubrežne zdjelice ili kronična upala mokraćnog mjehura; hidronefroza ili pionefroza; teže kronične ginekološke bolesti, trudnoća ili porodajne smetnje, ako je hospitalizacija u neutralnoj zemlji nemoguća; itd.

g) teških kronićnih bolesti centralnog i perifernog živčanog sustava, na primjer: sve očite psihoze i psihoneuroze, kao što su teška histerija, teška logorska psihoneuroza itd., na propisan način utvrdena od specijalista;* svaka padavica propisno utvrdena od logorskog liječnika;* moždana arterioskleroza; kronična upala živaca, koja traje dui.e od godinu dana; itd.

h) teških kroničnih bolesti neurovegetativnoga živčanog sustava sa znatnim smanjenjem intelektualne ili fizičke sposobnosti, osjetnim gubitkom težine i općom tjelesnom slabosti;

i) sljepoće na oba oka ili sljepoće na jednom oku, ako je vid drugog oka ispod 1 i uz upotrebu korektivnih stakala; smanjenja oštrine vida, koje se ne može popraviti na 1/2 barem za jedno oko:* ostalih težih očnih bolesti, na pri” mjer: glaukom, upala šarenice, upala žilnice, trahom; itd.

k) poremećaja sluha, kao što je potpuna jednostrana gluhoća ako drugo uho ne čuje obićan govor na udaljenosti od jednog metra;* itd.

1) teških metaboličnih bolesti, na primjer: šećerna bolest koja zahtijeva lijećenje inzulinom; itd.

m) teških poremećaja žlijezda s unutarnjim izlućivanjem, na primjer: tireotoksikoza; hipotireoza; Adisonova bolest, Simondsova kaheksija; tetanija; itd.

n) teških i kroničnih bolesti krvotvornih organa;

o) teških kronićnih trovanja, na primjer: trovanje olovom, trovanje iivom, morfinizam, kokainizam, alkoholizam; trodanje plinovima, oštećenja jonizirajućim zraćenjem; itd.

p) kroničnih bolesti organa za kretanje s izraženim funkcionalnim poremećajima, na primjer: deformirajuće artroze; primarni i sekundarni progresivni kronični poliartritis; reumatizam s teškim kliničkim znacima; itd.

q) teških kroničnih bolesti kože koje su otporne na lijećenje; ,

r) svih malignih tumora;

s) teških kroničnih zaraznih bolesti koje traju već godinu dana od njihove pojave, na primjer: malarija s izrazitim organskim oštećenjima; amebna ili bacilarna dizenterija sa znatnim poremećajima; tercijarni visceralni sifilis, otporan na liječenje; guba; itd.

t) teških avitaminoza ili teške iznemoglosti od gladovanja.

B. Smještanje u neutralne zemlje

Za smještanje u neutralnu zemlju predlagat će se:

1. Svi ranjeni ratni zarobljenici~za koje nije vjerojatno da se mogu izlijećiti u zarobljeništvu, ali koji bi mogli ozdraviti ili ćije bi se stanje nedvojbeno moglo poboljšati ako bi se smjestili u neutralnu zemlju.

' Odluka mješovite liječnićke komisije temeljit će se dobrim dijelorn na nalazima logorskih lijećnika i lijećnika zemllaka ratnih zarobljenika ili na pregledu liječnika specijalista koji pripadaju sili koja drži ratne zarobljenike.

f2. Ratni zarobljenici oboljeli od tuberkuloze u bilo kojem obliku i na bilo kojem organu, ćije bi liječenje u neutralnoj zemlji vjerojatno dovelo do izlječenja ili barem do znatnog poboljša,nja, izuzimajući primarnu tuberkulozu koja je izliječena prije zarobljeništva.

3. Ratni zarobljenici oboljeli od bilo koje bolesti dišnih organa, krvotoka, probavnih orogana, živaca, osjeiila, mokraćno-spolnih organa, kože, organa za kretanje, itd., a koja zahtijeva liječenje i čije bi liječenje sigurno dalo bolje rezultate u neutralnoj zemlji nego u zarobljeništvu.

4. Ratni zarobljenici kojima je u zarobljeništvu operativno uklonjen bubreg zbog netuberkulozne bolesti bubrega, ili koji boluju od osteomielitisa na putu izlječenja ili latentnog, ili od šećerne bolesti koja ne zahtijeva liječenje inzulinom, itđ.

5. Ratni zarobljenici koji boluju od neuroza prouzročenih ratom ili zarobljeništvom.

Bolesnici čija je neuroza posljedica, zarobljeništva, a koji nisu izlijećeni nakon tri mjeseca. bolničkog lijećenja u neutralnoj zemlji ili koji se, nakon tog roka, oćito ne nalaze na putu konačnog ozdravljenja, bit će repatrirani.

e. Svi ratni zarobljenici koji boluju od kroničnog trovanja (plinovi, metali, alkaloidi, itd.), a za koje su izgledi za ozdravljenje u neutralnoj zemlji osobito povoljni.

7. Sve trudnice ratne zarobljenice i ratne zarobljenice majke s dojenčadi i malom djecom.

Isključeni su od smještanja u neutralnu zemlju;

1. Svi slučajevi propisno utvrdenih kroničnih psihoza. 2. Sve organske ili funkcionalne ~ivčane bolesti za koje se smatra da su neizlječive.

3. Sve zarazne bolesti u razdoblju u kojem su prenosive na druge, osim tuberkuloze.

II. OPĆE NAPOMENE

1. Utvrdeni se uvjeti moraju, općenito, tumačiti i primjenjivati u što je moguće širem smislu.

To će se široko tumačenje osobito primjenjivati na neuropatska i psihopatska stanja koja su prouzroćena ratom ili zarobljeništvom, kao i na slučajeve tuberkuloze u svim stadijima bolesti. Ratni zarobljenici koji su zadobili više ozljeda, od kojih nijedna, sama za sebe, ne opravdava repatrijaciju, bit će pregledani u istom duhu, vodeći raćuna o psihićkim traumama prouzroćenima brojem rana.

2. Logorski liječnici ili vojne liječničke komisije, koje imenuje sila koja drii ratne zarobljenike, što je prije moguće pregledat će i repatrirati sve nedvojbene slučajeve koji daju pravo na neposrednu repatrijaciju (amputacija, potpuna sljepoća ili potpuna gluhoća, otvorena tuberkuloza pluća, mentala bolest, maligni tumori, itd.).

3. Rane i bolesti od prije rata koje se nisu pogoršale, kao i ratne rane koje nisu spriječile ponovno obavljanje vojne službe, ne daju pravo na neposrednu repatrijaciju.

4. Odredbe ovoga Priloga tumaćit će se i primjenjivati na slićan način u svim zemljama strankama sukoba. Zainteresirane će sile i vlasti dati mješovitim lijećnićkim komisijama sve olakšice potrebne za obavljanje njihova zadatka.

5. Gore spomenuti primjeri pod brojem 1. samo su tipični slućajevi. Oni slučajevi koje se u svim pojedinostima ne slaiu s tim odredbama rješavat će se u duhu odredaba članka 110. ove Konvencije i naćela koja sadri.i ovaj Sporazum.

2. Ratni zarobljenici oboljeli od tuberkuloze u bilo kojem obliku i na bilo kojem organu, čije bi liječenje u neutralnoj zemlji vjerojatno dovelo do izlječenja ili barem do znatnog poboljšanja, izuzimajući primarnu tuberkulozu koja je izliječena prije zarobljeništva.

3. iiatni zarobljenici oboljeli od bilo koje bolesti dišnih organa, krvotoka, probavnih orogana, živaca, osjeiila, mokraćno-spolnih organa, koi,e, organa za kretanje, itd., a koja zahtijeva liječenje i čije bi liječenje sigurno dalo bolje rezultate u neutralnoj zemlji nego u zarobljeništvu.

4. Ratni zarobljenici kojima je u zarobljeništvu operativno uklonjen bubreg zbog netuberkulozne bolesti bubrega, ili koji boluju od osteomielitisa na putu izlječenja ili latentnog, ili od šećerne bolesti koja ne zahtijeva liječenje inzulinom, itđ.

5. Ratni zarobljenici koji boluju od neuroza prouzročenih ratom ili zarobljeništvom.

Bolesnici čija je neuroza posljedica, zarobljeništva, a koji nisu izliječeni nakon tri mjeseca bolničkog liječenja u neutralnoj zemlji ili koji se, nakon tog roka, očito ne nalaze na putu konačnog ozdravljenja, bit će repatrirani.

e. Svi ratni zarobljenici koji boluju od kroničnog trovanja (plinovi, metali, alkaloidi, itd.), a za koje su izgledi za ozdravljenje u neutralnoj zemlji osobito povoljni.

7. Sve trudnice ratne zarobljenice i ratne zarobljenice majke s dojenčadi i malom djecom.

Isključeni su od smještanja u neutralnu zemlju;

1. Svi sluča.jevi propisno utvrdenih kroničnih psihoza. 2. Sve organske ili funkcionalne ~ivčane bolesti za koje se smatra da su neizlječive.

3. Sve zara.zne bolesti u razdoblju u kojem su prenosive na druge, osim tuberkuloze.

II. OPĆE NAPOMENE

1. Utvrdeni se uvjeti moraju, općenito, tumačiti i primjenjivati u što je moguće širem smislu.

To će se široko tumaćenje osobito primjenjivati na neuropatska i psihopatska stanja koja su prouzročena ratom ili zarobljeništvom, kao i na slučajeve tuberkuloze u svim stadijima bolesti. Ratni zarobljenici koji su zadobili više ozIjeda, od kojih nijedna, sama za sebe, ne opravdava repatrijaciju, bit će pregledani u istom duhu, vodeći računa o psihičkim traumama prouzročenima brojem rana.

2. Logorski liječnici ili vojne liječnićke komisije, koje imenuje sila koja dr~i ratne zarobljenike, što je prije moguće pregledat će i repatrirati sve nedvojbene slučajeve koji daju pravo na neposrednu repatrijaciju (amputacija, potpuna sljepoća ili potpuna gluhoća, otvorena tuberkuloza pluća, mentala bolest, maligni tumori, itd.).

3. Rane i bolesti od prije rata koje se nisu pogoršale, kao i ratne rane koje nisu spriječile ponovno obavljanje vojne službe, ne daju pravo na neposrednu repatrijaciju.

4. Odredbe ovoga Priloga tumačit će se i primjenjivati na sličan način u svim zemljama strankama sukoba. Zainteresirane će sile i vlasti dati mješovitim liječnićkim komisijama sve olakšice potrebne za obavljanje njihova zadatka.

5. Gore spomenuti primjeri pod brojem 1. samo su tipični slučajevi. Oni slučajevi koje se u svim pojedinostima ne slažu s tim odredbama rješavat će se u duhu odredaba Članka 110. ove Konvencije i naćela koja sadri.i ovaj Sporazum.

2. Ratni zarobljenici oboljeli od tuberkuloze u bilo kojem obliku i na bilo kojem organu, čije bi liječenje u neutralnoj zemlji vjerojatno dovelo do izlječenja ili barem do znatnog poboljšanja, izuzimajući primarnu tuberkulozu koja je izliječena prije zarobljeništva.

3. iiatni zarobljenici oboljeli od bilo koje bolesti dišnih organa, krvotoka, probavnih orogana, živaca, osjeiila, mokraćno-spolnih organa, koi,e, organa za kretanje, itd., a koja zahtijeva liječenje i čije bi liječenje sigurno dalo bolje rezultate u neutralnoj zemlji nego u zarobljeništvu.

4. Ratni zarobljenici kojima je u zarobljeništvu operativno uklonjen bubreg zbog netuberkulozne bolesti bubrega, ili koji boluju od osteomielitisa na putu izlječenja ili latentnog, ili od šećerne bolesti koja ne zahtijeva liječenje inzulinom, itđ.

5. Ratni zarobljenici koji boluju od neuroza prouzročenih ratom ili zarobljeništvom.

Bolesnici čija je neuroza posljedica, zarobljeništva, a koji nisu izliječeni nakon tri mjeseca bolničkog liječenja u neutralnoj zemlji ili koji se, nakon tog roka, očito ne nalaze na putu konačnog ozdravljenja, bit će repatrirani.

e. Svi ratni zarobljenici koji boluju od kroničnog trovanja (plinovi, metali, alkaloidi, itd.), a za koje su izgledi za ozdravljenje u neutralnoj zemlji osobito povoljni.

7. Sve trudnice ratne zarobljenice i ratne zarobljenice majke s dojenčadi i malom djecom.

Isključeni su od smještanja u neutralnu zemlju;

1. Svi sluča.jevi propisno utvrdenih kroničnih psihoza. 2. Sve organske ili funkcionalne ~ivčane bolesti za koje se smatra da su neizlječive.

3. Sve zara.zne bolesti u razdoblju u kojem su prenosive na druge, osim tuberkuloze.

II. OPĆE NAPOMENE

1. Utvrdeni se uvjeti moraju, općenito, tumačiti i primjenjivati u što je moguće širem smislu.

To će se široko tumaćenje osobito primjenjivati na neuropatska i psihopatska stanja koja su prouzročena ratom ili zarobljeništvom, kao i na slučajeve tuberkuloze u svim stadijima bolesti. Ratni zarobljenici koji su zadobili više ozIjeda, od kojih nijedna, sama za sebe, ne opravdava repatrijaciju, bit će pregledani u istom duhu, vodeći računa o psihičkim traumama prouzročenima brojem rana.

2. Logorski liječnici ili vojne liječnićke komisije, koje imenuje sila koja dr~i ratne zarobljenike, što je prije moguće pregledat će i repatrirati sve nedvojbene slučajeve koji daju pravo na neposrednu repatrijaciju (amputacija, potpuna sljepoća ili potpuna gluhoća, otvorena tuberkuloza pluća, mentala bolest, maligni tumori, itd.).

3. Rane i bolesti od prije rata koje se nisu pogoršale, kao i ratne rane koje nisu spriječile ponovno obavljanje vojne službe, ne daju pravo na neposrednu repatrijaciju.

4. Odredbe ovoga Priloga tumačit će se i primjenjivati na sličan način u svim zemljama strankama sukoba. Zainteresirane će sile i vlasti dati mješovitim liječnićkim komisijama sve olakšice potrebne za obavljanje njihova zadatka.

5. Gore spomenuti primjeri pod brojem 1. samo su tipični slučajevi. Oni slučajevi koje se u svim pojedinostima ne slažu s tim odredbama rješavat će se u duhu odredaba Članka 110. ove Konvencije i naćela koja sadri.i ovaj Sporazum.

komisija obavijestit će, također, o donesenoj odluci svakoga zarobljenika koji je bio na pregledu, a onima ćiju repatrijaciju predlaie izdat će potvrdu prema uzorku koji je priloien ovoj Konvenciji.

članak 12. ' Sila koja drzi ratne za.robljenike mora izvršiti odluke mješovite liječničke komisije u roku tri mjeseca nakon što bude propisno o tome obaviještena.

Članak 13.

Ako nema nijednoga neutralnog liječnika u zemlji u kojoj postoji potreba za radom mješovite liječnićke komisije i ako je iz bilo kojeg razloga nemoguće imenovati neutralne liječnike koji borave u nekoj drugoj zemlji, sila koja dri.i ratne zarobljenike, postupajući u sporazumu sa silom zaštitnicom, ustanovit će liječničku komisiju koja će preuzeti iste duinosti kao i mješovita liječnićka komisija, u skladu s odredbama članaka 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. i 8. ovoga Pravilnika.

Članak 14.

Mješovite lijećničke komisije djelovat će stalno i posjećivat će svaki logor u razmacima koji neće biti duii od šest mjeseci.

PRILOG III.

PRAVILNIK O KOLEKTIVNOJ POMOGI RATNIM ZAROBLIENICIMA [vidi Članak 73)

Članak 1.

Za.robljenički su predstavnici ovlašteni da dijele povjerene im pošiljke kolektivne pomoći svim ratnim zarobljenicima koji su pod upravom njihova logora, ukljućujući i zarobljenike koji se nalaze u bolnicama, ili u zatvorima, ili u drugim kaznenim ustanovama.

Članak 2.

Pošiljke kolektivne pomoći dijele se prema uputama darovatelja i prema planu koji ustanove zarobljenički predstavnici; sanitetski materijal dijeli se, prije svega, u sporazumu s glavnim liječnicima, a oni mogu u bolnicama i u ambulantama odstupiti od spomenutih uputa ako to zahtijevaju potrebe njihovih bolesnika. U tako određenim okvirima raspodjelu treba uvijek obaviti pravićno.

Članak 3.

Da bi se mogla provjeriti kakvoća i količina primljene robe i da bi se u tu svrhu pripremili podrobni izvještaji za darovatelje, zarobljenićki su predstavnici ili njihovi pomoćnici ovlašteni da odu do mjesta prispjeća pošiljaka pomoći koja se nalaze u blizini njihova logora.

Članak 4.

Zarobljenićkim će se predstavnicima dati potrebne olakšice radi provjere je li raspodjela kolektivne pomoći u svim odjelima i jedinicama njihova logora izvršena prema njihovim uputama.

Članak 5.

Zarobljenićki su predstavnici ovlašteni ispuniti, kao i naložiti zarobljenićkim predstavnicima radnih jedinica ili glavnim lijećnicima ambulanata i bolnica da ispune obrasce ili upitnike koji su namijenjeni darovateljima, a koji se odnose na kolektivnu pomoć (raspodjela, potrebe, kolićine, itd.). Ti obrasci i upitnici, propisno ispunjeni, bez odgode dostavljaju se darovateljima.

Članak 6.

Da bi osigurali redovitu raspodjelu kolektivne pomoći ratnim zarobljenicima svoga logora, kao i da bi, eventualno, zadovoljili potrebe koje će prouzroćiti dolazak novih kontingenata zarobljenika, zarobljenički su predstavnlci oviašteni da stvore i odr”za,vaju dostatne zalihe kolektivne pomoći. Njima će se, u tu svrhu, staviti na raspolaganje odgovarajuća skladišta; svako će skladište biti opskrbljeno dvjema bravama tako da zarobljenički predstavnik drii ključeve jedne, a zapovjednik logora ključeve druge brave.

Članak 7.

U slučaju kolektivnih pošiljaka odjeće, svakom će se ratnom zarobljeniku dati barem jedno ćitavo odijelo. Ako jedan ratni zarobljeni ima više odijela, zarobljenički je predstavnik ovlašten oduzeti onima koji su najbolje opskrbljeni suvišne stvari ili neke prekobrojne komade, ako je to potrebno da bi se zadovoljile potrebe lošije opskrbljenih zarobljenika. On, međutim, ne može oduzeti,drugi par rublja, čarapa ili cipela, osiin ako nema drugog načina da se opskrbi ratni zarobljenik koji to nema.

Članak 8.

Visoke stranke ugovornice, a posebice sile koje dr~ze ratne zarobljenike, dopustit će, u granicama mogućnosti i ako se tome ne protive propisi o opskrbi stanovništva, svaku kupnju koja se obavlja na njihovu području radi raspodjele kolektivne pomoći ratnim zarobljenicima; one će na sličan način olakšavati prijenos novca i druge financijske, tehničke ili upravne mjere koje su poduzete radi tih kupnji.

Članak 9.

Prethodne odredbe ne prijeće pravo ratnih zarobljenika da primaju kolektivnu pomoć prije svoga dolaska u logor ili tijekom premještanja, kao ni mogućnost predstavnicima sile zaštitnice, Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog kriia ili svake druge organizacije koje pritekne u pomoć zarobljenicima i čija je duinost da dostavljaju tu pomoć da osiguraju raspodjelu pomoći onima kojima se šalje svim drugim sredstvima koja ti predstavnici smatraju prikladnima.

ŽENEVSKA KONVENCIJA O ZAŠTITI GRAĐANSKIH OSOBA LI VRIJEME RATA OD 12. KOLOVOZA 1949.

Potpisani opunomoćenici vlada, zastupljenih na Diplomatskoj konferenciji održanoj u Ženevi od 21. travnja do 12. kolovoza 1949. radi izrade konvencije za zaštitu gradanskih osoba u vrijeme rata, sporazumjeli su se kako slijedi:

DIO I. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 1.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poštovati ovu Konvenciju i da će joj osigurati poštovanje u svim okolnostima.

Članak 2.

Osim odredaba koje treba da stupe na snagu još u vrijeme mira, ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati u slućaju objavljenog rata ili nekoga drugoga oružanog sukoba koji izbije između dviju ili više visokih stranaka ugovornica, ćak i ako jedna od njih ne priznaje ratno stanje.

Konvencija će se također primjenjivati u svim slućajevima okupacije ćitavoga ili dijela područja visoke stranke ugovornice, ćak i ako ta okupacija ne naide ni na kakav vojni otpor.

Ako jedna sila u sukobu nije stranka ove Konvencije, sile stranke Konvencije ipak ostaju njome vezane u svojim međusobnim odnosima. One će, osim toga, biti vezane Konvencijom u odnosu na tu silu, ako ta prihvaća i primjenjuje njezine odredbe.

Članak 3

U slućaju oružanog sukoba koji nema međunarodni karakter i koji izbije na području jedne od visokih stranaka ugovornica, svaka stranka sukoba duž,na je primjenjivati barem ove odredbe:

1. S osobama koje izravno ne sudjeluju u neprijateljstvima, ukljućujući pripadnike oružanih snaga koji su položili oružje i osobe koje su izvan bojnog ustroja ("hors de combat.) zbog bolesti, rana, lišenja slobode ili bilo kojega drugog razloga, u svakoj će se prilici postupati ćovjećno, bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga na rasi, boji kože, vjeroispovijedi ili uvjerenju, spolu, rodenju ili imovinskom stanju, ili bilo kojem drugorn slićnomkriteriju.

U tu su svrhu prema gore navedenim osobama zabranjeni i ostaju zabranjeni, u svako doba i na svakom mjestu, ovi ćini:

a) nasilje protiv života i tijela, osobito sve vrste ubojst.ava, sakaćenja, okrutnog postupanja i mu~ enja.

b) uzimanje talaca;

c) povrede osobnog dostojanstva, osobito uvredljivi i ponižavajući postupci;

d) izricanje i izvršavanje kazni bez prethodnog sudenja pred redovito ustanovljenim sudom, kop pr-uia sva sudska jamstva priznafa kao nužna od civiliziraamh naroda

2. Ranjenici i bolesnici prikupit će se i yegovatr Svaka nepristrana humanitarna organizacija, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa može strankama sukoba ponuditi svoje usluge

S druge strane, stranke sukoba nastojat će posebnim sporazumima osnažiti sve ili dio ostalih odredaba ove Konvencije.

Primjena prethodnih odredaba ne utječe na pravni poloiaj stranaka sukoba.

Članak 4

Ova Konvencija štiti osobe koje se, u slučaju sukoba ili okupacije, u bilo kojem trenutku i na bilo koji način nadu u vlasti stranke sukoba ili okupacijske sile ćiji nisu državljani.

Konvencija ne štiti dri.avljane dcžave koja nije njome vezana. državljani neutralne dri.ave koji se nadu na području za.raćene drLave i državljani dri.ave suučesnice u ratu ne smatraju se zaštićenim osobama dokle god država ćiji su dri.avljani ima redovito diplomatsko zastupstvo u dr-zavi u čijoj se vlasti nalaze.

Odredbe dijela II. imaju, međutim, šire polje primjene, kako je to određeno u članku 13.

Osobe zaštićene Ženevskom konvencijom za poboljšanje polo?a,ja ranjenika i bolesnika u oruia,nim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949, ili Ženevskom konvencijom za poboljšanje poloi.aja ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca, oružanih snaga na moru od t2. kolovoza 1949, ili Ženevskom konvencijom o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949, ne smatraju se zaštićenim osobama u smislu ove Konvencije.

Članak 5.

Ako stranka sukoba ima ozbiljnih razloga da smatra da, na njezinu području, za neku osobu zaštićenu ovom Konvencijom postoji opravdana sumnja da se bavi aktivnošću koja je štetna za sigurnost države ili ako je ustanovljeno da se takvom aktivnošću bavi, ta se osoba ne može pozivati na prava i povlastice na temelju ove Konvencije ako bi se, njihovom primjenom u korist te osobe, moglo štetiti sigurnosti te dr~ave.

Ako je na okupiranom području osoba zaštićena Konvencijom uhićena kao špijun ili saboter, ili zato što postoji opravdana sumnja da se bavi aktivnošću koja šteti sigurnosti okupacijske sile, ta se osoba može, u slučajevima kad to vojna sigurnost apsolutno zahtijeva, lišiti prava općenja predviđenih ovom Konvencijom.

U svakom slućaju s takvim će se osobama ipak postupati čovječno i u slućaju progona one se neće lišiti prava na pošteno i redovito sudenje kako je to predviđeno ovom Konvencijom. Njima će se također, što je prije moguće s obzirom na sigurnost države ili okupacijske sile, ovisno o slućaju, priznati sva prava i povlastice osoba zaštićenih u smislu ove Konvencije

Članak 6.

Ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati ćim zapoćne neki sukob ili okupacija spomenuti u Članku 2.

Na području stranaka sukoba primjena Konvencije prestaje općim prestankom vojnih operacija.

Na okupiranom području primjena ove Konvencije prestaje godinu dana nakon općeg prestanka vojnih operacija: međutim, okupacijska će sila za vrijeme trajanja okupacije - utoliko koiiko vrši funkcije vlade na tom području - biti vezana odredbama sljedećih Članaka ove Konvencije 1. do 22, 27, 29 do 34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 59, 61. do 77. i 143.

Zaštićene osobe, do ćijeg će oslobodenja, repatrijacije ili ponovnog nastanjenja doći nakon toga roka, uživaju u međuvremenu pogodnosti ove Konvencije

Članak 7.

Osim sporazuma izrijekom predviđenih člancima t 1, 14, 15, 17, 36, 108, 109, 132, 133. i 149, visoke stranke ugovornice mogu sklapati druge posebne sporazume o svakom pitanju za koje budu smatrale da ga treba posebno urediti. Nijedan posebni sporazum ne može pogoršati poloi.aj zaštićenih osoba kako je ureden ovom Konvencijom, niti ogranićiti prava koja im ova Konvencija priznaje.

Zaštićene osobe ui,ivaju pogodnosti iz tih sporazuma dokle god se Kovencija na njih primjenjuje, osim ako su suprotne odredbe izrijekom sadrža,ne u spomenutim i!i u kasnijim sporazumima ili ako neka od stranaka sukoba poduzme prema njima povoljnije mjere.

članak 8.

Za,štićene osobe ne mogu se ni u kojem slučaju, ni djelomice niti u cijelosti, odreći prava koja im osiguravaju ova Konvencija i posebni sporazumi spomenuti u prethodnome članku, ako takvih bude.

Članak 9.

Ova će se Konvencija primjenjivati uz sudjelovanje i pod nadzorom sila zaštitnica, čija je dužnost da štite interese stranaka sukoba. U tu svrhu sile zaštitnice mogu, uz svoje diplomatsko ili konzularno osoblje, imenovati delegate među vlastitim državljanima ili među državljanima drugih neutralnih sila. Za te se delegate mora dobiti privola sile kod koje će oni obavljati svoju misiju.

Stranke sukoba u najvećoj će mogućoj mjeri olakšavati zadatak predstavnika ili delegata sila zaštitnica.

Predstavnici ili delegati sila zaštitnica ne smiju ni u kojem slučaju prekoraćiti okvire svoje misije, kako to proizlazi iz ove Konvencije; oni osobito moraju voditi raćuna o imperativnim potrebama sigurnosti države u kojoj obavljaju svoje dužnosti.

Članak 10.

Odredbe ove Konvencije ne prijeće humanitarne aktivnosti koje će Međunarodni odbor Crvenog krii,a, kao i svaka druga nepristrana humanitarna organizacija, uz privolu zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba, poduzimati radi zaštite i pru~a.nja pomoći gradanskim osobama.

članak 11.

Visoke stranke ugovornice mogu se u svako doba složiti o tome da obavljanje zadataka, što ih ova Konvencija postavlja silama zaštitnicama, povjere nekoj organizaciji koja pruža sva jamstva za nepristranost i djelotvornost.

Ako se zaštićene osobe iz bilo kojega razloga ne koriste ili više ne koriste djelovanjem sile zaštitnice ili organizacije određene sukladno prvome stavku, sila koja ih drži mora zatraiiti od neke neutralne države ili od neke takve organizacije da preuzme funkcije što ih na temelju ove Konvencije obavljaju sile zaštitnice određene od stranaka sukoba

Ako se na taj način zaštita ne može osigurati, sila koja dr”zi zaštićene osobe mora zatražiti od neke humanitarne organizacije, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Cr-venog križa, da preuzme humanitarne zadatke što ih na temelju ove Konvencije obavljaju sile zaštitnice ili mora, sukladno odredbama ovoga Članka, prihvatiti usluge koje joj ponudi neka takva organizacija.

Svaka neutralna sila ili svaka organizacija koju je pozvala zainteresirana sila. ili koja je u navedene svrhe ponudila svoje usluge, mora u svojem djelovanju ostati svjesna odgovornosti prema stranki sukoba i mora pružiti dovoljna jamstva da je u stanju preuzeti odnosne funkcije i nepris” trano ih obavljati.

Od prethodnih odredaba ne može se odstupiti posebnim sporazumom između sila od kojih bi jedna, makar i privremeno, prema drugoj sili ili njezinim saveznicima bila ograničena u slobodi pregovaranja zbog vojnih dogadaja, osobito u slućaju okupacije čitavog ili znatnog dijela njezina područja.

Kad god se u ovoj Konvenciji spominje sila zaštitnica, taj se izraz ujedno primjenjuje i na organizacije koje je za.mjenjuju u smislu ovoga Članka.

Odredbe ovoga Članka protežu se na slućajeve, i njima se prilagoduju, dri.avljana neutralne dr'zave koji su na okupiranom području ili se nadu na području zaraćene države u kojoj država ćiji su državljani nema redovitoga diplomatskog zastupstva.

Članak 12.

U svim slućajevima kad one to budu smatrale korisnim u interesu zaštićenih osoba, osobito u slućaju neslaganja između stranaka sukoba o primjeni ili tumaćenju odredaba ove Konvencije, sile zaštitnice pružit će dobre usluge radi rješavanja spora.

U tu svrhu svaka od sila zaštitnica moi,e, na poziv jedne stranke ili samoinicijativno, predloiiti strankama sukoba sastanak njihovih predstavnika, osobito organa vlasti odgovornih za zaštićene osobe, po mogućnosti na prikladno odabranom neutralnom području. Stranke sukoba duine su provesti prijedloge o sastanku koji su im podneseni. Sile zaštitnice mogu, ako je to potrebno, predložiti strankama sukoba na privolu lićnost koja pripada nekoj neutralnoj sili ili koju uputi Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa, a koja će biti pozvana da sudjeluje na tom sastanku

D I O II.

OPĆA ZAŠTITA STANOVNIŠTYA OD NEKIH POSUEDICA RATA

Članak 13

Odredbe ovoga dijela odnose se na cjelokupno stanovništvo zemalja u sukobu, bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja, osobito s obzirom na rasu, drlavljanstvo, vjeroispovijed ili političko mišljenje i svrha im je da ubla~e patnje prouzročene ratom.

Članak 14

Visoke stranke ugovornice mogu još u vrijeme mira, a stranke sukoba pošto zapoćnu neprijateljstva, na vlastitom području i, ako je to potrebno, na okupiranim područjima ustanoviti sanitetske i sigurnosne -r.one r mjesta, orl;anizirane tako da se od posljediCa rata zaštite ranjenicr i bolesnici. nemoćni, starci, djeca do petnaest godina, trudnice i majke djece do sedam godina

Ćim zapoćnu neprijateljstva i za vrijeme yih~wa tra~anja, zainteresirane stranke mogu skleipati sporimoe m uzajamnom priznavanju zona i mjesta što su rh ustan~n.nl<" U tu svrhu mogu provesti odredbe Predloškm sportLZUmrr priloienoga ovoj Konvenciji. uz izmjene koje smW rtyu pc'trebnima.

Sile zaštitnice i Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa pozivaju se da pruže svoje dobre usluge radi ustanovljavanja i priznavanja tih sanitetskih i sigurnosnih zona i mjesta:

članak 15.

Svaka stranka sukoba može, izravno ili posredovanjem neke neutralne države ili humanitarne organizacije, protivnićkoj stranki predložiti ustanovljenje neutraliziranih zona u regijama u kojima se vode borbe, s namjenom da se od ratnih opasnosti sklone, bez ikakva razlikovanja, ove osobe:

a) ranjeni i bolesni borci i neborci;

b) gradanske osobe koje ne sudjeluju u neprijateljstvima i koje ne obavljaju nikakve poslove vojne prirode dok borave u tim zonama.

čim se stranke sukoba slože o geografskom položaju, upravljanju, opskrbi i nadzoru glede predložene zone, sastavlja se pismeni sporazum koji stranke sukoba potpisuju. Taj sporazum odreduje početak i trajanje neutralizacije te zone.

Članak 16.

Ranjenici i bolesnici, kao i nemoćni i trudnice, bit će predmet posebne zaštite i poštovanja.

Utoliko koliko to vojni razlozi dopuštaju, svaka će stranka sukoba podupirati mjere poduzete da se pronadu poginuli i ranjenici, da se pruži pomoć brodolomcima i drugim osobama izloženima velikoj opasnosti, te da ih se zaštiti od pljaćke i zlostavljanja.

Članak 17.

Stranke sukoba nastojat će sklopiti lokalna utanaćenja radi evakuacije ranjenika, bolesnika, nemoćnih, staraca, djece i rodilja iz opsjednute ili opkoljene zone i radi prolaska svećenika svih vjeroispovijedi, sanitetskog osoblja i opreme na putu za tu zonu.

Članak 18.

Civilne bolnice organizirane za pružanje njege ranjenicima, bolesnicima, nemoćnima i rodiljama ne mogu ni u kojoj prilici biti predmet napada, nego će ih stranke sukoba u svako doba poštovati i štititi.

Dri.ave koje su stranke sukoba moraju svim cailnim bolnicama izdati ispravu kojom se Potvrđuje da jesu civilne bolnice i da se zgrade što iz zauzimaju ne upotrebljavaju ni u koju svrhu koja bi ih, u smislu Članka 19, mogla lisiti zaštite.

Civilne će se bolnice, ako im je to država odobrila. ornačiti obilježjem predviđenim u Članku 38. Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje položaja ranjenika i bolesnika u oružanim snagarrta u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Utoliko koliko to vojni razlozi dopuštaju, stranke sukoba poduzimaju potrebne mjere da bi obilje7ja raspoznw~anja, koja oznaćavaju civilne bolnice, ućinila jasno vidljivima neprijateljskim kopnenim, zračnim i pomorskim sn~sresma, kako bi se otklonila mogućnost svakoga ahresivno~ djelovanja.

Zbog opasnosti kojima bolnice mogu biti izlo~enF~ ~rk~ se nalaze u blizini vojnih ciljeva, preporuća se yihr~v smještaj što je moguće dalje od tih ciljeva.

Članak 19.

Zaštita na koju imaju pravo civilne bolmce moie prr~stati samo ako se one upotrijebe za vršenje, izvan svojil; hu manitarnih dužnosti, čina štetnih za neprijateli~i- 7.a;tit;r.

nosnim slućajevima, odreduje razuman rok i pošto je ona ostalo bez ućinka.

Ne smatra se činom štetnim za neprijatelja ćinjenica' da se u tim bolnicama liječe ranjeni lli bolesni pripadnici oruianih snaga ili da se tu nalazi osobno naoruianje i streIjivo koje im je oduzeto i nije još predano nadleinoj sluibi.

Članak 20.

Osoblje koje je redovito i iskljućivo namijenjeno djelovanju ili upravljanju u civilnim bolnicama, uključujući ono čija je duinost pronalaženje, prikupljanje, prenošenje i njega ranjenih i bolesnih civila, nemoćnih i rodilja, poštovat će se i štititi.

Na okupiranom području i u zonama vojnih operacija to će osoblje biti prepoznatljivo po osobnoj iskaznici koja Potvrđuje svojstvo nosioca i sadr”zi njegovu fotografiju i na kojoj je utisnut suhi iig odgovorne vlasti te, također, po iigosanoj traci koja je otporna na vlagu i koju, dok je u sluibi, nosi oko lijeve ruke. Tu traku oko ruke izdaje država i na njoj je obiljeije predviđeno u Članku 38. Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje položaja ranjenika i bolesnika u oruianim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Svo ostalo osoblje namijenjeno djelovanju ili upravljanju u civilnim bolnicama poštovat će se i štititi i imat će pravo da nosi traku oko ruke dok obavlja takve duinosti, kako je gore predviđeno i pod uvjetima propisanima u ovome Članku. Osobna će iskaznica naznaćiti zadatke koji su mu povjereni.

Ravnateljstvo svake civilne bolnice imat će u svako doba na raspolaganju za nadležne dr”r.avne ili okupacijske vlasti ažurirani spisak osoblja.

članak 21.

Konvoji vozila ili bolnički vlakovi na kopnu, ili posebna tome namijenjena plovila na morv, što prevoze ranjerie i bolesne civile, nemoćne i rodilje, poštovat će se i štititi na isti način kao i bolnice predviđene u Članku 18. i bit će, uz odobrenje drLave, oznaćeni isticanjem obiljeija raspoznavanja predviđenog u članku 38. Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje poloi,aja ranjenika i bolesnika u oruianim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza t 949.

Članak 22.

Zrakoplovi koji se upotrebljavaju iskljućivo za prijevoz ranjenih i bolesnih civila, nemoćnih i rodilja ili za prijevoz sanitetskog osoblja i opreme neće se napadati, nego će ih se poštovati dok lete na visinama, u vrijeme i po rutama kako su se sve zainteresirane stranke sukoba međusobno izrićito sporazumjele.

Oni se mogu oznažiti obilježjem raspoznavanja predviđenim u Članku 38. Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje poloia.ja ranjenika i bolesnika u oružanim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Ako nije drukčije ugovoreno, nadlijetanje neprijateljskog područja ili područja pod neprijateljskom okupacijom je zabranjeno

Ti se zrakoplovi moraju pokoriti svakom nalogu za slijetanje. U slućaju tako naloženog sli~etanja. zrakoplov s osobama koje se u njemu nalaze moie nastaviti let nakon mogućeg pregleda.

Članak 23

Svaka će visoka stranka ugovornica dopustiti slobodan prolazak svake pošiljke lijekova i sanitet.skog mater-ijala te predmeta potrebnih za vjerske obrede, namijenjene jedino

civilnom stanovništvu druge,-ćak i neprijateljske, stranke ugovornice. Ona će, također, dopustiti slobodan prolazak svake pošiljke preko potrebnih živežnih namirnica, odjeće i sredstava za jaćanje namijenjenih djeci do petnaest godina, trudnicama i rodiljama.

Obveza visoke stranke ugovornice da dopusti slobodan prolaza.k pošiljaka navedenih u prethodnome stavku uvjetovana je uvjerenjem te stranke da nema ozbiljnih razloga za bojazan:

a) da bi pošiljke mogle biti skrenute s puta za odredište;

b) da bi kontrola mogla biti nedjelotvorna ili

c) da bi iz njih neprijatelj mogao izvući korist za svoje vojno djelovanje ili za svoju ekonomiju tako što bi s tim pošiljkama zamijenio robu koju bi inaće morao nabaviti ili proizvesti ili što bi oslobodio tvari, proizvode ili usluge koje bi ina.če bile potrebne za proizvodnju takvih roba.

Sila koja dopušta prolazak pošiljaka navedenih u prvome stavku ovoga Članlsa može svoje dopuštenje uvjetovati time da se raspodjela korisnicima obavi pod nadzorom sila zaštitnica na mjestu dogadaja.

Te se pošiljke moraju otpremiti što je br~ze moguće, a država koja dopušta slobodan prolazak ima pravo da odredi tehničke uvjete pod kojima će se dopustiti.

Članak 24.

Stranke sukoba poduzet će potrebne mjere kako bi se osiguralo da djeca do petnaest godina, koja su zbog rata postala siroćad ili su odvojena od svojih obitelji, ne budu prepuštena sama sebi i da se u sva~oj prilici olakša njihovo uzdr”zavanje, obavljanje vjerskih obreda njihove vjeroispovijedi i odgoj odnosno školovanje. Njihov će se odgoj odnosno školovanje, utoliko koliko je to moguće, povjeriti osobama slićne kulturne tradicije.

Stranke sukoba olakšat će prihvat te djece u neutralnu zemlju dok traje sukob, uz pristanak sile zaštitnice ako je ima i ako su im pružena jamstva da će se načela izloi.ena u prvome stavku poštovati.

One će, uz to, nastojati da se poduzmu potrebne mjere kako bi se sva djeca do dvanaest godina mogla identificirati nošenjem identifikacijske ploćice ili na neki drugi način.

Čanak 25.

Svim osobama koje se nalaze na području stranke sukoba ili na području koje je ona okupirala omogućit će se da članovima svojih obitelji, ma gdje se nalazili, šalju vijesti strogo obiteljske prirode i da ih od njih primaju. Ta će se korespondencija otpremati brzo i bez neopravdane odgode.

Ako je, stjecajem okolnosti, razmjena obiteljske korespodencije otežana ili onemogućena, zainteresirane stranke sukoba obratit će se nekom neutralnom posredniku, kao što je Središnja agencija predviđena u Članku ~40, da zajedno s njim odluće kako da osiguraju ispunjavanje svojih obveza pod najpovoljnijim uvjetima, osobito u suradnji s nacionalnim društvima Crvenog krii,a (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca).

Ako stranke sukoba ocijene da je potrebno ogranićiti obiteljsku korespondenciju, takvo će se ogranićenje svesti na obvezatnu upotrebu obrazaca koji sadrie dvadeset pet slobodno odabranih rijeći i na slanje samo jednog od tih obrazaca mjesećno.

Članak 26.

Svaka će stranka sukoba olakšati potrage koje poduzimaju članovi zbog rata raspršenih obitelji kako bi jedni s drugima ponovno stupili u vezu 1 po mogućnosti se okupili. Ona će osobito podupirati djelovanje organizacija koje se posvećuju tom zadatku, pod uvjetom da imaju njezinu privolu i da se ravnaju prema sigurnosnim mjerama što ih je poduzela.

D I O III.

STATUS ZAŠTIĆENIH OSOBA I POSTUPAN7E S NJIMA

ODJELJAK I. ZAJEDNIČKE ODREDBE ZA PODRUČJA

STRANAKA SUKOBA I OKUPIRANA PODRUČJA

Članak 27.

Zaštićene osobe imaju u svakoj prilici pravo na poštovanje svoje ličnosti, svoje časti, svojih obiteljskih prava, svojih vjerskih uvjerenja i obreda, svojih navika i svojih obićaja. S njima će se u svako doba postupati čovječno i štitit će ih se od svakog ćina nasilja ili zastrašivanja, uvreda i javne radoznalosti.

Osobito će se štititi žene od svakog napada na njihovu ćast i osobito od silovanja, prisiljavanja na prostituciju i1i bilo kojeg oblika povrede čudoreda.

Vodeći računa o odredbama koje se cdnose na zdravstveno stanje, na dob i na spol, sa svim će zaštićenim osobama stranka sukoba u čijoj se vlasti nalaze postupati s jednakim obzirima, bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja osobito s obzirom na rasu, vjeroispovijed ili političko mišljenje.

Stranke sukoba mogu, međutim, u odnosu na zaštićene osobe poduzeti mjere kontrole ili sigurnosti koje bi bile potrebne zbog rata.

Članak 28.

Nijedna se zaštićena osoba ne smije upotrijebiti za tol da svojom nazoćnosti zaštiti od vojnih operacija određena mjesta ili određene regije.

Članak 29.

Stranka sukoba u ćijoj su vlasti zaštićene osobe odgo vorna je za postupke svojih službenika prema njima, neo visno od bilo kakve individualne odgovornosti koju oni mo gu snositi.

Članak 30.

, Zaštićenim će se osobama pružiti sve olakšic:e da bi se obratile silama zaštitnicama, Međunarodnom odboru Crvenog kriia, nacionalnom odboru Crvenog križa (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca) zemlje u kojoj s nalaze, kao i svakoj organizaciji koja bi im mogla pomoći

Vlasti će tim raznim organizacijama u tu svrhu pružit sve olakšice u granicama određenima vojnirn potrebarnn potrebama sigurnosti.

Sile koje drže zaštićene osobe ili okupacijske srle ola šat će, utoliko koliko je to moguće, osim posjeta delegata si la zaštitnica i Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog kriia pred videnih člankom 143, posjete zaštićenim osobamrr pre stavnika drugih organizacija, kojih je svrha pru~aye dr hovne ili mater-ijalne pomoći tim osobama

Članak 31.

Nad zaštićenim osobama ne smije se vršiti nikakva fizička ili moralna prisila, osobito da bi se od njih ili od trećih dobile informacije.

članak 32.

Visoke stranke ugovornice suglasne su da je svakoj od njih izričito zabranjeno poduzimanje bilo koje mjere takve prirode da prouzrokuje bilo tjelesne patnje ili istrebljenje zaštićenih osoba koje su u njihovoj vlasti. Ta se zabrana ne odnosi samo na ubojstvo, mućenje, tjelesne kazne, sakaćenje i medicinske ili znanstvene pokuse nepotrebne za liječenje zaštićene osobe, nego i na sve druge okrutnosti, bilo da ih ćine civilni ili vojni službenici.

Članak 33.

Nijedna zaštićena osoba ne može biti kažnjena za djelo koje nije osobno poćinila. Kolektivne kazne, kao i sve mjere zastrašivanja ili terorizma, zabranjene su.

Pljačka je zabranjena..

Zabranjene su represije prema zaštićenim osobama i njihovoj imovini.

članak 34.

Uzimanje talaca je zabranjeno.

ODJELJAK II.

STRANCI NA PODRUČJU STRANKE SUKOBA

Članak 35.

Svaka za.štićena osoba koja želi napustiti područje na poćetku ili tijekom sukoba ima pravo da to ućini ako njezin odlazak nije suprotan nacionalnim interesima države. O njezinoj molbi za napuštanje područja odlućuje se po redovitom postupku, a odluka se donosi što je br-že moguće. Osoba kojoj je odlazak odobren može se opskrbiti novcem potrebnim za putovanje i sa sobom ponijeti razumnu količinu stvari i predmeta za osobnu upotrebu.

Osobe kojima je molba za napuštanje područja odbijena imaju pravo da to odbijanje, u najkraćem mogućem roku, ponovno razmotri nadležni sud ili u tu svrhu, od sile koja d~i zaštićene osobe, ustanovljeno upravno tijelo.

Predstavnici sile zaštitnice mogu se, na zahtjev, ako se tome ne protive sigurnosni razlozi ili tome ne prigovore zainteresirane osobe, obavijestiti o razlozima za odbijanje bilo koje molbe za napuštanje područja i, što je bri.e moguće, o imenima svih osoba kojima je to ućinjeno.

Članak 36.

Odlasci odobreni prema prethodnome Članku obavit će se u zadovoljavajućim uvjetima što se tiče sigurnosti, higijene, zdravlja i ishrane. Sve troškove s tim u svezi, od mjesta napuštanja područja sile koja dri,i zaštićene osobe. snosi zemlja odredišta ili, u slućaju boravka u neutralnoj zemlji, sila ćiji se dri.avljani koriste pravom odlaska.

Od tog se izuzimaju posebni sporazumi kakvi se mogu sklopiti između stranaka sukoba o razmjeni i repatrijaciji njihovih dr:zavljana koji su pali pod vlast neprijatelja.

Članak 37.

Sa zaštićenim osobama, koje su pritvorene ili izdržavaju kaznu lišenja slobode, dok su zatočene postupat će se čovječno.

čim budu oslobodene, mogu zatražiti da napuste područje, u skladu s prethodnim člancima.

članak 38.

Izuzimajući posebne mjere koje se mogu poduzeti na temelju ove Konvencije, osobito članaka 27. i 41, poloiaj zaštićenih osoba ostaje, u načelu, ureden odredbama koje se odnose na strance u vrijeme mira. Njima se u svakom slučaju priznaju ova prava:

1. mogu primati pojedinačnu ili kolektivnu pomoć koja bi im se uputila;

2. ako to za.htijeva njihovo zdravstveno stanje, omogućit će im se liječenje i bolnička njega u istoj mjeri kao i dri.,avljanima zainteresirane dri.ave;

3. mogu obavljati vjerske obrede i primati duhovnu pomoć svećenika svoje vjeroispovijedi;

4. ako borave u regiji osobito izloienoj ratnim opasnostima, odobrit će im se preseljenje u istoj mjeri kao i državljanima zainteresirane dri.ave;

5. djeca, do petnaest godina, trudnice i majke djece do sedam godina uiivaju povlašteni postupak u istoj mjeri kao i državljani zainteresirane države.

Članak 39.

Zaštićenim osobama koje su zbog rata ostale bez svoje unosne djelatnosti, omogućit će se da nadu plaćeni posao i one ća u tu svrhu, uz rezervu sigurnosnih obzira i odredaba Članka 40, uiivati iste pogodnosti kao i dri,avljani sile na čijem se području nalaze.

Ako stranka sukoba podvrgne zaštićenu osobu mjerama kontrole koje joj onemogućavaju da se sama uzdrr.a.va, osobito ako ta osoba iz sigurnosnih razloga ne može naći plaćeni posao pod razumnim uvjetima, ta će stranka sukoba podmirivati njezine potrebe i potrebe osoba koje o njoj ovise.

Zaštićene osobe u svakom slučaju mogu primati novčanu pomoć od svoje zemlje, od sile zaštitnice ili od dobrotvornih društava spomenutih u članku 30.

Članak 40.

Zaštićene se osobe mogu prisiliti da rade samo u istoj mjeri kao i državljani stranke sukoba na čijem se području nalaze.

Ako su zaštićene osobe neprijateljski dri.avljani, mogu se prisiliti da obavljaju samo poslove koji su uobičajeno nuini da bi se osigurali ishrana, smještaj, odjeća, prijevoz i zdravlje ljudskih bića i koji nisu u izravnoj svezi s vođenjem vojnih operacija.

U slučajevima spomenutima u prethodnim stavcima. zaštićene osobe koje su prisiljene da rade uiivat će iste uvjete rada i iste mjere zaštite kao i domaći radnici, osobito što se tiče plaće, dužine radnog vremena, odjeće i opreme, prethodne spreme te naknade za ozljede na radu i profesionalne bolesti.

U slućaju kršenja gore spomenutih odredaba, zaštićenim će se osobama dopustiti da se koriste svojim pravom na pritužbu, u skladu s Člankom 30

Članak 41.

Ako sila u čijoj se vlasti nalaze zaštićene osobe ocjenjuje nedovoljnima ostale mjere kontrole spomenute u ovoj

Konvenciji, najstrože mjere kontrole kojima moi.e pribjeći jesu prisilni boravak ili interriacija, u skladu s odredbama članaka 42. i 43.

U primjeni odredaba drugoga stavka članka 39. na sluča,jeve osoba primoranih da napuste uobičajeno boravište na temelju odluke koja im nameće prisilni boravak na nekome drugom mjestu, sila koja drii zaštićene osobe ravnat će se što je više moguće prema pravilima o postupanju s interniranim osobama (odjeljak IV, dio III. ove Konvencije).

Članak 42.

Internacija ili upućivanje zaštićenih osoba na prisilni boravak može se narediti samo onda ako je to apsolutno nužno radi sigurnosti sile u ćijoj se vlasti te osobe nalaze.

Ako neka osoba, posredovanjem predstavnika sile zaštitnice, dobrovoljno za.traži internaciju i ako njezin položaj uvjetuje potrebu za takvim korakom, internirat će je sila u čijoj se vlasti nalazi.

Članak 43.

Svaka zaštićena osoba koja bude internirana ili upućena na prisilni boravak ima pravo da tu odluku, u najkraćem mogućem roku, ponovno razmotri nadležni sud ili u tu svrhu, od sile koja drzi za.štićene osobe, ustanovljeno upravno tijelo. Ako je internacija ili upućivanje na prisilni boravak potvrdeno, sud ili upravno tijelo povremeno će, a najmanje dva puta godišnje, preispitati slućaj te osobe kako bi mogao izmijeniti prvobitnu odluku u njezin prilog, ako to okolnosti dopuštaju.

Ako se zainteresirane zaštićene osobe tome ne protive, sila koja ih drži obavijestit će, što je brie moguće, silu zaštitnicu o imenima zaštićenih osoba koje su internirane ili upućene na prisilni boravak i uimenima onih koje su oslobodene od internacije ili od prisilnog boravka. Uz istu rezervu, odluke sudova ili tijela navedenih u prvome stavku ovoga ćla,nka također će se, što je brie moguće, priopćiti sili zaštitnici.

Članak 44.

U poduzimanju mjera kontrole predviđenih ovom Konvencijom, sila koja drži zaštićene osobe neće s izbjeglicama koje de facto ne uživaju zaštitu nijedne vlade postupati kao sa strancima koji su državljani neprijateljske dri.ave isključivo zbog njihove de iure pripadnosti neprijateljskoj državi.

Članak 45.

Zaštićene se osobe ne mogu premještati u silu koja nije stranka Konvencije.

Ta odredba nipošto ne prijeći repatrijaciju zaštićenih osoba ili njihov povratak u zemlju prebivališta nakon prestanl~a neprijateljstava.

Sila koja drži zaštićene osobe moie ih premjestiti u silu koja je stranka Konvencije tek nakon što se sila koja drii zaštićene ošobe uvjeri da je ta sila voljna i u stanju primjenjivati Konvenciju. Pošto su zaštićene osobe tako premještene, odgovornost za primjenu Konvencija pada na silu koja ih je primila za vrijeme dok su joj povjerene. Ako, međutim, ta sila ne bi primjenjivala odredbe Konvencije o bilo kojem važnom pitanju, sila koja je premjestila zastićene osobe mora, nakon notifikacije sile zaštitnice, poduzeti djelotvorne mjere da se stanje popravi ili zahtijevati da joj se zaštićene osobe vrate. Tom se zahtjevu mora udovoljiti

I

Zaštićena se osoba ni u kojem slučaju ne može premjestiti u zemlju gdje bi strahovala od progona zbog svojili političkih ili vjerskih uvjerenja.

Odredbe ovoga članka ne priječe izručenje, na temelju ugovora o izručenju sklopljenih prije početka neprijateljstava, zaštićenih osoba optuženih za, kaznena djela prema općem praw.

Članak 46.

Utoliko koliko nisu prethodno povučene, mjere ograničenja u odnosu na zaštićene osobe ukinut će se što je brie moguće nakon prestanka neprijateljstava.

Mjere ograničenja poduzete u odnosu na njihovu imovinu ukinut će se što je brže moguće, u skladu sa zakonodavstvom sile koja drii za,štićene osobe.

ODJELJAK III.

OKUPIRANA PODRUČJA

članak 47.

Zaštićene osobe koje se nalaze na okupiranom području neće se nipošto i nikako lišiti pogodnosti ove Konvencije bilo uvođenjem ma kakve promjene, kao posljedice okupacije, u institucije ili u vlast dotičnoga okupiranog područja, bilo nekim sporazumom sklopljenim između vlasti okupiranog područja i okupacijske sile, bilo zbog pripojenja čitavoga ili dijela okupiranog područja što ga je izvršila potonja.

članak 48.

Zaštićene osobe koje nisu dri.avljani sile ćije je područje okupirano mogu se koristiti pravom da napuste područje pod uviPtima predviđenima u članku 35, a odluke o tome donose se sukladno postupku što ga okupacijska sila utvrduje u skladu sa spomenutim člankom.

članak 49.

Masovni ili pojedinaćni prisilni premještaji, kao i deportacije zaštićenih osoba s okupiranog ppdručja na područje okupacijske sile ili na okupirano ili neokupirano područje bilo koje druge drža,ve, zabranjeni su, bez obzira na razloge.

Okupacijska sila može, međutim, pristupiti potpunoj ili djelomićnoj evakuaciji određene okupirane regije ako to: zahtijevaju sigurnost stanovništva ili imperativni vojni razlozi. Evakuacije ne mogu imati za posljedicu raseljavanje zaštićenih osoba izvan okupiranog područja, osim ako je to neizbježno zbog stvarnih razloga. Tako evakuirano stanovništvo vratit će se u svoje domove ćim prestanu neprija-: teljstva na tom prostoru.

Poduzimajući takva premještanja ili evakuiranja, okupacijska će se sila, u najvećoj mogućoj mjeri, pobrinuti da se zaštićenim osobama osigura odgovarajući smještaj, da se presele u zadovoljavajućim uvjetima što se tiče zdravlja, higijene, sigurnosti i ishrane te da Članovi iste obitelji ne budu odvojeni jedni od drugih.

Sila zaštitnica obavijestit će se o premještajima i evakuacijama ćim do njih dode.

Okupacijska sila ne može zaštićene osobe zadriati u nekoj regiji koja je osobito izložena ratnim opasnostima ako to ne zahtijevaju sigurnost stanovništva ili imperativni vojni razlozi.

Okupacijska sila ne može deportirati ili premjestiti dio vlastitoga civilnog stanovništva na područje koje je okupirala.

Članak 5o.

Okupacijska će sila, u sura.dnji s državnim i mjesnim vlastima, olakšati uspješno djelovanje ustanova namijenjenih njezi f odgoju odnosno školovanju djece.

Ona će poduzeti sve potrebne mjere da bi se olakšala identifikacija' djece i registracija njihovih roditelja. Ona ni u kojem slučaju ne može izmijeniti njihov osobni status, niti ih uključiti u jedinice ili organizacije koje su joj potćinjene.

Ako su mjesne ustanove za to neprikiadne, okupacijska sila mora poduzeti mjere za uzdr-zavanje i odgoj odnosno školovanje djece koja su postala siročad ili su odvojena od svojih obitelji i za koju se ne može pobrinuti neki bliski rodak ili prijatelj, s tim da to po mogućnosti čini osoba njihova državljanstva, jezika i vjere.

Dužnost je posebnog odjela ureda osnovanoga na temelju odredaba članka 136. poduzimanje svih potrebnih mjera za identifikaciju djece čiji je identitet sporan. Dostupni podaci o njihovim roditeljima ili drugim bliskim rodacima uvijek se pohranjuju.

Okupacijska sila ne smije spreča.vati primjenu povlaštenih mjera, usvojenih prije okupacije, u prilog djeci do petnaest godiria, trudnicama i majkama djece do sedam godina, što se tiče hrane, medicinske njege i zaštite od posljedica rata.

članak 51.

Okupacijska sila ne može prisiliti zaštićene osobe da slu~e u njezinim oruianim ili pomoćnim snagama. Zabranjen je svaki pritisak ili propaganda u svrhu dobrovoljnog uvojacenja.

bna ne može zaštićene osobe prisiliti da rade ako nisu navršile osamnaest godina, a tada samo na poslovima koji su nužni za potrebe okupacijske vojske ili za službe od javnog interesa, ishranu, smještaj, odijevanje, prijevoz ili zdravlje stanovništva okupirane zemlje. Zaštićene se osobe ne mogu prisiliti ni na koji posao koji bi ih obvezao da sudjeluju u vojnim operacijama. Okupacijska sila ne može primorati zaštićene osobe da upotrebom sile osiguravaju postrojenja gdje su na prisilnom radu.

Rad se obavlja samo unutar okupiranog područja na ~kojem se nalaze osobe čije su usluge rekvirirat~e. Svaka se takva osoba, utoliko koliko je to moguće, zadr-iava na svojem redovitom radnom mjestu. Radnicima će se plaćati pravična naknada, a posao će biti razmjeran njihovim fizičkim i intelektualnim sposobnostima. Na zaštićene osobe podvrgnute radu na koji se odnosi ovaj Članak primjenjuje: se važeće zakonodavstvo okupirane zemlje o uvjetima rada i mjerama zaštite, osobito što se tiče plaće, trajanja radnog vremena, opreme, naknade za, ozljede na radu i profesionalne bolesti.

Rekvizicija radne snage nipošto ne smije dovesti do mobilizacije radnika u neku vojnu ili poluvojnu organizaciju.

članak 52.

Nijedan ugovor, sporazum ili propis ne može dirati u pravo svakog radnika, dobrovoljca ili ne, ma gdje se nalazio, da se obrati predstavnicima sile zaštitnice kako bi trai,io njezinu intervenciju.

Za.branjene su sve mjere kojih je svrha izazivanje nezaposlenosti ili ograničavanje mogućnosti zapošljavanja rad

nika iz okupirane zemlje kako bi ih se navelo da rade za okupacijsku silu.

Članak 53.

Okupacijskoj je sili zabranjeno uništavati pokretnu i nepokretnu im'đvinu koja, pojedinačno ili kolektivno, pripada pojedincima, državi ili javnim tijelima, društvenim organizacijama ili zadrugama, osim ako takvo uništavanje postane apsolutno potrebno radi vojnih operacija.

članak 54.

Okupacijskoj je sili zabranjeno mijenjati status čelnika ili sudaca na okupiranom području ili prema njima primjenjivati sankcije ili bilo kakve prisilne ili diskriminacijske mjere zato što bi se zbog savjesti suzdriali od obavljanja svojih funkcija.

Potonja zabrana ne priječi primjenu drugoga stavka članka 51. Ona ne dira u pravo okupacijske sile da s njihovog položa.ja udalji nosioce javnih funkcija.

Članak 55.

Dužnost je okupacijske sile da u najvećoj mogućoj mjeri, sredstvima kojima raspolaže, osigura stanovništvu opskrbu živežnim namirnicama i lijekovima; ona osobito mora uvesti živežne namirnice, sanitetski materijal i svu drugu potrebnu robu kad zalihe okupiranog područja budu nedostatne.

Okupacijska sila moi.e Cekvirirati živežne namirnice, robu ili lijekove koji se nalaze na okupiranom području samo za okupacijske snage i upravu, i to samo nakon što su u obzir uzete potrebe civilnog stanovništva. Uz rezervu odredaba drugih međunarodnih konvencija, okupacijska sila mora poduzeti potrebne mjere da se za svaku rekviziciju plati pravična naknada.

Sila zaštitnica može u svako doba slobodno provjeravati opskrbu i.ivežnim namirnicama na okupiranim područjima, osim tamo gdje su privremena ogranićenja nametnuta imperativnim vojnim potrebama.

Članak 56.

Dužnost je okupacijske sile da u najvećoj mogućoj mjeri, sredstvima kojima raspolaže, u suradnji s dria,vnim i mjesnim vlastima, osigura i održava zdravstvene i bolničke ustanove i slui.be, javno zdravstvo i higijenu na okupiranim područjima, s osobitim obzirom na usvajanje i primjenu potrebnih profilaktićkih i preventivnih mjera za suzbijanje širenja zaraznih bolesti i epidemija. Zdravstvenom osoblju svih kategorija dopustit će se da obavlja svoje duinosti.

Ako se na okupiranom području ustanovljuju nove bolnice i ako nadležni organi okupirane drža,ve tu više ne djeluju, okupacijske će vlasti, ako je potrebno, priznati te bolnice kako je to predviđeno u članku 18. U sličnim okolnostima okupacijske vlasti, također, moraju priznati bolničko osoblje i vozila za prijevoz, na temelju odredaba članaka 20. i 21.

Prilikom usvajanja i provedbe zdravstvenih i higijenskih mjera, okupacijska će sila voditi raćuna o moralnim i etičkim zahtjevima stanovništva okupiranog područja.

Članak 57.

Okupacijska sila može rekvirirati civilne bolnice, da bi se u njima njegovali ranjeni i bolesni pripadnici oruianih snaga, samo privremeno i u slučajevima hitne potrebe te pod uvjetom da su pravodobno poduzete odgovarajuće mjere kojima se osiguravaju njega i liječenje pacijenata i potrebe civilnog stanovništva za bolničkim smještajem.

Materijal i spremišta civilnih bolnica ne mogu se rekvirirati dok su potrebni za zadovoljavanje potreba civilnog stanovništva.

članak 58.

Okupacijska će sila dopustiti svećenicima prui.anje duhovne pomoći svojim vjernicima. . Ona će, također, prihvatiti pošiljke knjiga i predmeta

za vjerske potrebe i olakšati njihovu raspodjelu na okupiranom području.

članak 59.

Ako je ćitavo stanovništvo, ili jedan njegov dio, okupiranog područja nedostatno opskrbljeno, okupacijska će sila prihvatiti akcije pomoći poduzete u prilog tom stanovništvu i olakšat će ih svim sredstvima kojima raspolaže.

Te akcije, koje mogu poduzimati bilo dri.ave ili nepristrane humanitarne organizacije, kao što je Međunarodni odbor Crvenog krii.a, sastojat će se osobito od pošiljaka živežnih namirnica, lijekova i odjeće.

Sve stranke ugovornice-inoraju tim pošiljkama dopustiti slobodan prolazak i osigurati im zaštitu.

Sila koja dopušta slobodan prolazak pošiljaka na putu za područje okupirano od protivnićke stranke sukoba ima, međutim, pravo da pregleda pošiljke, da uredi njihov prolazak u određeno vrijeme i određenim putem i da je sila zaštitnica na zadovoljavajući način uvjeri da će se te pošiljke upotrijebiti za stanovništvo kojemu su potrebne, a ne u korist okupacijske sile.

Članak 60.

Pošiljke pomoći ni u ćemu ne oslobadaju okupacijsku silu odgovornosti na temelju Članka 55, 56. i 59. Ona nikako ne može promijeniti namjenu pošiljaka pomoći, osim u slućajevima hitne potrebe, u interesu stanovništva okupiranog područja i uz pristanak sile zaštitnice.

članak 61.

Pošiljke pomoći spomenute u prethodnim Člancima raspodjeljuju se u suradnji sa silom zaštitnicom i pod njezinim nadzorom. Ta se duinost, sporazumom između okupacijske sile i sile zaštitnice, također moie prenijeti na neku neutrainu državu, na Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa ili na bilo koju drugu nepristranu humanitarnu organizaciju.

Takve su pošiljke na okupiranom području oslobodene svih pristojbi, poreza ili taksa, osim ako je to potrebno u in” teresu ekonomije tog područja.

Sve će stranke ugovornice nastojati dopustiti besplatan provoz i prijevoz tih pošiljaka na putu za okupirana područja.

Članak 62.

Osim ako postoje imperativni sigurnosni razlozi, zaštićene osobe koje se nalaze na okupiranom području mogu primati pojedinaćne pošiljke pomoći koje su im upućene.

Članak 63.

Osim ako postoje privremene i iznimne mjere nametnute hitnim sigurnosnim razlozima okupacijske sile.

a) priznata nacionalna društva Crvenog križa (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca) mogu nastaviti svoje aktivnosti u skladu s načelima Crvenog križa što su

ih definirale Međunarodne konferencije Crvenog križa. Druga društva za, pružanje pomoći moraju moći nastaviti svoje humanitarne aktivnosti pod sličnim uvjetima;

b) okupacijska sila ne može zahtijevati nikakve promjene što se tiče osoblja i ustrojstva tih društava koje bi mogle štetiti gore spomenutim aktivnostima.

Ista se naćela primjenjuju na aktivnosti i na osoblje posebnih organizacija nevojnog karaktera, koje već postoje ili koje će se ustanoviti radi osiguranja životnih uvjeta civilnog stanovništva odrz.avanjem bitnih službi komunalnih usluga, raspodjele pomoći i organiziranjem spašavanja.

Članak 64.

Kazneno za,konodavstvo okupiranog područja ostaje na snazi, uz iznimku da ga okupacijska sila moi.e ukinuti ili suspendirati ako je to zakonodavstvo prijetnja sigurnosti te sile ili ako priječi primjenu ove Konvencije. Uzimajući u obzir potonju rezervu i potrebu da se osigura djelotvornost pravosuda, sudovi na okupiranom području nastavit će djelovati glede svih djela predviđenim tim zakonodavstvom.

Okupacijska sila, međutim, može stanovništvo okupiranog područja podvrgnuti odredbama koje su prijeko potrebne da bi mogla udovoljavati svojim obvezama iz ove Konvencije i osigurati redovitu upravu područja te sigurnost okupacijske sile, bilo pripadnika i imovine orui.anih snaga ili okupacijske uprave, bilo ustanova i komunikacija kojima se koristi.

Članak 65.

Kaznenopravne odredbe koje donosi okupacijska sila ne stupaju na snagu dok ne budu objavljene i dok s njima ne bude upoznato stanovništvo na vlastitom jeziku. One ne mogu imati retroaktivni učinak.

Članak 66.

U slučaju povrede kaznenopravnih odredaba koje je donijela na temelju drugoga stavka članka 64, okupacijska sila može optužene osobe predati svojim nepolitičkim i propisno ustanovljenim vojnim sudovima, pod uvjetom da ti sudovi zasjedaju u okupiranoj zemlji. Prizivni će sudovi po mogućnosti zasjedati u okupiranoj zemlji.

članak 67.

Sudovi će primjenjivati samo one pravne odredbe koje su bile primjenjive prije nego što je djelo počinjeno i koje su u skladu s općim pravnim načelima, osobito s načelom da kazna treba da bude razmjerna djelu. Oni moraju uzeti u obzir činjenicu da optuženik nije dri.avljanin okupacijske sile.

članak 68.

Zaštićena osoba koja poćini djelo s jedinom namjerom da šteti okupacijskoj sili, a da to djelo nije napad na život ili tjelesni integritet pripadnika okupacijskih snaga ili uprave, da ne znaći ozbiljnu kolektivnu opasnost, niti da se njime nanosi velika šteta na imovini okupacijskih snaga ili uprave ili na postrojenjima koja upotrebljavaju, podliježe kazni internacije ili obićnog zatvora, pod uvjetom da ta internacija ili taj zatvor bude razmjeran poćinjenom djelu. Uz to, internacija i zatvor jedine su mjere lišenja slobode koje se za takva djela mogu izreći zaštićenim osobama. Sudovi predviđeni y Članku 66. ove Konvencije mogu slobodno kaznu zatvora pretvoriti u internaciju u jednakom trajanju.

Kaznenopravne odredbe koje donosi okupacijska sila u skladu s člancima 84. i 85. mogu za. zaštićene osobe predvidjeti smrtnu kaznu samo u slučajevima kad su okrivljene za špijunažu, za tešku sabotažu na vojnim postrojenjima okupacijske sile ili za djela s umišljajem koja su prouzročila smrt jedne ili više osoba i pod uvjetom da zakonodavstvo

okupiranog područja koje je bilo na snazi na početku okupacije predvida smrtnu kaznu u tim slučajevima.

Smrtna se kazna zaštićenoj osobi može izreći sa,mo ako je pozornost suda bila osobito skrenuta na činjenicu da optuženik, s obzirom na to da nije državljanin okupacijske sile, nije prema njoj vezan nikakvom obvezom vjernosti.

Ni u kojem se slučaju smrtna kazna ne moi.e izreći zaštićenoj osobi koja je u trenutku kad je počinila djelo bila miada od osamnaest godina.

Članak 69.

U svim slučajevima trajanje pritvora odbija se od trajanja kazne zatvora na koju bi zaštićena osoba bila osudena.

Članak 70.

Okupacijska sila ne može uhititi, goniti ili osuditi zaštićene osobe za djela koja su poćinile ili za, mišljenja koja su izrazile prije okupacije ili za vtijeme njezina privremena prekida, uz iznimku povreda ratnih zakona i običaja.

Dria.vljani okupacijske sile koji su se prije poćetka sukoba sklonili na okupirano područje mogu se uhititi, goniti, osuditi ili deportirati izvan okupiranog područja samo za djela počinjena nakon početka neprijateljstava ili za kaznena djela prema općem pravu počinjena prije neprijateljstava, a koja bi prema pravu države čije je područje okupirano opravdavala izručenje u vrijeme mira.

članak 71.

Nadležni sudovi okupacijske sile ne mogu izreći nijednu presudu kojoj nije prethodilo redovito sudenje.

Svaka se optuiena osoba koju goni okupacijska sila odmah pismeno obavještava, na jeziku koji razumije, o pojedinostima optužbi kojima se tereti i izvodi se pred sud što je brie moguće. Silu zaštitnicu obavještava se o svakom progonu koji je okupacijska sila poduzela protiv zaštićenih osoba za djela za koja bi se mogla izreći smrtna kazna ili kazna zatvora od dvije ili više godina; u svako doba mora joj se omogućiti da prima informacije o tijeku postupka. Uz to, sila zaštitnica ima pravo, na vlastiti zahtjev, dobiti sve podatke o tom i drugim progonima što ih je okupacijska sila poduzela protiv za,štićenih osoba.

Notifikacija sili zaštitnici, kakva je predviđena u drugome stavku ovoga Članka, mora se izvršiti odmah i svakako mora sili zaštitnici stići prije prvog roćišta. Ako na poćetku rasprave nije podnesen dokaz da su u potpunosti poštovane odredbe ovoga Članka, rasprava se ne može odrLati. Notifikacija mora osobito sadr~zavati ove podatke:

a) identitet optuienika;

b) mjesto boravka ili zatočenja;

c) opis djela i1i djela za koja se optužuje (uz nac"odenje kaznenopopravnih odredaba na kojima se to temelji);

d) naznaku suda koji se suditi u toj stvari;

e) mjesto i datum prvog roćišta.

članak 72.

Svaka optužena osoba ima pravo podnijeti dokaze po-; trebne za svoju obranu i, osobito, pozvati se na svjedoke. Ona ima pravo na pomoć kvalificiranog branitelja, koji je može slobodno posjećivati i koji uživa olakšice potrebne za pripremanje obrane.

Ako optuženik nije izabrao branitelja, pribavit će mu ga sila zaštitnica,. Ako optužena osoba mora odgovarati za neku tešku optužbu, a nema sile zaštitnice, okupacijska joj sila, uz njezin pristanak, mora pribaviti branitelja.

Svaka će se optužena osoba, ako se toga svojevoljno ne odrekne, koristiti uslugama prevoditelja i u istrazi i na raspravi. U svakom trenutku može tražiti izuzeće prevoditelja i zahtijevati njegovu zamjenu.

članak 73.

Svaka se'osudena osoba ima pravo koristiti pravom na priziv predviđenim zakonodavstvom koje sud primjenjuje. Ona će biti potpuno obaviještena o svojim pravima na podnošenje priziva, kao i o postojećim rokovima za ostvarivanje tih prava:

Kazneni postupak predviđen u ovom odjeljku analogno se primjenjuje na priziv. Ako zakonodavstvo koje sud primjenjuje ne predvida mogućnost podnošenja priziva, osudena osoba ima pravo podnošenja priziva na presudu i na kaznu nadležnoj vlasti okupacijske sile.

članak 74.

Predstavnici sile zaštitnice imaju prisustvovati raspravi pred sudom koji sudi zaštićenoj osobi, osim ako se, iznimno, rasprava vodi uz isključenje javnosti u interesu sigurnosti okupacijske sile, koja će to notificirati sili zaštitnici. Notifikacija koja sadrži naznaku mjesta i datuma početka rasprave mora se poslati sili zaštitnici.

O svakoj presudi kojom se izriče smrtna kazna ili kazna zatvora od dvije ili više godina, s naznakom njezina temelja, obavijestit će se sila zaštitnica što je brže moguče. Ta će se notifika~cija pozivati na onu izvršenu u skladu s člankom 71. i, ako je presudom izrečena kazna lišenja slobode, sadržavat će naznaku mjesta gdje će se izdri.avati. Ostale presude unose se u sudske zapisnike i predstavnici sile zaštitnice mogu ih pregledavati. U slučaju izricanja smrtne kazne ili kazne lišenja slobode od dvije ili više godina, rok za podnošenje priziva poćinje teći tek od trenutka kad sila zaštitnica primi notifikaciju o presudi.

Članak 75.

Ni u kojem slućaju na smrt osudene osobe neće se lišiti prava da trai.e pomilovanje.

Nijedna se smrtna kazna neće izvršiti prije isteka roka ~ od najmanje šest mjeseci, raćunajući od trenutka kad sila zaštitnica primi notifikaciju o konačnoj presudi kojom se ta smrtna kazna Potvrđuje ili odluku o odbijanju tog pomilovanja.

Taj se rok od šest mjeseci moi.e skratiti u toćno određenim slućajevima zbog teških i kritićnih okolnosti u kojima je sigurnost okupacijske sile ili njezinih oružanih snaga izložena organiziranoj prijetnji, uvijek pod uvjetom da je sili zaštitnici takvo skraćenje notificirano i da joj je dato razumno vrijeme i mogućnost da nadleinim okupacijskim vlastima uputi predstavke u svezi s tim smrtnim kaznama.

članak 76.

Optužene zaštićene osobe bit će zatočene u okupiranqj zemlji, a ako budu osudene, u njoj će izdri.a,vati kaznu. Ako je to moguće, bit će odvojene od ostalih zatvorenika i imat će uvjete što se tiče ishrane i higijene koji su dostatni da ih odrie u dobru zdravlju i koji barem odgovaraju onima koji postoje u kaznenim ustanovama okupirane zemlje.

One će imati medicinsku njegu kakvu zahtijeva njihovo zdravstveno stanje.

One će, također, imati pravo primati duhovnu pomoć kakvu bi mogle zahtijevati.

Žene će se smjestiti u odvojene prostorije i nalazit će se pod neposrednim nadzorom žena.

Vodit će se računa o posebnom postupku prema maloljetnicima.

Zaštićene osobe koje su zatoćene imaju pravo primati posjete delegata sile zaštitnice i Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa, u skladu s odredbama članka 143.

Uz to, imaju pravo primati barem jedan paket pomoći mjesećno.

Članak 77.

Kad prestane okupacija, zaštićene osobe, optužene ili osudene od sudova na okupiranom području, predat će se, s odnosnim spisima, vlastima oslobodenog područja.

članak 78.

Ako, zbog imperativnih sigurnosnih razloga, okupacijska sila ocijeni potrebnim poduzeti sigurnosne mjere u odnosu na zaštićene osobe, najviše što može jest podvrgnuti ih prisilnom boravku ili internaciji.

Odluka o prisilnom boravku ili o internaciji donosi se sukladno redovitom postupku što ga okupacijska sila propisuje u skladu s odredbama ove Konvencije. Taj postupak mora predvidjeti pravo priziva zainteresiranih stranaka. O tim se prizivima odlućuje u najkraćem mogućem roku. Ako odluke ostanu na snazi, bit će predmet povremenoga, ako je moguće polugodišnjeg, preispitivanja od nadležnog tijela koje je ustanovila spomenuta sila.

Zaštićene osobe podvrgnute prisilnom boravku i tako primorane da napuste svoje domove u potpunosti će uživati pogodnosti odredaba Članka 39. ove Konvencije.

ODJELJAK IV.

PRAVILA O POSTUPANJU S INTERNIRCIMA

GLAVA I. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 79.

Stranke sukoba mogu internirati zaštićene osobe samo u skladu s odredbama Članaka 41, 42, 43, 68. i 78.

Članak 80.

fnternirci zadržavaju svoju punu pravnu osobnost i vršit će prava koja iz toga proizlaze u mjeri u kojoj je to kompatibilno s njihovim statusom.

Članak 81.

Stranke sukoba koje u internaciji dtie zaštićene osobe moraju osigurati njihovo besplatno uzdržavanje i pružiti im, također, medicinsku njegu koju zahtijeva njihovo zdravstceno stanje.

Ništa se radi naplate tih trđškova neće odbijati od doplataka, plaća ili potraživanja interniraca.

Sila koja drži internirce mora osigurati uzdaavanjs osoba koje o njima ovise ako one za to nemaju dovoljno sredstava ili su nesposobne da same zaraduju za iivot.

članak 82.

Sila koja drii internirce okupit će ih, utoliko koliko je to moguće, prema njihovu državljanstvu, jeziku i običajima. Internirci koji su dr~zavljani iste zemlje neće se razdvojiti samo zbog toga što govore različite jezike.

Za čitavo vrijeme internacije članovi iste obitelji, a osobito roditelji i njihova djeca, bit če zajedno u istom mjestu internacije, osim kad bi zbog potreba zapošljavanja, zdravstvenih razloga ili primjene odredaba glave IX. ovog odjeljka razdvajanje bilo nužno. Internirci mogu zahtijevati da se njihova djeca koja su ostala na slobodi bez roditeljskog nadzora interniraju s njima.

Internirani Članovi iste obitelji bit će, u najvećoj mogućoj mjeri, zajedno u istim prostorijama i smješteni odvojeno od ostalih interniraca; moraju im se, također, pružiti potrebne olakšice da bi mogli voditi obiteljski i.ivot.

GLAVA II. MJESTO INTERNACIJE

Članak 83.

Sila koja drži internirce ne smije odrediti mjesta internacije u regijama koje su osobito izložene ratnim opasnostima.

Sila koja dri.i internirce dat će, posredovanjem sila zaštitnica, neprijateljskim silama sve korisne podatke o geografskom poloi.aju mjesta internacije.

Kad god obziri vojne prirode to dopuste, logori za internaciju oznaćit će se slovima IC, tako postavljenima da se danju jasno vide iz zraka; zainteresirane sile se, međutim, mogu sporazumjeti i o drukćijem načinu označavanja. Nijedno drugo mjesto osim logora za internaciju ne može se na taj način oznaćiti.

članak 84.

Internirci moraju biti smješteni i njima se mora upravljati odvojeno od ratnih zarobljenika i osoba lišenih slobode iz bilo kojega drugog razloga.

članak 85.

Sila koja drži internirce dužna je poduzeti sve potrebne i moguće mjere kako bi zaštićene osobe već od početka svoje internacije bile smještene u zgradama ili nastambama koje su potpuno higijenske i zdrave i osiguravaju djelotvornu zaštitu od klimatskih nepogoda i posljedica rata. Ni u kojem slućaju stalna mjesta internacije neće se nalaziti u nezdravim regijama ili u regijama gdje je podneblje štetno za internirce. Kad god bi bile privremeno internirane u nekoj nezdravoj regiji ili u regiji gdje je podneblje štetno za zdrav[je, zaštićene se osobe moraju premjestiti u najprikladnije mjesto internacije ćim to okolnosti dopuste.

Prostorije moraju biti potpuno zaštićene od vlage, dostatno zagrijane i osvijetljene, osobito između sumraka i vremena kad se gasi svjetlost. Spavaonice moraju biti dovoljno prostrane i dobro prozraćene, a internirci će raspolagati prikladnom posteljinom i dostatnim brojem pokrivača, vodeći raćuna o podneblju i dobi, spolu i zdravstvenom stanju interniraca.

Internircima će, danju i noću, stajati iia raspolaganju higijenski sanitarni uredaji i oni će se održavati u stalnom stanju čistoće. Osigurat će im se dostatna količina vode i sapuna za održavanje svakodnevne tjelesne čistoće i z~. pranje rublja; za to će im se osigurati potrebni uredaji i olakšice. Uz to, stajat će im na raspolaganju tuševi ili kupaonice. Odvojit će se vrijeme potrebno za. pranje i čišćenje.

Kad god bude potrebno, kao iznimna i privremena mjera, smjestiti internirane žene koje nisu članovi neke obitelji u isto mjesto internacije s muškarcima, obvezatno će im se osigurati odvojene spavaonice i sanitarni uredaji.

Članak 86.

Sila koja drzi internirce stavit će im, bez obzira na njihovu vjeroispovijed, na raspolaganje prikladne prostorije za obavljanje vjerskih obreda.

Članak 87.

Ako internircima ne stoje na raspolaganju drugi slični objekti, u svim će mjestima internacije biti otvorene kantine, kako bi im se omogućilo da nabavljaju, po cijenama koje ni u kojem slučaju ne smiju premašiti cijene na mjesnom tri.ištu, živežne namirnice i predmete redovite upotrebe, uključujući sapun i duhan, koji su takve prirode da pridonose njihovom osobnom blagostanju i udobnosti.

Dobit od kantina uplaćivat će se u korist posebnog fonda za pomoć koji će se ustanoviti u svakom mjestu internacije i kojim će se upravljati u korist interniraca tog mjesta internacije. Odbor interniraca, predviđen u Članku 102, ima pravo uvida u upravljanje kantinama i tim fondovima.

Prilikom raspuštanja nekog mjesta internacije, aktiva fonda za pomoć prenijet će se na fondove za pomoć nekoga drugog mjesta internacije interniraca istog državljanstva ili, ako takvo mjesto ne postoji, na neki središnji fond za pomoć kojim će se upravljati u korist svih interniraca koji ostaju u vlasti sile koja dri.i internirce. U slućaju općeg oslobodenja, ta aktiva ostaje sili koja drži internirce, osim ako se među zainteresiranim silama sklopi drukćiji sporazum.

Članak 88.

U svim mjestima internacijć koja su izloi.ena bombardiranju iz zraka i drugim ratnim opasnostima uredit će se dostatan broj odgovarajućih skloništa kako bi se osigurala potrebna zaštita. U slućaju uzbune, internirci mogu, izuzimajući one među njima koji sudjeluju u zaštiti svojih nastambi od tih opasnosti, otići u skloništa što je brže moguće Svaka druga zaštitna mjera koja bude poduzeta u korist stanovništva, primijenjuje se i na njih

Protiv opasnosti od poiara moraju se u mjestima internacije poduzeti sve potrebne mjere opreza.

GLAVA lll. ISIiRANA 1 ODIJEVANJE

Članak 89.

Svakodnevni obrok interniraca bit će po kolićini, kakvoći i raznovrsnosti dostatan da bi se održali u dobrom zdravlju i sprijećila neishranjenost, vodit će se također raćuna o načinu ishrane na koji su internirci navikli.

Internircima će se, osim toga, pružiti mo~ućnost da sarni pr ipremaju dodatke ishrani kojima budu raspolagali. Osigurat će im se pitka voda u dostatnoj kolićini. Do

pustit će se upotreba duhana.

Internirci koji rade dobit će dodatak u hrani razmjeran poslu što ga obavljaju.

Trudnice i rodilje te djeca do petnaest godina dobit će dodatke u hrani razmjerno svojim fiziološkim potrebama:

Članak 90.

U trenutku uhićenja internircima će se pruiiti sve olakšice da bi se opskrbili odjećom, obućom i rubljem za presvlačenje te, kasnije, da si pribave dodatne kolićine ako to bude potrebno. Ako internirci nemaju dostatno odjeće s obzirom na podneblje i ako je ne mogu pribaviti, sila koja ih dri.i dat će im je besplatno.

Odjeća koju internircima daje sila koja ih drii i vanjske oznake koje bi na nju mogla staviti ne smiju biti nečasne prirode niti izvrgavati internirce ruglu.

Radnici moraju dobiti radno odijelo, ukljućujući zaštitnu odjeću, gdje god priroda posla to bude zahtijevala.

GLAVA IV

HIGIJENA I MEDICINSKA NJEGA

Članak 91.

Svako će mjesto internacije imati prikladnu ambulantu, pod upravom kvalificiranog liječnika, gdje će internirci dobivati njegu koja im zatreba, kao i odgovarajući način ishrane. Za bolesnike oboljele od zaraznih ili mentalnih bolesti predvidjet će se prostorije za izolaciju.

Rodilje i internirci oboljeli od neke teške bolesti ili čije stanje zahtijeva posebno lijećenje, kiruršku intervenciju ili primanje u bolnicu, moraju se primiti u svaku ustanovu pozvanu da ih lijeći i dobit će njegu koja ne smije biti slabija od one koja se pruia ostalom stanovništvu.

Internirce će poglavito njegovati sanitetsko osoblje nji hova državljanstva.

Internirci se ne mogu sprećavati da izidu pred sanitetske vlasti radi pregleda. Sanitetske vlasti sile koja drži internirce izdaju svakom lijećenom internircu, na njegov zahtjev, sluibenu potvrdu s naznakom prirode njegovih rana ili bolesti, trajanja liječenja i pruiene njege. Prijepis te potvrde šalje se Sredianjoj agenciji predviđenoj u članku 140.

Lijećenje, ukljućujući dobavu svake naprave potrebne za odr”zavanje interniraca u dobrom zdravstvenom stanju, osobito proteza, zubnih i drugih, te naoćala, za internirce je besplatno.

Članak 92.

Zdravstveni kontrolni pregledi interniraca obavljaju se najmanje jednom mjesećno. Njihova je posebna svrha kontrola općega zdravstvenog stanja i ishrane, ćistoće, kao i otkrivanje zaraznih bolesti, osobito tuberkuloze, spolnih boIesti i malarije. Takvi će pregledi osobito ukljućivati kontrolu teiine svakog internirca i, najmanje jedanput godišnje, rendgenski pregled.

GLAVA V

VJERSKE, INTEGEKTUALNE I FIZIČKE AKTIVNOSTI

Članak 93.

Internircima će se prui.iti najšire mogućnosti za ispovijedanje svoje vjere, uključujući i nazoćnost vjerskim obredima, pod uvjetom da se ravnaju prema postojećim disciplinskim mjerama koje su propisale vlasti koje ih drie.

Internircima koji su svećenici dopustit će se da u potpunosti obavljaju duhovničku dužnost među svojim vjernicima. U tu svrhu sila koja drži internirce pazit će da se ravnomjerno rasporede po raznim mjestima internacije gdje se nalaze internirci koji govore isti jezik i pripadaju istoj vjeroispovijedi. Ako ih nema dovoljno, pružit će im se potrebne olakšice, među ostalim prijevozna sredstba kako bi se mogli kretati s jednog mjesta internacije na drugo i dopustit će im se da posjećuju internirce koji se nalaze u bolnicama. O pitanjima koja se tiču njihove duhovnićke dužnosti svećenici uživaju slobodu korespondencije s vjerskim vlastima zemlje koja ih drži i, utoliko koliko je to moguće, s međunarodnim vjerskim organizacijama svoje vjeroispovijedi° Ta se korespondencija ne smatra dijelom kontingenta spomenutoga u Članku 107, nego je podvrgnuta odredbama članka 112.

Kad internircima ne stoje na raspolaganju usluge svećenika njihove vjeroispovijedi ili potonjih nema dovoljno, vjerska vlast iste vjeroispovijedi može, u sporazumu sa silom koja drži internirce, imenovati svećenika vjeroispovijedi interniraca ili, kad je to moguće s gledišta te vjeroispovijedi, svećenika slićne vjeroispovijedi ili sposobnog svjetovnjaka. Potonji će uživati pogodnosti vezane uz duhovničku dužnost koju je preuzeo. Tako imenovane osobe moraju se ponašati po svim propisima koje je donijela sila koja drži internirce u interesu discipline i sigurnosti.

Članak 94.

Sila koja drži internirce poticat će intelektualne, obrazovne, rekreacijske i športske aktivnosti interniraca, ostavljajući im na volju da sudjeluju ili ne. Ona će poduzimati potrebne mjere radi osiguranja njihova ostvarenja, osobito stavljajući im na raspolaganje odgovarajuće prostorije.

Internicima će se pružiti sve moguće olakšice kako bi mogli nastaviti svoj studij ili započeti novi. Osigurat će se izobrazba djece i odraslih; moći će pohadati 5kole bilo u mjestu ili izvan mjesta internacije.

Internircima se mora omogućiti da se posvete fizičkim vježbama, da se bave športovima i da sudjeluju u igrama na svježem zraku. U tu se svrhu u svim mjestima internacije osigurava dovoljno prostora. Posebna će igrališta biti rezervirana za djecu i mladež.

Članak 95.

Sila koja drii internirce ne može ih upotrebljavati kao radnike ako to ne žele U svakom je slućaju zabranjeno zapošljavanje, nametnuto zaštićenoj osobi, koje bi znaćilo povredu Članaka 4o ili st. ove Konvencije, kao i zapošljavanje na poslovima ponižavaj;~će i uvredljive prirode.

Nakon razdoblja od šest tjedana rada, internirci mogu u svakom trenutku napustiti posao, pod uvjetom da to najave osam dana prije.

Te odredbe ne prijeće pravo sile koja drži internirce da prisiii internirane liječnike, zubare i drugo sanitetsko osoblje na obavljaye svojih profesionalnih dužnosti u korist drugih interniraca, da zaposli internirce na upravnim poslovima i poslovima održavanja u mjestima internacije, da odredi te osobe na rad u kuhinjama ili na druge domaćinske poslove ili dd od tih osoba zahtijeva da prezumu dužnosti u suezi sa rašW om interniraca od bombardiranja iz zraka ili drugih ratnih opasnosti. Nijedan se internirac, međutim. ne moiE: prisiliti da obavlja poslove za koje ga je slu-i.beni lyećnik proglasio fizički nesposobnim.

Sila koja drii internirce preuzima punu odgovornost za, sve uvjete rada, za medicinsku njegu, za isplatu plaća i naknada za ozljede na radu i profesionalne bolesti. Uvjeti rada i naknade za ozljede na radu i profesionalne bolesti bit će u skladu s domaćim zakonodavstvom i obićajima; oni ni u kojem slućaju neće biti lošiji od onih koji se u istoj regiji primjenjuju na rad iste prirode. Plaće se pravično utvrduju sporazumom između sile koja d~i internirce, interniraca i, ako je to slućaj, drugih poslodavaca osim s~le koja d~i internirce, vodeći raćuna o obvezi sile koja drzi internirce da im osigura besplatno uzdaavanje i pruii medicinsku njegu koja zahtijeva njihovo zdravstveno stanje. Sila koja dri.i internirce plaćat će internircima trajno zaposlenima na poslovima navedenim u trećem stavku pravićnu naknadu; uvjeti rada neće biti lošiji i naknade za ozljede na radu i profesionalne bolesti neće biti niže od onih što se u istoj regiji primjenjuju na rad iste prirode.

Članak 96.

Sve izdvojene radne jedinice ostaju dio jednog mjesta internacije i o njemu ovisne. Nadležne vlasti sile koja drzi internirce i zapovjednik tog mjesta internacije odgovorni su za poštovanje odredaba ove Konvencije u radnoj jedinici. Za.povjednik će voditi uredan spisak radnih jedinica koje mu pripadaju i priopćavat će ga delegatima sile zaštitnice, Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa ili drugih humanitarnih organizacija, koji bi posjetili mjesto internacije.

GLAVA VI

OSOBNA IMOVINA I FINANCIJSIfA SREDSTVA

Članak 97.

Internircima će se dopustiti da zadrze svoje predmete i stvari za osobnu upotrebu. Novac, čekovi, vrijednosni papiri itd., kao i dragocjenosti koje posjeduju, mogu im se oduzeti samo u skladu s utvrdenim postupkom. Za. to će im se izdati priznanica sa svim pojedinostima.

Novac se mora uknjii.iti u korist raćuna svakog internirca, kako je to predviđeno u Članku 98; taj se novac može zamijeniti u neku drugu valutu samo ako to zahtijeva zakonodavstvo područja na kojem je vlasnik interniran i ako internirac pristane.

Predmeti koji imaju pretežno osobnu vrijednost ili vrijednost osjećajne prirode ne mogu im se oduzeti.

Interniranu ženu moie pretraživati samo žena. Prilikom oslobodenja ili repatrijacije internirci će dobiti u novcu aktivu sa svoga raćuna što su ga imali u skladu s Člankom 98, kao i sve predmete, novac, ćekove, vrijednosne papire itd., koji su im bili oduzeti za vrijeme internacije, uz iznimku dragocjenosti što ih sila koja dri.i internirce mora zadriati na temelju svoga vaiećeg zakonodavstva. Ako je imovina interniraca tako zadr-~ana, zainteresirani će dobiti potvrdu sa svim pojedinostima.

Obiteljski dokumenti i osobne isprave kojih su internirci nosioci mogu im se oduzeti samo uz priznanicu. Internici ni u jednom trenutku ne smiju biti bez osobne isprave. Ako je nemaju, dobit će posebne isprave koje će propisati vlasti sile koja drži internirce i koje će im do prestanka internacije zamjenjivati osobne isprave.

Internirci mogu kod sebe dri.ati određenu kolićinu novca u gotovu ili u bonovima kako bi mogli kupovati.

Članak 98.

Svi će internirci redovito primati doplatak koji će irp omogućiti kupnju robe i predmeta kao što su duhan; stvari za osobnu njegu itd. Ti doplaci mogu biti u obliku kredita ili kupovnih bonova.

Uz to, internirci magu primati pripomoć od sile ćiji su dciavljani, od sila zaštitnica, od svih organizacija koje bi im mogle pomoći ili od svojih obitelji, kao i prihode od svoje imovine, u skladu sa zakonodavstvom sile koja drži inter-nirce.

Iznosi pripomoći koju dodjeljuje sila čiji su d~avljani bit će isti za svaku kategoriju interniraca (nemoćni, bolesnici, trudnice itd.), ali ih ta sila ne može odrediti, niti ih sila koja drži internirce ne može raspodjeljivati na temelju razlikovanja zabranjenih člankom 27. ove Konvencije.

Za. svakog će internirca sila koja ga dri.i otvoriti redoviti račun u korist kojega će se knjižiti doplaci spomenuti u ovome Članku, plaća koju je internirac zaradio, kao i novćane pošiljke koje je primio,-te one svote koje su mu oduzete, a kojima bi, na temelju vaiećeg zakonodavstva na području na kojem je interniran, mogao raspolagati. Internircima će se pružiti sve olakšice koje su u skladu s važećim zakonodavstvom na tom području, kako bi mogli slati pripomoć svojim obiteljima i osobama koje materijalno o njima ovise. Sa svojih raćuna mogu podizati potrebne iznose za osobne troškove, u granicama utvrdenima od sile koja ih drži. U svako će im se doba pružiti razumne olakšice radi pregleda svojih raćuna i podizanja izvadaka. O računu će se, na njezin zahtjev, obavijestiti sila zaštitnica., a on će pratiti internirca u slućaju njegova premještaja.

GLAVA Vll. UPRA VA I DISCIPLINA

Članak 99.

Svako se mjesto internacije stavlja pod vlast odgovornog ćasnika ili funkcionara, izabranoga iz redova redovitih vojnih snaga ili iz redova redovite civilne uprave sile koja drži internirce. časnik ili funkcionar koji zapovijeda mjestom internacije mora posjedovati tekst ove Konvencije na službenom jeziku ili na jednom od službenih jezika svoje zemlje i odgovoran je za njezinu primjenu. Nadzorno će osoblje biti poućeno 0 odredbama ove Konvencije i o upravnim mjerama usvojenima radi njezine primjene.

Tekst ove Konvencije i tekstovi posebnih sporazuma sklopljenih u skladu s ovom Konvencijom bit će, na jeziku koji internirci razumiju, izložen unutar mjesta internacije ili u posjedu odbora interniraca.

Propisi, naredbe, upozorenja i obavijesti svake vrste moraju se, na jeziku koji razumiju, priopćiti internircima i izložiti unutar mjesta internacije.

Sve naredbe i zapovijedi upućene internircima pojedinaćno moraju, također, biti na jeziku koji razumiju.

Članak I00

Disciplina u mjestu internacije mora biti u skladu s na- ' čelima ćovjećnosti i ni u kakvim okolnostima neće ukljućivati propise kojima se internirci podvrgavaju fizičkim naporima opasnima za njihovo zdravlje ili fizičkom ili moralnom mućenju. Identifikacija tetoviranjem ili utiskivanjem oznaka ili znakova na tijelo je zabranjena

Osobito su zabranjeni dugotrajno stajanje i prozivanje, kainjavanje fizičkim vježbama, vojne vježbe i ogranićavanje ishrane.

l..Internirci imaju pravo da vlastima u ćijoj se vlasti nalaze podnose ialbe na reiim kojemu su podvrgnuti.

Oni također imaju, bez ograničenja, pravo da se ob~aćaju, bilo preko odbora interniraca ili izravno, ako to smatraju potrebnim, predstavnicima sile zaštitnice da bi im ukazali na pitanja o kojima iele podnijeti prituibe u svezi s reiimom internacije.

Te se ialbe i prituibe moraju dostaviti hitno i bez izmjena. Ćak i kad se utvrdi da su neosnovane, one ne mogu biti povod nikakvom kainjavanju.

Odbori interniraca mogu slati predstavnicima sile zaštitnice povremene izvještaje o'stanju u mjestima internacije i potrebama interniraca.

Članak 102.

U svakome mjestu internacije internirci će, slobodno i tajnim glasovanjem, birati Članove odbora ćija je duinost da ih predstavljaju pred vlastima sile koja ih drii, silama zaštitnicama, Međunarodnim odborom Crvenog kriia i svakom drugom organizacijom koja bi im pritekla u pomoć. članovi tog odbora mogu biti ponovno birani.

Iza.brani internirci stupaju na duinost pošto njihov izbor odobri sila koja ih drii. Razlozi mogućeg odbijanja ili uklanjanja priopćuju se zainteresiranim silama zaštitnicama.

Članak 103.

Odbori interniraca moraju pridonositi fizičkom, moralnom i intelektualnom blagostanju interniraca.

Osobito ako bi internirci odlućili da međusobno organiziraju uzajamno pomaganje, to će organiziranje biti u nadleinosti odbora, neovisno od posebnih zadataka koji su im povjereni drugim odredbama ove Konvencije

Članak 104.

Članovi odbora interniraca neće se podvrgnuti nikakvome drugom poslu ako bi to oteialo obavljanje njihovih duinosti.

Članovi odbora mogu među internircima odrediti pomoćnike koji su im potrebni. Njima će se dati sve stvarne olakšice, osobito određena sloboda kretanja potrebna za obavljanje njihovih zadataka (posjeti radnim jedinicama izdvojenima iz mjesta internacije, primanje robe itd.).

Članovima odbora pruiaju se i sve olakšice potrebne za održavanje poštanske i brzojavne korespondencije s vlastima koje drie internirce, sa silama zaštitnicama, s Međunarodnim odborom Crvenog kriia i njihovim delegatima, kao i s organizacijama koje bi pruiale pomoć internircima. Članovi odbora koji se nalaze u izdvojenim jedinicama uiivaju iste olakšice u svojoj korespondenciji sa svojim odborom glavnog mjesta internacije. Ta se korespondencija neće ogranićavati, niti će se smatrati da ćini sastavni dio kontingenta spomenutoga u Članku 107.

Nijedan se Član odbora ne moie premjestiti prije nego što mu se ostavi dovoljno vremena da svoga nasljednika uputi u tekuće poslove.

GLAVA Vlll.

ODNOSI S VANJSKIM SVIJETOM Članak 105.

Čim interniraju zaštićene osobe, sile koje ih drie obavijestit će njih. sile ćiji su drž,avljani i njihovu silu zaštitnicu o mjerama koje su predviđene za izvršavanje odredaba ove glave; one će im isto tako priopćiti svaku promjenu izvršenu u tim mjerama.

Članak 106.

Svakom će se internircu prui.iti mogućnost, ćim bude interniran ili, najkasnije, tjedan dana nakon njegova dolaska u mjesto internacije, ća.k i u slučaju bolesti ili premještaja u neko drugo mjesto internacije ili u bolnicu, da izravno uputi svojoj obitelji, s jedne strane, i Središnjoj agenciji predviđenoj u članku 140, s druge strane, kartu o internaciji, po mogućnosti sličnu uzorku priloženom ovoj Konvenciji, kojom će ih obavijestiti o svojoj internaciji, o svojoj adresi i o stanju svoga zdravlja. Spomenute će se karte proslijediti što je brie moguće i njihovo se slanje ni na koji način ne može odgadati.

Članak 107.

Internircima će se dopustiti da šalju i da primaju pisma i dopisnice. Ako sila koja drii internirce smatra potrebnim ogranićiti broj pisama i dopisnica koje šalje svaki internirac, taj broj ne moi.e biti manji od dva pisma i četiri dopisnice mjesećno, što je moguće slićnijih uzorcima koji su priloieni ovoj Konvenciji. Ako se ograničenja moraju postaviti za korespondenciju upućenu internircima, njih može narediti samo sila kojoj internirci pripadaju, eventualno na zahtjev sile koja drii internirce. Ta se pisma i dopisnice moraju otpremiti u razumnom roku; njihova se otprema ne može odgadati niti zadaavati iz disciplinskih razloga.

Internircima koji su dugo vremena bez vijesti od svoje obitelji, ili onima koji ih ne mogu dobiti ili ih dostaviti redovitim putem, kao i onima koji se nalaze na velikoj udaljenosti od svojih domova, dopustit će se da šalju brzojave, za koje će platiti pristojbe u valuti kojom raspolažu. Tom će se mjerom također koristiti u slućajevima koji su priznati kao hitni.

Korespondencija interniraca vodit će se, u pravilu, na njihovom materinskom jeziku. Stranke sukoba mogu dopustiti korespondenciju i na drugim jezicima.

Članak 108

Internircima će se dopustiti da poštom ili na svaki drugi način primaju pojedinaćne ili kolektivne pošiljke koje sadr-i,e osobito iivežne namirnice, odjeću, lijekove, kao i knjige i predmete namijenjene zadovoljenju njihovih potreba glede vjere, izobrazbe ili zabave. Te pošiljke ni na koji način ne oslobadaju silu koja drii internirce obveza koje su joj nametnute na temelju ove Konvencije.

Ako bi vojna potreba zahtijevala ogranićavanje kolićine takvih pošiljaka, mora se propisno obavijestiti sila zaštitnica, Međunarodni odbor Crvenog kriia ili svaka druga organizacija koja pruža pomoć internircima i ćija je dužnost da dostavlja te pošiljke

Naćini otpreme pojedinaćnih ili kolektivnih pošiljaka mogu biti, bude li potrebno, predmet posebnih sporazuma između zainteresiranih sila, koji ni u kojem slućaju ne mogu odgadati primitak pošiljaka pomoći upućenih internircima. Knjige se ne mogu slati u istim pošiljkama sa živeinim namirnicama ili odjećom; sanitetski materijal kao pomoć šalje se, u pravilu, u kolektivnim pošiljkama.

Članak 109

U nedostatku posebmh spor<izuma između stranaka sukoba o načinima koji se tiću pnmitka r raspodjele pošilja

ka kolektivne pomoći, primjenjuje se Pravilnik o kolekti,vnoj pomoći koji je priložen ovoj Konvenciji.

Gore predviđeni posebni sporazumi ne mogu ni u kojem slučaju ograničiti pravo odbora interniraca da preuzimaju pošiljke kolektivne pomoći koje su namijenjene internircima, da pristupaju njihovoj raspodjeli i da njima raspolažu u interesu onih kojima su namijenjene.

Ti sporazumi ne mogu ograničiti ni prava predstavnika sile zaštitnice, Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa,, niti bilo koje druge organizacije koja pruža pomoć internircima i koja bi preuzela dostavu tih kolektivnih pošiljaka, da nadziru njihovu raspodjelu onima kojima su namijenjene.

Članak 110.

Sve pošiljke pomoći namijenjene internircima oslobodene su svih uvoznih, carinskih i drugih pristojbi.

Sve pošiljke, uključujući poštanske pakete koji sadri,e pomoć i novćane pošiljke, upućene internircima iz drugih zemalja ili koje oni šalju poštom, bilo izravno ili posredovanjem informacionih ureda koji su predviđeni u Članku 138. i Središnje informacione agencije koja je predviđena u članku 140, oslobodene su svih poštanskih pristojbi, kako u zemlji otpreme i u zemlji primitka, tako i u zemljama kroz koje prolaze. Osobito u tu svrhu, oslobodenja predviđena u Univerzalnoj poštanskoj konvenciji iz 1947. i u sporazumima Svjetske poštanske unije u prilog civila koji su dr~cavljani neprijateljske dri,ave i koji su zadciani u civilnim logorima ili zatvorima, protežu se i na druge internirane osobe zaštićene ovom Konvencijom. Zemlje koje nisu stranke tih sporazuma dui.ne su priznati oslobodenje od pristojbi u istim okolnostima.

Prijevozne troškove za pošiljke pomoći namijenjene internircima, koje im, zbog svoje teiine ili bilo kojega drugog razloga, ne mogu biti dostavljene poštom, snosi sila koja drži internirce na svim područjima koja se nalaze u njezinoj vlasti. Ostale sile stranke Konvencije snose prijevozne troškove na svojim područjima.

Troškove koji proistjeću iz prijevoza tih pošiljaka, a koji nisu pokriveni prethodnim stavcima, snosi pošiljatelj. Visoke stranke ugovornice nastojat će sniziti, koliko je

god to moguće, pristojbe za brzojave koje internici šalju ili koji se njima upućuju.

Članak 111.

Ako bi vojne operacije sprijećile zainteresirane sile u izvršavanju svoje obveze da osiguraju prijevoz pošiljaka predviđenih u Člancima 106, 107, 108. i 113, zainteresirane sile zaštitnice, h4edunarodni odbor Crvenog križa i svaka druga organizacija koju prihvate stranke sukoba mogu preuzeti osiguranje prijevoza tih pošiljaka odgovarajućim sredstvima (vagonima, kamionima, brodovima ili zrakoplovima itd ) U tu će svrhu visoke stranke ugovornice nastojati nabaviti ta prijevozna sredstva i omogućiti im prolazak, osobito izdavanjem potrebnih dozvola.

Ta se prijevozna sredstva mogu, također, upotrijebiti za slanje

a) korespondencije, spiskova i izvještaja razmijenjenih između Središnje informacione agencije, koja je predviđend u ~ lanku 140, i nacionalnih ureda koji su predviđeni u Članku 136.

b) korespondencije i izvješlaje o internircima što ih sile zastitnice. 1-1edunarodni odbor Cn~enog križa ili svaka druga organizacija koja pruža pomoć internircima razmjenjuju bilo sa svojim delegatima ili sa strankama sukoba.

Te odredbe ni u ćemu ne ogranićavaju pravo svake stranke sukoba da organizira, ako to izabere, druge načine prijevoza i da izdaje dozvole pod uvjetima koji se sporazumno odrede.

Troškove izazvane upotrebom tih prijevoznih sredstava snose, razmjerno važnosti pošiljaka, stranke sukoba čiji se državljani koriste tim uslugama.

Članak 112.

Cenzura korespondencije upućene internircima ili one koje oni šalju mora se obaviti u najkraćem mogućem roku. Pošiljke namijenjene internircima ne smiju se pregledavati u takvim uvjetima da se izloži opasnosti odrianje hrane koju pošiljke sadrže, a pregledavat će se u nazoćnosti primatelja ili nekoga njegovoga opunomoćenog druga. Predaja pojedina~ćnih ili kolektivnih pošiljaka internircima -ne smije se odgadati uz izgovor teškoća u svezi s cenzurom.

Svaka zabrana korespondencije donijeta od stranke sukoba iz vojnih ili političkih razloga može biti samo privremena i po trajanju što je moguće kraća.

Članak 113.

Sile koje drie internirce osigurat će sve razumne olakšice za dostavu, posredovanjem sile zaštitnice, Središnje agencije predviđene u Članku 140. ili na neki drugi način . ako se ukaže potreba, oporuka, punomoći ili svih drugih dokumenata namijenjenih internircima ili koji od njih potječu.

U svim slućajevima sile koje drie internirce olakšavat će im sastavljanje i ovjeru tih dokumenata u propisnom obliku, dopuštajući im; osobito, da se savjetuju s nekim pravnikom.

Članak 114.

Sila koja drži internirce pružit će im sve olakšice, koje su kompatibilne s režimom internacije i s važećim zakonodavstvom, kako bi mogli upravljati svojom imovinom. U tu svrhu, u hitnim slućajevima i ako to okolnosti dopuštaju, može im dopustiti izlazak iz mjesta internacije.

Članak 115.

U svim slučajevima kad je internirac stranka spora pred bilo kojim sudom, sila koja ga drLi mora, na zahtjev zainteresiranoga, obavijestiti sud o njegovoj internaciji i mora se, u zakonskim okvirima, pobrinuti da budu poduzete sve potrebne mjere kako ne bi, zbog činjenice da je interniran, pretrpio nikakvu štetu što se tiče pripremnog postupka i samog postupka i!i izvršenja presude.

Članak 116.

Svakom će se internircu dopustiti da u redovitim razmacima, što je ćešće moguće, prima posjete, prije svega svojih bliskih rodaka.

U hitnim slućajevima i u granicama mogućnosti, mternircima će se dopustiti da posjete svoj dom, osobito u slučaju smrti ili teške bolesti nekog rodaka.

GLAVA IX

KAZNENE I DISCIPCINSKE SANKCIJE.

Članak 117.

Uz rezervu odredaba ove glave, vaieće zakonodavstvo na području na kojem se nalaze nastavlja se primjenjivati na internirce koji poćine neko djelo za vrijeme internacije

Ako zakoni, pravilnici ili naredbe proglašuju kažnjivima čine koje poćine internirci, a da ti ćini nisu kažnjivi ako ih počine osobe koje nisu internirci, ti čini mogu za sobom povlaćiti samo disciplinske sankcije.

Internirac može biti kainjen samo jedanput za isti čin ili na temelju iste optužbe.

Članak 118.

Prilikom odredivanja kazne, sudovi ili vlasti uzet će u obzir, u što je moguće većoj mjeri, činjenicu da optui.enik nije državljanin sile koja drii internirce. Oni mogu slobodno ublažiti kaznu predviđenu za djelo za koje se optužuje internirac i u tu se svrhu ne moraju ravnati prema propisanom minimunu kazne.

Za.branjeno je svako zatvaranje u prostorije koje nisu osvijetljene dnevnim svjetlom i, uopće, svaki oblik okrutnosti.

S internircima se, nakon što izdrie disciplinske ili sudske kazne na koje su osudeni, ne može postupati drukčije nego s ostalim internircima.

Trajanje pritvora internirca odbija se od trajanja svake disciplinske ili sudske kazne lišenja slobode koja bi mu bila izrećena.

Odbori interniraca obavijestit će se o svim sudskim postupcima protiv interniraca koje predstavljaju, kao i o njihovim ishodima.

Članak 119.

Disciplinske kazne koje se mogu primijeniti na internirce jesu:

1. novćana kazna do 50 posto od plaće predviđene u članku 95, i to za vrijeme koje ne moie prijeći trideset dana; 2. ukidanje pogodnosti danih iznad onoga što je glede

postupaka predviđeno ovom Konvencijom;

3. prisilan rad, koji ne može prijeći dva sata dnevno, na poslovima odr-iavanja mjesta internacije;

9. zatvor.

Disciplinske kazne ni u kojem slućaju neće biti nećovječne, surove ili opasne po zdravlje interniraca. Mora se voditi računa o njihovoj dobi, spolu i zdravstvenom stanju.

Trajanje pojedine kazne ne može nikada prijeći trideset uzastopnih dana, ćak ni u slučajevima da neki internirac mora disciplinski odgovarati za veći broj disciplinskih prekršaja u trenutku kad mu se izriće kazna, pa bili ti prekršaji u stjecaju ili ne.

Članak 120.

Internirci koji pobjegnu ili pokušaju pobjeći pa budu uhvaćeni, mogu biti kainjeni za to djelo, ćak i u slućaju povrata, samo disciplinskim kaznama.

Iznimno od trećega stavka Članka 118, internirci kainjeni nakon bijega ili pokušaja bijega mogu biti podvrgnuti posebnom re~imu nadzora, ali pod uvjetom da taj reiim ne bude štetan za njihovo zdravlje, da se izdr-i,ava u nekom mjestu internacije i da ne povlaći za sobom ukidanje nijednog od jamstava što ih internircima pruia ova Konvencija

(nternirci koji su surađivali u bijegu ili u pokušaju bije ga mogu na temelju toga biti kažnjeni samo disciplinskom kaznom

Članak 121.

Bijeg, rlr pokusaj bijega, ćak i u povratu, ne smatra sE kao otegotna okolnost u slućaju kad internirac bude izve den pred sud za djeta poćinjena tijekom bijega.

GLA VA XI. SMRT

Članak 129.

Internici mogu svoje oporuke predati u pohranu odgovornim vlastima. U slućaju smrti interniraca te se oporuke dostavljaju osobama koje su internirci odredili.

Smrt svakog internirca ustanovljuje liječnik i izdaje se smrtovnica u koju se unose uzroci smrti i okolnosti u kojima je nastupila.

Sluibena smrtovnica, propisno registrirana, sastavlja se u skladu s propisima koji vrijede na području gdje se nalazi mjesto internacije i njezin se ovjereni prijepis bez odgode dostavlja sili zaštitnici, kao i Središnjoj agenciji predviđenoj u Članku 140.

Članak 130.

Vlasti koje drie internirce brinu se o tome da internirci koji umru u internaciji budu dostojno pokopani, po mogućnosti u skladu s obredima vjeroispovijedi kojoj su pripadali i da njihovi grobovi budu poštovani, uredno održavani i tako označeni da se uvijek mogu pronaći.

Umrli internirci pokapaju se pojedinačno, osim u slučaju više sile koji bi nalagao upotrebu zajedničke grobnice. Leševi se mogu spaljivati samo ako to nalaiu higijenski razlozi ili zbog vjeroispovijedi pokojnika, ili ako je on sam izrazio takvu ielju. U slućaju spaljivanja u smrtovnicu internirca o tome se unosi napomena, uz navođenje razloga zbog kojih je leš spaljen. Vlasti koje drze internirce briiljivo će pohraniti pepeo i dostavit će ga što je bri.e moguće bliskim rodacima, ako to budu zahtijevali.

čim to okolnosti dopuste, a najkasnije po prestanku neprijateljstava, sila koja drii internirce dostavlja, posredovanjem informacionog ureda predviđenog u Članku t36, silama kojima su umrli internirci pripadali spiskove grobova umrlih interniraca. Ti spiskovi sadrže sve potrebne podatke za identifikaciju umrlih interniraca i toćno mjesto njihovih grobova.

Članak 131.

Svaka smrt ili teško ranjavanje internirca koje je prouzroćio ili za koje postoji sumnja da ih je prouzroćio neki straiar, drugi internirac ili bilo koja druga osoba, kao i svaki smrtni slućaj kojega je uzrok nepoznat, bit će odmah predmet sluibene istrage od strane sile koja drii internirce.

O tom se slućaju odmah obavještava sila zaštitnica. Prikupit će se izjave svih svjedoka; izvještaj s tim izjavama dostavlja se spomenutoj sili.

Ako istraga utvrdi krivnju jedne ili više osoba, sila koja dri,i internirce poduzet će sve mjere za sudski progon odgovorne ili odgovornih osoba.

GLAVA XII.

OSLOBADANJE, REPATRIRANJE I SMJE$TANJE U NEUTRALNE ZEMLJE

Članak 132.

Sila koja drži internirce oslobodit će svaku~a od nph ćim nestanu uzroci koji su izazvali njegovu internaciju

Uz to, stranke sukoba nastojat će za vrijeme trajanja neprijateljstava sklopiti sporazume radi oslobadanja, re

patrijacije, povratka u mjesto prebivališta ili smještanja u neutralne zemlje nekih kategorija interniraca, osobito djece, trudnica, i majki s dojenćadi i malom djecom, ranjenika i bolesnika ili interniraca koji su već dugo internirani.

Članak 133.

Internacija će prestati što je najbrie moguće nakon prestanka neprijateljstava.

Međutim, internirci na području stranke sukoba koji se nalaze pod kaznenom istragom za djela koja ne podlijeiu iskljućivo disciplinskim kaznama mogu se zadržati sve do okonćanja postupka, a, ako se radi o takvom slućaju, sve dok ne izdr~e kaznu. Isto će se tako postupiti i s onima koji su prethodno osudeni na kaznu lišenja slobode.

Sporazumom između sile koja dr~ci internirce i zainteresiranih sila moraju se, nakon prestanka neprijateljstava ili okupacije područja, osnovati komisije za traženje raspršenih interniraca.

Članak 134.

Visoke stranke ugovornice nastojat će, nakon prestanka neprijateljstava ili okupacije, osigurati povratak svih interniraca u njihovo posljednje mjesto boravka ili olakšati njihovu repatrijaciju.

Članak 135.

Sila koja dri.i internirce snosi troškove povratka oslobodenih interniraca u mjesto gdje su boravili u trenutku internacije ili, ako ih je zadriala tijekom putovanja ili na otvorenom moru, troškove koji im omogućuju svršetak putovanja ili povratak u mjesto polaska.

Ako sila koja drii internirce ne dopusti oslobodenom internircu boravak na svom području, na kojemu je prethodno bilo njegovo prebivalište, platit će troškove njegove repatrijacije. Ako, međutim, internirac izabere da se, na vlastitu odgovornost ili zbog poslušnosti prema vladi za koju ga veže obveza vjernosti, vrati u svoju zemlju, sila koja drii internirce nije dužna platiti troškove njegova putovanja izvan svog područja. Sila koja drii internirce nije dužna platiti troškove repatrijacije internirca koji je bio interniran na vlastiti zahtjev.

Ako se internirci premještaju u skladu s Člankom 45, sila koja ih premješta i sila koja ih prima sporazumjet će se o dijelu troškova što će ga svaka od njih snositi

Prethodne odredbe ne diraju posebne sporazume koje bi stranke sukoba sklopile o razmjeni i repatrijaciji svojih državljana koji se nalaze u rukama neprijatelja

ODJELJAK V INFORMACIONI UREDI I SREDIŠNJA

INFORMACIONA AGENCIJA

Članak 136

Cim zapoćne sukob i u svim slućajemma okupacije, svaka od stranaka sukoba osnovat će službeni mformacioni ured kojega je dužnost da prima i prenosi informacye o zaštićenim osobama koje se nalare u yezinoj vlasU

Svaka od stranaka sukoba daje sporneoutmm uredu. u najkraćem mogućem roku, inCormacife o ryerama ~to rh ~e podu2ela protiv svake zaštićene osobe ko~a je već više od dva tjedna zatvorena, koja je upućena na prisrlm borav ak ili koja je internirana. Uz to, ona će od raznih svoph zainte

resiranih sluibi zahtijevati da spomenutom uredu brzo dostave podatke o svim promjenama koje se tiču zaštićenih osoba, kao što su premještaji, oslobodenja, repatrijacije, bjegovi, smještanja u bolnicu, rodenja i smrti.

Članak 137.

Nacionalni informacioni uredi hitno i najbriim sredstvima, posredovanjem, s jedne strane, sila za.štitnica i, s druge, Središnje agencije predviđene u članku 140, prosljeduju informacije o zaštićenim osobama sili čije su spomenute osobe dtžavljani ili sili na čijem su području boravile. Uredi će, također, odgovarati na sva pitanja koja im se upućuju o zaštićenim osobama.

Informacioni uredi dostavljaju informacije o zaštićenoj osobi, osim ako bi to dostavljanje moglo štetiti dotičnoj osobi ili njezinoj obitelji. čak i u tom slučaju, informacije se ne mogu uskratiti Središnjoj agenciji koja će, pošto je upoznata s okolnostima, poduzeti potrebne mjere opreza navedene u članku 140.

Sva pismena priopćenja koja neki ured daje moraju se ovjeriti potpisom ili peča.tom.

Članak 138.

Informacije koje prima i dalje dostavlja na.cionalni informacioni ured treba da budu takve prirode da omogućuju točnu identifikaciju zaštićene osobe i brzo obavještavanje njegove obitelji. Informacija za svaku osobu sadrii barem prezime, imena, mjesto i potpuni datum rodenja, državljanstvo, posljednje boravište, osobite znakove, ime oca i djevojačko prezime majke, datum i prirodu mjere poduzete u odnosu na tu osobu te mjesto gdje je poduzeta, adresu na koju se može uputiti korespondencija, kao i ime, prezime i adresu osobe koju treba obavijestiti.

Isto se tako redovito dostavljaju, po mogućnosti svakog tjedna, informacije o zdravstvenom stanju teško bolesnih ili ranjenih interniraca.

Članak 139.

Uz to, dužnost je nacionalnog informacionog ureda da prikuplja sve osobne dragocjenosti koje su ostavile _zaštićene osobe navedene u Članku 136, osobito prilikom njihove repatrijacije, oslobodenja, bijega ili smrti, i da ih dostavlja zainteresiranima izravno ili, ako je potrebno, posredovanjem Središnje agencije. Ti se predmeti šalju u paketima zapečaćenima od ureda; tim se paketima prikljućuju izjave kojima se točno ustanovljava identitet osoba kojima su ti predmeti pripadali, kao i potpuni sadriaj paketa. Primitak i stanje takvih dragocjenosti sa svim se potankostima unosi u za.pisnike.

Članak140.

U nekoj neutralnoj zemlji osnovat će se Središnja informaciona agencija za zaštićene osobe, osobit'o za internirce. Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa predloiit će zainteresiranim silama, ako to smatra potrebnim, organiziranje takve agencije, koja može biti jednaka onoj koja je predviđena Člankom 123. Ženevske konvencije o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Dužnost će te Agencije biti prikupljanje svih informacija kakve su predviđene u članku 136, do kojih može doći službenim ili privatnim putem; ona će ih dostavljati što je bri.e moguće zemlji podrijetla ili boravišta zai~teresiranih osoba, osim u slućajevima kad bi to dostavljanje moglo štetiti osobama kojih se te informacije tiču ili njihovoj obitelji. Radi tog dostavljanja stranke sukoba dat će joj sve olakšice. .

Pozivaju se visoke stranke ugovnrnice, a osobito one čiji se pripadnici koriste uslugama Središnje agencije, da joj ukazuju potrebnu financijsku pomo$. , ,

Prethodne se odredbe ne smiju tumačiti kao da ograničavaju humanitarnu djelatnost Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa, i društava za, .pružanje pomoći koja su spomenuta u članku 142.

Članak 141.

Nacionalni informacioni uredi i Središnja informaciona agencija uživat će oslobodenje od poštanskih pristojbi, kao i sva oslobodenja predviđena u članku 110. i, u granica.ma mogućnosti, oslobodenje od plaćanja brzojavnih pristojbi ili barem znatno smanjenje tih pristojbi. _

D I O IV. IZVRŠAVANJE KONVENCIJE

ODJELJAK I. OPĆE ODREDBE

Članak 142.

Ne. dirajući u mjere koje bi smatrale prijeko potrebnima radi zaštite svoje sigurnosti ili radi svake druge razumne potrebe, sile koje d~ze zaštićene osobe prui.s,t će predstavnicima vjerskih organiza.cija, društava za pruia.nje pomoći ili svake druge organizacije koja bi pritekla u pomoć zaštićenim osobama, ili njihovim propisno akreditiranim delegatima, sve olakšice kako bi mogli posjećivati zaštićene osobe, raspodjeljivati pomoć i materijal iz bilo kojeg izvora, namijenjen u obrazovne, rekreacijske ili vjerske svrhe ili kao pomoć u organiziranju njihova slobodnog vremena u mjestima internacije. Takva društva ili organizacije mogu se osnovati na području sile koja drii zaštićene osobe, u nekoj drugoj zemlji ili mogu imati međunarodni karakter.

Sila koja drii zaštićene osobe može ograničiti broj društava i organizacija čiji su delegati ovlašteni da obavljaju svoje aktivnosti na njezinu području i pod njezinim nadzorom, pod uvjetom, u svakom slučaju, da takvo ograničenje ne ometa pruia,nje djelotvorne i dostatne pomoći svim zaštićenim osobama.

Poseban položa,j Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog kriia na tom polju u svako će se doba priznavati i poštovati. Članak 143.

Predstavnicima ili delegatima sila zaštitnica dopustit će se da posjećuju sva mjesta gdje se nalaze zaštićene osobe, osobito mjesta inte .rnacije, mjesta zatočenja i mjesta, gdje rade. . ,

Oni imaju pristup u sve prostorije kojima se koriste zaštićene osobe i mogu s njima razgovarati bez svjedoka, ako je to potrebno, preko prevoditelja.

Ti se posjeti mogu zabraniti samo zbog imperativne vojne potrebe te samo iznimno i privremeno. Učestalost i trajanje ne mogu se ograničiti.

Predstavnicima i delegatima sila zaštitnica daje se puna sloboda glede izbora mjesta koja iele posjetiti. Sila koja di -zi zaštićene osobe ili okupacijska sila, sita za.štitnica i, ako je to slučaj, sila podrijetla osoba koje se posjećuju mo-, gu se sporazumjeti o tome da se zemljacima interniraca dopusti da prisustvuju posjetima.

Iste povlastice uiivaju i delegati Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog kriia. Imenovanje tih delegata uvjetovano je privolom sile u ćijoj se vlasti nalaze područja na kojima moraju obavljati svoje duinosti.

Članak 144.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će u svojim odnosima zemljama što je više moguće, u vrijeme mira i u vrijeme rata, vršiti difuziju teksta ove Konvencije i, osobito, da će njihovo proučavanje unijeti u vojne i, po mogućnosti, civilne obrazovne programe, kako bi se s na,čelima Konvencije upoznalo cjelokupno stanovništvo.

Civilne, vojne, policijske ili druge vlasti, koje u vrijeme rata preuzimaju odgovornost s obzirom na zaštićene osobe, moraju posjedovati tekst Konvencije i biti posebno poućene o njezinim odredbama.

Članak 145.

Visoke stranke ugovornice dostavljat će jedna drugoj, posredovanjem Svicarskoga saveznog vijeća, a za vrijeme neprijateljstava posredovanjem sila zaštitnica" sluibene prijevode ove Konvencije, kao i zakone i pravilnike što bi ih usvojile kako bi osigurale njezinu primjenu.

člarlak 146.

Visoke stranke ugovornice obvezuju se da će poduzeti sve zakonodavne mjere potrebne radi utvrđivanja odgovarajućih kaznenih sankcija protiv osoba koje su počinile ili koje su izdale naredbu da se počini bilo koja od teških povreda ove Konvencije određenih u slijedećem članku.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica obvezana je da pronalazi osobe osumnf ičene da su počinile ili da su naredile da se počini bilo koja od tih teških povreda i mora ih, bez obzira na'njihovo dri.a,vlfanstvo, izvesti pred svoje sudove. Ako to izabere, ona isto tako može, prema odredbama svoga zakonodavstva, predati te osobe radi sudenja drugoj visokoj stranki ugovornici zainteresiranoj za njihov progon, pod uvjetom da ta visoka stranka ugovornica raspolaže prima faciae dokazima.

Svaka visoka stranka ugovornica poduzet će potrebne mjere radi suzbijanja svih ćina suprotnih odredbama ove Konvencije koji nisu teške povrede određene u slijedećem članku.

Optui.ene će osobe u svakoj prilici uživati jamstva glede propisanog sudenja i obrane, koja neće biti manja od onih predviđenih člancima 105. i slijedećima Ženevske konvencije o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949.

Članak 147.

Teške povrede na koje se odnosi prethodni Članak jesu one koje obuhvaćaju bilo koji od ovih čina, ako su počinjeni protiv osoba ili imovine zaštićenih Konvencijom: namjerno ubojstvo, mučenje ili nečovječno postupanje, uključujući biološke pokuse, namjerno prouzrokovanje velikih patnji ili teških oštećenja fizičkog integriteta ili zdravlja, nezakonito deportiranje ili premJešt9,nje, nezakonito zatočenje, prisiljavanje zaštićene osobe da služi u oružanim snagama neprijateljske sile ili njeno lišavanje prava da joj se pošteno i nepristrano sudi prema odredbama ove Konvencije, uzimanje talaca te uništenje i prisvajanje imovine, koje nije opravdano vojnim potrebama i koje je izvršeno u velikim razmjerima, protupravno i samovoljno.

Članak 148.

Nijedna visoka stranka ugovornica ne može osloboditi sebe, niti drugv visoku stranku ugovornicu, odgovornosti koju ona sama ili ta druga visoka stranka ugovornica snosi za povrede predviđene u prethodnome Članku.

Članak 149.

Na zahtjev stranke sukoba mora se zbog svakoga navodnog kršenja Konvencije pokrenuti istraga, na način što ga utvrduju zainteresirane stranke.

Ako se ne postigne sporazum o postupku istrage, stranke će se složiti o izboru arbitra koji odlučuje o postupku što ga treba provesti.

Pošto je kršenje ustanovljeno, stranke sukoba će ga za- I ustaviti i suzbiti što je brie moguće.

ODJELJAK II. ZAVRšNE ODREDBE

Članak 150.

Ova je Konvencija sastavljena na engleskom i francuskom jeziku. Oba su teksta jednako vjerodostojna.

švicarsko sa.vezno vijeće dat će izraditi službene prijevode Konvencije na ruski i španjolski jezik.

Članak 151.

Ova Konvencija, koja nosi današnji datum, otvorena je do 12. velja,će 1950. za potpisivanje u ime sila zastupljenih na Konferenciji koja je započela u Ženevi 2t. travnja 1949.

Članak 152.

Ova će se Konvencija ratificirati što je prije moguće, a ratifikacije se pola,žu u Bernu.

O polaganju svake isprave o ratifikaciji sastavlja se zapisnik, kojeg ovjerene prijepise švica,rsko savezno vijeće dostavlja svim silama u ćije je ime Konfencija potpisana ili ćiji je pristup notificiran.

Članak 153.

Ova Konvencija stupa na snagu šest mjeseci nakon što budu položene najmanje dvije isprave o rafitikaciji.

Poslije toga ona stupa na snagu za svaku visoku stranku ugovornicu šest mjeseci nakon polaganja njezine isprave o ratifikaciji.

Članak 154.

U odnosima između sila koje su vezane Haškom konvencijom o zakonima i običajima rata na kopnu, bilo da se radi o onoj od 29. srpnja 1899. ili onoj od 18. listopada 19o7, i koje su stranke ove Konvencije, potonja dopunjuje dijelove II. i III. Pravilnika priloženoga spomenutim konvencijama.

Članak 155.

Od dana stupanja na snagu ova će Konvencija biti otvorena za pristupanje svakoj sili u čije ime ova Konvencija nije potpisana.

Članak 156.

Pristupi se pismeno notificiraju Švicarskom saveznom vijeću, a poćinju djelovati šest mjeseci nakon datuma njihova primitka.

Švicarsko savezno vijeće obavijestit će o pristupima sve sile u ćije je ime Konvencija potpisana ili ćiji je pristup nofiticiran.

Članak 157.

U slućajevima predviđenima u člancima 2. i 3, za stranke sukoba koje su položile isprave o ratifikaciji ili notificirale pristup prije ili nakon poćetka neprijateljstava ili oku

pacije, Konvencija supa na snagu odmah. ~vicarsko će savezno vijeće na najbrzi mogući način obavijestiti o rafitikacijama ili pristupima primljenima od stranaka sukoba.

Članak I58.

Svaka je visoka stranka ugovornica slobodna da otkaže ovu Konvenciju.

Otkaz se pismeno notificira švica,rskom saveznom vijeću. Ono će o notifikaciji obavijestiti vlade svih visokih stranaka ugovornica.

Otkaz poćinje djelovati godinu dana nakon što je notificiran Svicarskom saveznom vijeću. Međutim, otkaz notificiran u vrijeme kad sila koja otkazuje sudjeluje u nekom sukobu ne djeluje do zaključenja mira i u svakom slućaju tako dugo dok operacije oslobadanja i repatriranja osoba zaštićenih ovom Konvencijom ne budu završene.

Otkaz vrijedi samo za silu koja otkazuje. On ni na koji nacin ne djeluje na obveze što su ih stranke sukoba dužne ispunjavati na temelju na,ćela međunarodnog prava koja proizlaze iz običaja ustanovljenih među civiliziranim narodima, iz zakona čovječnosti i iz zahtjeva javne savjesti.

Članak 159.

Svicarsko savezno vijeće registrirat će ovu Konvenciju kod Tajništva Ujedinjenih naroda. ~vicarsko će savezno vijeće, također, obavještavati Tajništvo Ujedinjenih naroda o svim primljenim ratifikacijama, pristupima i otkazima što se tiću ove Konvencije.

U potvrdu toga su ~otpisani, pošto su položili svoje odnosne punomoći, potpisali ovu Konvenciju.

Sastavljeno u Ženevi, 12. kolovoza 1949, na engleskom i francuskom jeziku. Izvornik će se položiti u arhive ~vicarske Konfederacije. Svicarsko će savezno vijeće dostaviti ovjerene prijepise Konvencije svim državama potpisnicama i onima koje budu pristupile.

PRILOG I.

PREDLOŽAK SPORAZUMA O SANITETSiCIM I SIGURNOSNIM ZONAMA I MJESTIMA

Članak 1.

Sanitetske i sigurnosne zone strogo su namijenjene osobama spomenutima u članku 23. Ženevske konvencije za poboljšanje položaja ranjenika i bolesnika u orui.anim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza 1949. i u članku 14. Ženevske konvencije o zaštiti gradanskih osoba u vrijeme rata od 12. kolovoza 1949, kao i osoblju odgovornom za organizaciju i upravljanje tim zonama i mjestima te za pru~anje njege osobama koje su tu okupljene.

Međutim, osobe ćije je stalno boravište u tim zonama imaju pravo da tu ostanu.

Članak 2

Osobe koje se, u bilo kojem svojstvu, nalaze u sanitetskoj i sigurnosnoj zoni ne smiju obavljati nikakav posao koji je u izravnoj svezi s vojnim operacijama ili s proizvodnjom ratnog materijala, bilo unutar zone ili izvan nje.

Članak 3.

Sila koja ustanovljuje sanitetsku i sigurnosnu zonu poduzet će sve potrebne mjere radi zabrane pristupa u tu zonu svim osobama koje nemaju pravo da u nju udu ili da u njoj borave.

Članak 4.

Sanitetske i sigurnosne zone ispunjavat će ove uvjete; a) one će obuhvatiti samo mali dio područja koje se na

lazi pod vlasti sile koja ih je ustanovila; . b) one moraju biti rijetko naseljene u odnosu na svoje mogućnosti smještaja;

c) one će biti udaljene od i lišene svih vojnih ciljeva i važnih industrijskih postrojenja ili upravnih ustanova;

d) one se neće nalaziti u regijama za koje je vjerojatno da mogu postati vai.ne za vođenje rata.

Članak 5.

Sanitetske i sigurnosne zone bit će pod ovim obvezama:

a) prometnice i prijevozna sredstva koja su u njihovu posjedu neće se upotrebljavati za prijevoz vojnog osoblja ili materijala, ćak ni u provozu;

b) one se ni u kojem slućaju ne smiju braniti vojnim sredstvima.

Članak 6.

Sanitetske i sigurnosne zone bit će oznaćene kosim crvenim trakama na bijelom polju, postavljenima na rubovima i na zgradama.

Zone koje su isključivo namijenjene ranjenicima i bolesnicima mogu biti označene crvenim križevima (crvenim polumjesecima, crvenim lavovima i suncima) na bijelom polju.

Noću, također, mogu biti oznaćene odgovarajućim osvjetljenjem.

Članak 7.

Još u vrijeme mira ili na poćetku neprijateljstava svaka će sila dostaviti svim visokim strankama ugovornicama spisak sanitetskih i sigurnosnih zona ustanovljenih na području koje je pod njezinom kontrolom. Ona će ih obavijestiti i o svakoj novoj zoni koju ustanovi tijekom sukoba.

Ćim protivnićka stranka primi gore spomenutu notifikaciju, zona će biti uredno ustanovljena.

Ako, međutim, protivnićka stranka smatra da uvjeti postavljeni ovim sporazumom nisu ispunjeni, ona može odbiti priznanje zone hitno obavještavajući o tome stranku kojoj zona pripada, ili može svoje priznanje uvjetovati uvođenjem kontrole predviđene u Članku 8.

Članak 8.

Svaka sila, koja je priznala jednu ili više sanitetskih i sigurnosnih zona što ih je ustanovila protivnićka strana, ima pravo zahtijevati da jedna ili više posebnih komisija kontroliraju ispunjavaju li zone uvjete i obveze izloiene u ovom sporazumu.

U tu svrhu Članovi posebnih komisija imat će u svako doba slobodan pristup u razne zone i moći će ćak u njima stalno boraviti. Njima će se pružiti sve olakšice kako bi mogli obavljati svoje dužnosti kontrole.

Članak 9.

Ako posebne komisije ustanove bilo koju ćinjenicu koju smatraju suprotnom odredbama ovo~a sporazuma, one će o tome odmah obavijestiti silu kojoj zona pripada i dm će joj rok od najviše pet dana da to ispravi; one će o tome obavijestiti silu koja je zonu priznala.

Ako po isteku tog roka sila kojoj zona pripada ne postupi u skladu s opomenom koja joj je upućena, protivnička: stranka može izjaviti da više nije vezana ovim sporazumom glede te zone.

Članak lo.

Sila koja je ustanovila jednu ili više sanitetskih i sigurnosnih zona i mjesta, kao i protivničke stranke kojima je njihovo postojanje notificirano, imenovat će osobe koje bi mogle biti članovi posebnih komisija spomenutih u člancima 8. i 9. ili će pozvati sile za.štitnice ili druge neutralne sile da imenuju te osobe.

Članak 11.

Ni u kakvim okolnostima sanitetske i sigurnosne zone ne mogu biti predmet napada, nego će ih u svako doba stranke sukoba poštovati i štititi.

Članak 12.

U slučaju okupacije područja, sanitetske i sigurnosne zone koje se na njemu nalaze moraju se i dalje poštovati i upotrebljavati kao takve.

Okupacijska sila, međutim, može promijeniti njihow namjenu pošto osigura poloi,aj osoba koje su u njima smještene.

Članak l3.

Ovaj će se sporazum također primjenjivati na mjesta koja sile namijene istoj svrsi kao i sanitetske i sigurnosne zone.

PRILOG II.

PREDLOŽAK PRAVILNIKA O KOLEKTIVNOJ POMOĆI CIVILNIM INTERNIRCIMA

Članak 1.

Odbori interniraca ovlašteni su da dijele povjerene im pošiljke kolektivne pomoći svim internircima koji su pod upravom njihova mjesta internacije, kao i onima koji se nalaze u bolnica.ma, ili u zatvorima, ili u drugim kaznenim ustanovama.

Članak 2.

Pošiljke kolektivne pomoći dijele se prema uputama darovatelja i prema planu koji ustanove odbori interniraca; sanitetski materijal dijeli se, prije svega, u sporazumu s glavnim liječnicima, a oni mogu u bolnicama i u ambulantama odstupiti od spomenutih uputa ako to zahtijevaju potrebe njihovih bolesnika. U tako određenim okvirima raspodjelu treba uvijek obaviti pravično.

Članak 3.

Da bi se mogla provjeriti kakvoća i količina primljene robe i da bi se u tu svrhu pripremili podrobni izvještaji za darovatelje, Članovi odbora interniraca ovlašteni su da odu na i.eljeznićke postaje i druga mjesta prispijeća pošiljaka pomoći koja se nalaze u blizini njihova mjesta internacije

Članak 4.

Odborima interniraca dat će se potrebne olakšice radi provjere je li raspodjela kolektivne pomoći u svim odjelima i jedinicama njihova mjesta internacije izvršena prema njihovim uputama.

Članak 5.

Odbori interniraca ovlašteni su ispuniti, kao i naložiti ~ Članovima odbora interniraca u radnim jedinicama ili glavnim liječnicima ambulanata i bolnica da ispune obras- ~ ce ili upitnike koji su namijenjeni darovateljima, a koji se odnose na kolektivnu pomoć (raspodjela, potrebe, količine, itd.). Ti obrasci i upitnici, propisno ispunjeni, bez odgode dostavljaju se darovateljima.

Članak 6.

Da bi osigurali redovitu raspodjelu kolektivne pomoći internircima svoga mjesta internacije, kao i da bi, eventualno, zadovoljili potrebe koje će prouzročiti dolazak novih kontingenata interniraca, odbori interniraca ovlašteni su da stvore i održavaju dostatne zalihe kolektivne pomoći. Njima će se, u tu svrhu, staviti na raspolaganje odgovarajuća skladišta; svako će skladište biti opskrbljeno dvjema bravama tako da odbor interniraca drii ključeve jedne, a zapovjednik mjesta internacije ključeve druge brave.

Članak 7.

Visoke stranke ugovornice, a posebice sile koje drie internirce, dopustit će, u granica.ma mogućnosti i ako se tome ne protive propisi o opskrbi stanovništva hranom, sva-, ku kupnju koja se obavlja na njihovu području radi podjele kolektivne pomoći internircima; one će na slićan način olakšavati prijenos novca i druge financijske, tehničke ili upravne mjere koje su poduzete radi tih kupnji.

Članak 8.

Prethodne odredbe ne priječe pravo interniraca da primaju kolektivnu pomoć prije svoga dolaska u mjesto internacije ili tijekom premještanja, kao ni mogućnost predstavnicima sile zaštitnice, Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa ili svake druge organizacije koja pritekne u pomoć internircima i ćija je duinost da dostavljaju tu pomoć da osiguraju raspodjelu pomoći onima kojima se ša.lje svim drugim sredstvima koja ti predstavnici smatraju prikladnima.

konvenciju za poboljšanje položa,ja ranjenika i bolesnika u oruianim snagama u ratu od 12. kolovoza t949; Ženevsku konvenciju za poboljša,nje položaja ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca oruia.nih snaga na moru od 12. kolovoza t949; Ženevsku konvenciju o postupanju s ratnim zarobljenicima od 12. kolovoza 1949; Ženevsku konvenciju o zaštiti gradanskih osoba u vrijeme rata od 12. kolovoza t949; "Konvencije" zna,če četiri Ženevske konvencije od 12. kolovoza 1949. za zaštitu žrtava rata;

b) .pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjiva u oru'z.anim sukobima- zna,če pravila izložena u međunarodnim sporazumima kojih su stranke sukoba stranke te općepriznata naćela i pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjiva na orui.ane sukobe;

c) "sila zaštitnica" znaći neutralnu dri.avu ili neku drugu d~avu koja nije stranka sukoba i koju je odredila jedna stranka sukoba i prihvatila protivnička stranka, a koja je spremna obavljati funkcije.što su sili zaštitnici povjerene na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola;

d) "supstitut" zna~i organizaciju koja zamjenjuje silu zaštitnicu u skladu s člankom 5.

Članak 3.

Poćetak i svršetak primjene

Ne dirajući odredbe koje su primjenjive u svako doba

a) Konvencije i ovaj Protokol primjenjuju se čim nastane situacija navedena u Članku 1. ovoga Protokola;

b) primjena Konvencija i ovoga Protokola na području stranaka sukoba prestaje općim prestankom vojnih operacija, a u slučaju okupiranih područja prestankom okupacije, osim, u oba slućaja, za kategorije osoba čije konaćno oslobodenje, repatrijacija ili ponovno nastanjenje nastupi kasnije. Te će osobe i dalje uživati pogodnosti odgovarajućih odredaba Konvencija i ovoga Protokola sve do svoga konaćnog oslobodenja, repatrijacije ili ponovnog nastanjenja.

Članak 4.

Pravni poloTaj stranaka sukoba

Primjena Konvencija i ovoga Protokola, kao i sklapanje njima predviđenih sporazuma, ne utjeće na pravni položaj stranaka sukoba. Ni okupacija nekog područja, niti primjena Konvencija i ovoga Protokola ne utjeću na pravni položa,j dotičnog područja.

Članak 5.

OdreQivanje sila zaštitnica i njihovih supstituta

1. Dui.nost je stranaka sukoba da ćim taj sukob zapoćne osiguraju poštovanje i provedbu Konvencija i ovoga Protokola primjenom sustava sila zaštitnica, ukljućujući osobito odredivanje i prihvaćanje tih sita u skladu sa slijedećim stavcima. Sile zaštitnice bit će dužne štititi interese stranaka sukoba.

2. ~im nastane situacija navedena u Članku t , svaka će stranka sukoba, bez odgode, odrediti silu raštitnicu radi primjene Konvencija i ovoga Protokola i također će, bez odgode i u istu svrhu, dopustiti djelovanje sile zaštitnice koju je prihvatila, a koju je odredila protivnićka stranka

3. Ako sila zaštitnica nije bila određena ili prihvaćena čim je nastala situacija navedena u članku i, Međunarodnj će odbor Crvenog križa, ne dirajući u pravo svake druge nepristrane humanitarne organizacije da učini to isto, strankama sukoba ponuditi svoje dobre usluge radi odredivanja, bez odgode, sile zaštitnice na koju stranke sukoba pristaju. U tu svrhu, on može, uz ostalo, za,tražiti od svake stranke da mu podnese popis od najmanje pet dr”zava koje ta stranka smatra prihvatljivima da u njezino ime djeluju u svojstvu sile zaštitnice u odnosu na protivničku stranku i zatražiti od svake protivničke stranke da podnese popis od najmanje pet država koje bi ona prihvatila kao silu zaštitnicu druge stranke; ti će se popisi priopćiti Odboru u roku od dva tjedna od primitka zahtjeva; on će ih usporediti i zatražiti suglasnost svake drža.ve čije se ime nalazi na oba popisa.

4. Ako, unatoč prethodno izloženom, nema sile zaštitnice, stranke sukoba moraju bez odgode prihvatiti ponudu koju bi, nakon konzultacija sa spomenutim strankama i vodeći računa o rezultatiina tih konzultacija, podnio Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa. ili neka druga organizacija koja pruža sva jamstva za nepristranost i djelotvornost da djeluje kao supstitut; stranke sukoba sve će poduzeti kako bi olakšale djelovanje supstituta u obavljanju svojih zadataka na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola.

5. U skladu s Člankom 4, odredivanje i prihvat sila zaštitnica radi primjene Konvencija i ovoga Protokola ne utječe na pravni položaj stranaka sukoba niti bilo kojega područja, uključujući okupirano područje.

6. Održavanje diplomatskih odnosa između stranaka sukoba ili činjenica da je nekoj trećoj državi povjerena zaštita interesa jedne stranke i njezinih dria,vljana u skladu s pravilima međunarodnog prava o diplomatskim odnosima ne prijeći odredivanje sila zaštitnica radi primjene Konvencija i ovoga Protokola.

7. Kad god se dalje u ovom Protokolu spominje sila za.štitnica, to ukljućuje i supstitut.

Članak 6. Kvalificirano osoblje

1. Visoke će s~ranke ugovornice, također u vrijeme mira, uz pomoć nacionalnih društava Crvenog kriia (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca), izobraziti kvalificirano osoblje da bi olakšale primjenu Konvencija i ovoga Protokola, a osobito djelovanje sila zaštitnica.

2 Aegrutiranje i izobrazba takvog osoblja u domaćoj je nadleinosti.

3. Međunarodni odbor Crvenog križa stavit će na raspolaganje visokim strankama ugovornicama spiskove tako izobraženog osoblja, što ih visoke stranke ugovornice mogu ustanoviti i u tu svrhu mu ih dostaviti.

a Uvjeti zapošljavanja takvog osoblja izvan dri.avnog područja u svakom će pojedinom slućaju biti predmet posebnih sporazuma između zainteresiranih stranaka.

Članak 7. Sastanci

Depozitar ovoga Protokola sazvat će sastanak visokih stranaka ugovornica, na zahtjev jedne ili više spomenutih stranaka i uz odobrenje većine spomenutih stranaka., radi razmatranja općih problema koji se tiću primjene Konvencija i Protokola

D I O II.

RAN7ENICI, BOLESNICI I BRODOLOMCI

ODJELJAK I. OPĆA ZAŠTITA

Članak 8. Nazivlje

U svrhe ovoga protokola:

a) "ranjenici" i "bolesnici" znače osobe, bilo vojne ili gradanske, kojima je zbog ozljede, bolesti ili drugih fizičkih ili mentalnih poremećaja ili invalidnosti potrebna medicinska pomoć ili njega i koje se suzdržavaju od svakoga neprijateljskog ćina. Ti izrazi također obuhvaćaju rodilje, novorodenćad i druge osobe kojima je potrebna trenutačna medicinska pomoć ili njega, kao što su nemoćni ili trudnice, i koje se suzdržavaju od svakoga neprijateljskog ćina;

b) "brodolomci" znače osobe, bilo vojne ili gradanske, koje su izložene opasnosti na moru ili na drugim vodama, kao posljedica nesreće koja je zadesila njih ili brod ili zrakoplov koji ih prevozi, i koje se suzdržavaju od svakoga neprijateljskog čina: Te osobe, pod uvjetom da se i dalje suzdržavaju od svakoga neprijateljskog ćina, smatraju se borodolomcima i za vrijeme njihova spašavanja, sve dok ne steknu neki drugi status na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola;

c) "sanitetsko osoblje" znaći one osobe koje je stranka sukoba namijenila iskljućivo u sanitetske svrhe nabrojane u točki e), ili upravljanju sanitetskim jedinicama, ili poslovima na sredstvima sanitetskog transporta ili upravljanju njima. Takva namjena moi.e biti stalna ili privremena, Izraz ukljućuje:

(i) sanitetsko osoblje stranke sukoba, bilo vojno ili civilno, ukljućujući ono koje je spomenuto u Prvoj i u Drugoj konvenciji i ono koje je dodijeljeno organizacijama civilne za,štite;

(ii) sanitetsko osoblje nacionalnih društava Crvenog kri~a (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca) i drugih nacionalnih dobrovoljnih društava za pruianje pomoći propisno priznatih i ovlaštenih od stranke sukoba;

(iii) sanitetsko osoblje sanitetskih jedinica ili sredstava sanitetskog transporta opisanih u stavku 2. Članka 9;

d) "vjersko osoblje" znači vojne ili gradanske osobe. kao što su vojni svećenici, koje obavljaju iskljućivo svoje duhovnićke dui,nosti i koje su pridodane:

(i) oruianim snagama stranke sukoba;

(ii) sanitetskim jedinicama ili sredstvima sanitetskog transporta stranke sukoba;

(iii) sanitetskim jedinicama ili sredstvima sanitetskog transporta opisanima u stavku 2. Članka 9: ili

(iv) organizacijama civilne zaštite stranke sukoba. Vjersko osoblje moi.e biti pridodano stalno ili privremeno. a na njega se primjenjuju odgovarajuće odredbe točke kj;

e) "sanitetske jedinice" znaće ustanove i druge jedinice. bilo vojne ili civilne, organizirane u sanitetske svrhe, to jest radi pronalaženja, prikupljanja, prijevoza, dijagnosticiranja ili lijećenja - ukljućujući pru~anje prwe pomoći - ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca ili radi sprećavanja bolesti. Izraz ukljućuje, primjerice, bolnice i druge slične jedinice, centre za transfuziju krvi, centre i zavode za preventivnu medicinu, sanitetske zalihe i spremišta sanitetskog i farmaceutskog materijala takvih jedinica- Sanitetske jedinice mogu biti nepokretne ili pokretne, stalne ili privremene;

f) "sanitetski transport" zna.či prijevoz, kopnom, vodom ili zrakom, ranjenika, bolesnika, brodolomaca, sanitetskog osoblja, vjerskog osoblja, sanitetske opreme ili sanitetskog materijala zaštićenih Konvencijama i ovim Protokolom;

g) "sredstvo sanitetskog transporta" znači svako prijevozno sredstvo, bilo vojno ili civilno, stalno ili privremeno, koje je namijenjeno iskljućivo sanitetskom transportu i koje je pod kontrolom nadležne vlasti stranke sukoba;

h) "sanitetsko vozilo" znači svako sredstvo sanitetskog transporta, kopnom;

i) .sanitetski brod i drugo sanitetsko plovilo" znače svako sredstvo sanitetskog transporta vodom;

j) "sanitetski zrakoplov" znači svako sredstvo sanitetskog transporta zrakom;

k) "stalnim" se smatraju sanitetsko osoblje, sanitetske jedinice i sredstva sanitetskog transporta namijenjena iskljućivo u sanitetske svrhe na neodređeno vrijeme. "Privremenim" se smatraju sanitetsko osoblje, sanitetske jedinice i sredstva sanitetskog transporta iskljućivo namijenjena u sanitetske svrhe na određeno vrijeme, tijekom ćitavog tog razdoblja. Ako nije drukćije određeno, izrazi .sanitetsko osoblje", "sanitetske jedinice" i "sredstva sanitetskog transporta" obuhvaćaju osoblje, jedinice i sredstva sanitetskog transporta bilo stalna ili privremena;

1) "znak raspoznavanja" znači znak raspoznavanja crvenog križa., crvenog polumjeseca ili crvenog lava i sunca na bijelom polju kad se upotrebljava za zaštitu sanitetskih jedinica,, sredstava sanitetskog transporta ili sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja te njihove opreme ili zaliha;

m) "signal raspoznavanja" znaći svaki signal ili poruku namijenjenu iskljućivo za identifikaciju sanitetskih jedinica i sredstava sanitetskog transporta, kako je to predviđeno u glavi III. Priloga I. ovome Protokolu.

Članak 9. Polje primjene

1. Ovaj dio, odredbama kojega je svrha poboljšanje poloi.aja ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca, primjenjuje se na sve one koji su pogodeni situacijom navedenom u Članku 1, bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja utemeljenoga na rasi, boji kože, spolu, jeziku, vjeroispovijedi ili uvjerenju, političkom ili drugom mišljenju, nacionalnom ili socijalnom podrijetlu, imovinskom stanju, rodenju ili drugom statusu, ili bilo kojem drugom slićnom kriteriju.

2. Odgovarajuće se odredbe Članaka 27. i 32. Prve konvencije primjenjuju na stalne sanitetske jedinice i na stalna sredstva sanitetskog transporta (osim bolnićkih brodova, na koje se primjenjuje Članak 25. Druge konvencije), kao i na njihovo osoblje, što su ih stranki sukoba stavili na raspolaganje:

a) neutralna država ili neka druga država koja nije stranka sukoba;

b) priznato i ovlašteno društvo za pružanje pomoći takve drLave:

c) nepristrana međunarodna humanitarna organizacija.

Članak 10 Zaštita i njega

1. Svi će se ranjenici, bolesnici i brodolomci, bez obzira na to kojoj stranki pripadaju, po~tovati i štititi

2. U svakoj se prilici s njima mor<i postupatr ćoyećno i u najvećoj će mogućoj mjeri te u najkraćem mogućem roku dobiti medicinsku njegu i skrb kako to njihovo stanje zahtijeva. Među njima ne smije se praviti nikakva razlika utemeljena na bilo kojim kriterijima osim medicinskih

Članak 11. Zaštita osoba

1. Fizičko ili mentalno zdravlje i integritet osoba koje su u vlasti protivničke stranke ili su internirane, zatoćene ili na drugi način lišene slobode kao posljedica situacije navedene u članku I, ne smiju se ugroziti nikakvim neopravdanim činom ilt propustom. Prema tome, zabranjeno je podvrgnuti osobe spomenute u ovome članku bilo kakvom medicinskom postupku koji nije opravdan njihovim zdravstvenim stanjem i koji nije u skladu s općepriznatim medicinskim standardima, što bi ih u sličnim medicinskim okolnostima stranka koja je odgovorna za taj postupak primijenila na svoje državljane koji ni na kakav način nisu lišeni slobode.

2. Osobito je zabranjeno podvrgnuti takve osobe, čak i uz njihov pristanak:

a) fizičkom sakaćenju;

b) medicinskim ili znanstvenim pokusima;

c) uklanjanju tkiva ili organa radi presadivanja, osim ako su ti ćini opravdani u okolnostima predviđenima u stavku 1.

3. Iznimke se od zabrana iz stavka 2. mogu učiniti samo kad se radi o davanju krvi za transfuziju ili kože za presadivanje, pod uvjetom da je to davanje dobrovoljno i bez prisile ili navodenja, te da je namijenjeno u terapeutske svrhe u uvjetima koji su u skladu s općepriznatim medicinskim standardima i pod nadzorom.koji se obavlja u interesu i davatelja i primatelja. .

4. Svaki namjerni čin ili propust koji ozbiljno ugrožava fizičko ili mentalno zdravlje ili integritet bilo koje osobe koja je u vlasti neke stranke kojoj ne pripada i kojim se krši neka zabrana iz stavaka 1. i 2. ili ne poštuju uvjeti propisani u stavku 3, teška je povreda ovoga Protokola.

5. Osobe spomenute u stavku 1. imaju pravo odbiti svaku kiruršku intervenciju. U slučaju odbijanja, sanitetsko će osoblje u tu svrhu nastojati dobiti pismenu izjavu koju je pacijent potpisao ili potvrdio.

6. Svaka stranka sukoba mora voditi medicinsku evidenciju o svakom davanju krvi za transfuziju ili koie za presadivanje od osoba navedenih u stavku 1. ako je to davanje izvršeno pod odgovornošću te stranke. Uz to, svaka će stranka sukoba nastojati voditi evidenciju o svim medicinskim postupcima primijenjenima na osobama koje su internirane, zatočene ili na drugi način lišene slobode kao posljedica situacije navedene u članku 1. Ta evidencija mora u svako doba stajati na raspolaganju sili zaštitnici radi pregleda.

Članak 12.

Zaštita sanitetskih jedinica

1. Sanitetske jedinice moraju se u svako doba poštovati i štititi i ne smiju biti predmet napada.

2. Stavak 1. primjenjuje se na civilne sanitetske jedinice pod uvjetom:

a) da pripadaju jednoj od stranaka sukoba;

b) da ih je priznala i ovlastila nadležna vlast jedne od stranaka sukoba; ili

c) da su ovlaštene u skladu sa stavkom 2. Članka 9. ouoga Protokola ili člankom 27. Prve konvencije.

3. Pozivaju se stranke sukoba da jedna drugoj priopće položaj svojih nepokretnih sanitetskih jedinica. Nedostatak takvog priopćenja ne oslobada nijednu stranku obveze da poštuje odredbe stavka t.

4. Sanitetske se jedinice ne smiju upotrijebiti u pokušaju da se vojni ciljevi zaštite od napada. Kad je god to moguće, stranke sukoba pobrinut će se da sanitetske jedinice bu- ' du smještene tako da napadi na vojne ciljeve ne ugroze njihovu sigurnost.

Članak 13.

Prestanak zaštite civilnih sanitetskih jedinica

1. Zaštita na koju civilne sanitetske jedinice imaju pravo može prestati samo ako se one upotrijebe za vršenje, izvan svoje humanitarne namjene, ćina štetnih za neprijateIja. Zaštita, međutim, prestaje tek nakon upozorenja koje, svaki put kad do toga dode, odreduje razuman rok i pošto je ono ostalo bez učinka.

2. Ne smatraju se ćinima štetnim za neprijatelja:

a) ćinjenica da je osoblje jedinice opremljeno lakim osobnim naoružanjem za vlastitu obranu ili obranu ranjenika i bolesnika za koje se brine;

b) ćinjenica da jedinicu štiti stražarska jedinica, ili stražari, ili oružana pratnja;

c) ćinjenica da se u jedinici nalazi streljačko orui.je i streljivo koje je oduzeto ranjenicima i bolesnicima i nije još predano nadležnoj službi;

d) ćinjenica da se iz medicinskih razloga u tim jedinicama nalaze pripadnici oružanih snaga ili drugi borci.

Članak 14.

Ograničenje rekvizicije civilnih sanitetskih jedinica.

1. Okupacijska je sila dužna na okupiranim područjima osigurati da se i dalje zadovoljavaju medicinske potrebe civilnog stanovništva. .

2. Okupacijska sila ne moie stoga rekvirirati civilne sanitetske jedinice, njihovu opremu, materijal ili osoblje sve dotle dok su ta sredstva potrebna za zadovoljavanje medicinskih potreba civilnog stanovništva i za osiguravanje stalne njege ranjenika i bolesnika koji se već lijeće.

3. Okupacijska sila može rekvirirati spomenuta sredstva pod uvjetom da se i dalje poštuje opće pravilo iz stavka 2. i pod ovim posebnim uvjetima:

a) da su ta sredstva potrebna za osiguranje trenutaćne i odgovarajuće medicinske pomoći ranjenicima i bolesnicima orui.anih snaga okupacijske sile ili ratnim zarobljenicima;

b) da se rekvizicija ogranići na razdoblje dok takva potreba postoji; i

c) da se odmah poduzmu mjere kako bi se i dalje zadovoljavale, rekvizicijom zahvaćene, medicinske potrebe civilnog stanovništva, kao i ranjenika i bolesnika koji se već liječe.

Članak l5

Zaštita civilnoga sanitetskog i civilnoga vjerskog osoblja I. Civilno sanitetsko osoblje poštovat će se i štititi

2. Ako je to potrebno, civilnom sanitetskom osoblju mora se pružiti sva moguća pomoć u zoni u kojoj bi sanitetska služba bila poremećena zbog bojnih djelovanja

3. Okupacijska će siia pru7iti svu rnoKuću pomoć civilnom sanitetskom osoblju na okuprramm podrnčjirna kako bi mu se omogućilo da što bolje obavlja svoju humanitarnu misiju, Okupacijska sila ne mo7e zahtijevati od tog osoblja da u obavljanju te misije daje predno.st bilo kojoj osobi. osim iz medicinskih razloga '1'o se osoblje neće prisiljavati

na izvršenje zadataka koji su inkompatibilni s njegovom humanitarnom misijom.

4. Civilno sanitetsko osoblje imat će pristup svakom mjestu gdje su njegove usluge prijeko potrebne, pod uvjetom da poštuje nadzorne i sigurnosne mjere što bi ih zainteresirana stranka sukoba smatrala potrebnima.

5. Civilno vjersko osoblje poštovat će se i štititi. Na njega se primjenjuju odredbe Konvencija i ovoga Protokola koje se odnose na zaštitu i identifikaciju sanitetskog osobIja.

Članak 16.

Opća zaštita osoba koje obavljaju medicinske aktivnosti 1. Nitko neće biti kažnjen za obavljanje neke medicinske aktivnosti u skladu s medicinskom etikom, bez obzira na okolnosti i na korisnike te aktivnosti.

2. Osobe koje obavljaju neku medicinsku aktivnost ne mogu se prisiliti da vrše ćine ili da rade suprotno pravilima medicinske etike ili drugim medicinskim pravilirt~a koja štite ranjenike i bolesnike ili odi-edbama Konvencija i ovoga Protokola, niti da se suzdr~ze od vršenja ćina ili od rada kako to ta pravila i te odredbe zahtijevaju.

3. Nijedna se osoba koja obavlja neku medicinsku aktivnost ne smije prisiliti da daje ikome tko pripada bilo protivničkoj stranki ili vlastitoj stranki, osim ako je to predviđeno zakonodavstvom potonje, informacije o ranjenicima i bolesnicima koje njeguje ili koje je njegovala ako bi takva informacija mogla štetiti dotičnim pacijentima ili njihovim obiteljima. Pravilnici o obvezatnoj notifikaciji zaraznih bolesti moraju se, međutim, poštovati.

Članak 17.

Uloga civilnog stanovništva i društva za pružanje pomoći 1. Civilno stanovništvo mora poštovati ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce, ćak i ako pripadaju protivnićkoj stranki, i ne smije prema njima poćiniti nikakav čin nasilja. Civilnom stanovništvu i društvima za prui.anje pomoći, kao što su nacionatna društva Crvenog križa (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca), dopustit će se, ćak i na vlastitu inicijativu, da prikupljaju i njeguju ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce, ćak i u opsjednutim ili okupiranim regijama. Nitko neće biti uznemiravan, progonjen, osuden ili kažnjen za takve humanitarne ćine.

2. Stranke sukoba mogu se obratiti civilnom stanovništvu i društvima za pružanje pomoći navedenima u stavku 1. s molbom da prikupljaju ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce i da ih njeguju te da pronalaze mrtve i da izvijeste o tome gdje se nalaze; onima koji se toj molbi odazovu pružit će zaštitu i potrebne olakšice. Ako protivnička stranka uspostavi ili ponovno uspostavi kontrolu nad tom regijom, ta će stranka, također, pružiti istu zaštitu i olakšice sve dok su potrebne.

Članak 18. Identifikacija

Svaka stranka sukoba mora nastojati osigurati mogućnost identifikacije sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, kao i sanitetskih jedinica i sredstava sanitetskog transporta.

2. Svaka stranka sukoba mora, također, nastojati usvojiti i provesti metode i postupke koji omogućuju prepoznavanje sanitetskih jedinica i sredstava sanitetskog transporta koja upotrebljavaju znak raspoznaYanja i signale raspoznavanja.

3. Na okupiranim područjima ili u zonama u kojima se vode borbe ili gdje će se vjerojatno voditi, civilno sanitetsko

i civilno vjersko osoblje prepoznavat će se; u pravilu, po znaku raspoznavanja i po osobnoj iskaznici kojom se Potvrđuje njihov status.

4. Uz pristanak nadležne vlasti, sanitetske jedinice i~ sredstva sanitetskog transporta oznaćit će se znakom raspoznavanja. Brodovi i druga plovila navedena u Članku 22. ovoga Protokola označit će se u skladu s odredbama Druge konvencije.

5. Osim znaka raspoznavanja, stranka sukoba moie, u skladu s glavom III. Priloga I. ovome Protokolu, odobriti upotrebu signala raspoznavanja za identifikaciju sanitetskih jedinica i sredstava sanitetskog transporta. Iznimno, u posebnim slučajevima predviđenima u spomenutoj glavi, sredstva sanitetskog transporta mogu se koristiti signalima raspoznavanja bez isticanja znaka raspoznavanja.

6. Primjena odredaba stavaka 1. do 5. uredena je glavama I. do III. Priloga I. ovome Protokolu. Signali opisani u glavi III. tog Priloga i namijenjeni iskljućivo da se njima koriste sanitetske jedinice i sredstva sanitetskog transporta mogu se, osim u iznimnim slučajevima predviđenima u spomenutoj glavi, upotrebljavati samo za identifikaciju sanitetskih jedinica i sredstava sanitetskog transporta.

7. Odredbe ovoga članka ne dopuštaju, u vrijeme mira, širu upotrebu znaka raspoznavanja od one koja je predviđena člankom 44. Prve konvencije.

8. Odredbe Konvencija i ovoga Protokola koje se odnose na nadzor upotrebe znaka raspoznavanja, kao i na sprećavanje i suzbijanje njegove zloupotrebe, primjenjuju se na signale raspoznavanja.

Članak 19.

Neutralne države i druge dr"iave koje nisu stranke sukoba Neutralne dr:zave i druge države koje nisu stranke sukoba primjenjivat će odredbe ovoga Protokola na osobe koje su zaštićene ovim dijelom i koje bi bile prihvaćene ili internirane na njihovim područjima, kao i na mrtve koje bi pronašle.

Članak 20. Zabrana represija

Zabranjene su represalije prema osobama i objektima zaštićenima ovim dijelom.

ODJEL1AK II. SANITETSKI TRANSPORTI

Članak 21.

Sanitetska vozila

Sanitetska će se vozila poštovati i štititi na način koji je Konvencijama i ovim Protokolom predviđen za pokretne sanitetske jedinice.

Članak 22.

Bolnićki brodovi i priobalna plovila za spašavanje 1. Odredbe Konvencija koje se odnose

a) na brodove opisane u Člancima 22, 24, 25. i 27. Dru~e konvencije,

b) na njihove ćamce za spašavanje i na njihova mala plovila,

c) na njihovo osoblje i na njihovu posadu,

d) na ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce koji se na njima nalaze

primjenjuju se, također, kad ti brodovi, ćamci i druga plovila prevoze civilne ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce koji ne pripadaju nekoj od kategorija spomenutih u Članku i3

Druge konvencije. Ti se civili, međutim, ne smiju predati stranki koja nije njihova niti zarobiti na moru. Ako se n~.du u vlasti stranke sukoba koja nije njihova, na njih će se primijeniti četvrta konvencija i ovaj Protokol.

2. Zaštita koju Konvencije osiguravaju brodovima opisanima u Članku 25. Druge konvencije proteže se na bolničke brodove što ih je u humanitarne svrhe stavila na raspolaganje nekoj stranki sukoba:

a) neutralna država ili druga država koja nije stranka toga sukoba, ili

b) nepristrana međunarodna humanitarna organizacija, pod uvjetom da su u oba slućaja ispunjeni uvjeti izloženi u spomenutom članku.

3. Mala plovila opisana u Članku 27. Druge konvencije štitit će se čak ako i nije izvršena notifikacija predviđena u tom članku. Pozivaju se, međutim, stranke sukoba da se uza.jamno obavijeste o svim pojedinostima koje se tiču tih plovila kako bi se omogućilo da se ona lakše identificiraju i prepoznaju.

Članak 23.

Drugi sanitetski brodovi i druga sanitetska plovila

1. Drugi sanitetski brodovi i druga sanitetska plovila, osim onih navedenih u ćlar~fku 22. ovoga Protokola i u Članku 38. Druge konvencije, moraju se, bilo na moru ili na drugim vodama, poštovati i štititi na način koji je Konvencijama i ovim Protokolom predviđen za pokretne sanitetske jedinice. Budući da ta zaštita moi.e biti djelotvorna samo ako se takva plovila mogu identificirati i prepoznati kao sanitetski brodovi ili druga sanitetska plovila, ona bi trebala biti oznaćena znakom raspoznavanja i ravnati se, koliko je god to moguće, prema odredbama stavka 2. članka 43. Druge konvencije.

2. Brodovi i druga plovila navedena u stavku 1. ostaju podvrgnuta ratnome pravu. Svaki ratni brod, koji plovi po površini i koji ima mogućnost da svoju naredbu odmah provede, može im narediti da se zaustave, da se udalje ili da plove u određenom smjeru, a oni su se dužni pokoriti svakoj takvoj naredbi. Takvi se brodovi i druga plovila ni na koji drugi način ne mogu odvratiti od svoje sanitetske misije sve dok su potrebni ranjenicima, bolesnicima, i brodolomcima koji se na njima nalaze.

3. Zaštita predviđena u stavku 1. prestaje samo pod uvjetima izloženima u Člancima 34. i 35. Druge konvencije. Otvoreno odbijanje pokoravanju naredbi danoj u skladu sa stavkom 2. čin je štetan za neprijatelja u smislu Članka 34. Druge konvencije.

4. Stranka sukoba može protivnićkoj stranki, što je ranije moguće prije polaska, notificirati ime, karakteristike, predviđeno vrijeme polaska, smjer plovidbe i predmijevanu brzinu sanitetskog broda ili drugoga sanitetskog plovila, posebice ako se radi o brodovima od preko 2.000 bruto registarskih tona, a moie priopćiti i sve druge podatke koji bi olakšali identifikaciju i prepoznavanje. Protivnićka stranka mora potvrditi primitak tih podataka.

5. Odredbe Članka 37. Druge konvencije primjenjuju se na sanitetsko i vjersko osoblje koje se nalazi na tim brodovima i drugim plovilima.

6. Odgovarajuće se odredbe Druge konvencije primjenjuju na ranjenike, bolesnike i brodolomce koji pripadaju kategorijama navedenima u Članku 13. Druge konvencije i u Članku 44. ovoga Protokola i koji se nalaze na tim sanitetskim brodovima i drugim sanitetskim plovilima. Gradanske osobe koje su ranjene, bolesne ili su brodolomci i koje ne pripadaju nijednoj od kategorija spomenutih u Članku 13. Druge konvencije ne smiju se, na moru, predati stranki

koja nije njihova niti prisiliti da napuste bro.d; ako se ipak nadu u vlasti stranke koja nije njihova, na njih se primjenjuju Ćetvrta konvencija i ovaj Protokol.

Članak 24.

Zaštita sanitetskih zrakoplova

Sanitetski će se zrakoplovi poštovati i štititi sukladno odredbama ovoga dijela.

Članak 25.

Sanitetski zrakoplovi u zonama koje ne kontrolira protivnićka stranka

U kopnenim zonama koje stvarno kontroliraju prijateljske snage ili u morskim zonama koje stvarno ne kontrolira protivnička stranka, kao i u zraćnom prostoru iznad njih, poštovanje i zaštita sanitetskih zrakoplova neke stranke sukoba ne ovise o sporazumu s protivničkom strankom. Stranka sukoba koja se koristi sanitetskim zrakoplovima u tim zonama može, međutim, r-adi njihove veće sigurnosti, izvršiti notifikaciju protivničkoj stranki kako je to predviđeno u Članku 29, posebice kad takvi zrakoplovi prilikom leta ulaze u domet sustava oružja zemlja-zrak protivničke stranke.

Članak 26.

Sanitetski zrakoplovi u zonama dodira ili slićnim zonama 1. U dijelovima zone dodira koje stvarno kontroliraju prijateljske snage te u zonama u kojima stvarna kontrola nije jasno ustanovljena, kao i u zraćnom prostoru iznad njih, zaštita sanitetskih zrakoplova može biti potpuno djelotvorna samo ako je prethodno postignut sporazum između nadležnih vojnih vlasti stranaka sukoba, kako je to predviđeno Člankom 29. U nedostatku takvoga sporazuma sanitetski će zrakoplovi djelovati na vlastiti rizik; sanitetski se zrakoplovi ipak moraju poštovati kad budu prepoznati kao takvi.

2. "Zona dodira" znaći svaku kopnenu zonu u kojoj su prvi redovi suprotstavljenih snaga u međusobnom dodiru, posebice tamo gdje su izloženi izravnoj vatri sa zemlje.

Članak 27.

Sanitetski zrakoplovi u zonama koje kontrolira protivnićka stranka

1. Sanitetski zrakoplovi stranke sukoba ostaju zaštićeni dok nadlijeću kopnene ili morske zone koje stvarno kontrolira protivnićka stranka, pod uvjetom da su za takve letove prethodno dobili suglasnost nadležne vlasti te protivnićke stranke.

2. Sanitetski zrakoplovi koji, u nedostatku suglasnosti predviđene stavkom 1. ili ne poštujući uvjete pod kojima je takva suglasnost dobivena, zbog navigacijske pogreške ili zbog izvanrednih okolnosti koje ugrožavaju sigurnost leta, nadlijeće zonu koju stvarno kontrolira protivnićka stranka mora ućiniti sve što može da se identificira i da obavijesti protivnićku stranku. Ćim protivnička stranka prepozna takav zrakoplov, mora ućiniti sve što razumno može radi izdavanja naredbe za slijetanje na kopno ili na vodu, navedene u stavku 1. Članka 30, ili radi poduzimanja drugih mjera kako bi se zaštitili interesi te stranke i u oba slućaja dalo vremen zrakoplovu da se pokori naredbi, prije nego što ga napadne.

Članak 28.

Ogranićenja upotrebe sanitetskih zrakoplova

1. Strankama sukoba zabranjeno je upotrebljavati svoje sanitetske zrakoplove u pokušaju da steknu vojnu pred

nost pred protivničkom strankom. Prisutnost sanitetskih zrakoplova ne smije se upotrijebiti u pokušaju da se vojni ciljevi zaštite od napada.

2. Sanitetski se zrakoplovi ne smiju upotrebljavati za prikupljanje ili za prenošenje podataka obavještajnog ka- ~ raktera i ne smiju prevoz~ti materijal namijenjen u tu svrhu. Za.branjeno im je prevoziti osobe ili teret koji nisu uključeni u definiciju iz točke f) članka 8. Prijevoz tim zrakoplovima osobnih stvari onih koji se u njima nalaze ili opreme namijenjene iskljućivo olakšavanju navigacije, komunikacija ili identifikacije ne smatra se zabranjenim.

3. Sa.nitetski zrakoplovi ne smiju prevoziti nikakvo drugo naoružanje osim streljaćkog oružja i streljiva koje je oduzeto ranjenicima, bolesnicima ili brodolomcima i nije još predano nadleinoj službi te lakog osobnog naoružanja koje može biti potrebno sanitetskom osoblju koje se tu nalazi za vlastitu obranu ili obranu ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca za koje se brine.

4. Za. vrijeme letova navedenih u Člancima 26. i 27. sanitetski se zrakoplovi ne smiju-upotrebljavati, osim na temelju prethodnog sporazuma s protivnićkom strankom, za pronalaženje ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomaca.

Članak 29.

Notifikacije i sporazumi koji se tiču sanitetskih zrakoplova I. Notifikacije na temelju članka 25. ili zahtjevi za pre

thodnu suglasnost na temelju Članka 26, 27, 28 (stavka 4) ili 31. moraju naznaćiti predviđeni broj sanitetskih zrakoplova, njihov plan leta i njihova sredstva za identifikaciju, a smatra se da znaće da će se svaki let obaviti sukladno Članku 28.

2. Stranka koja primi notifikaciju izvršenu na temlju Članka 25. mora bez odgode potvrditi njezin primitak.

3. Stranka koja primi zahtjev za prethodnu suglasnost na temelju Članka 26, 27, 28 (stavak a) i!i 31. mora, što je brie moguće, stranki koja ga je podnijela notificirati:

a) da za.htjev prihvaća, b) da zahtjev odbija, ili

c) da predlaže razumnu alternativu zahtjevu. Ona može, također, predložiti zabranu ili ogranićenje ostalih letova u toj zoni u dotičnom razdoblju. Ako stranka koja je podnijela zahtjev prihvati protuprijedloge, mora drugoj stranki notificirati taj prihvat.

4. Stranke će poduzeti potrebne mjere da se omogući brzo izvršenje notifikacija i sklapanje sporazuma.

5. Stranke će, također, poduzeti potrebne mjere da se o sadria,ju tih notifikacija i tih sporazuma brzo obavijeste odnosne vojne jedinice i da se one brzo upoznaju sa sredstvima za identifikaciju kojima se koriste dotični sanitetski zrakoplovi.

Članak 30.

Slijetanje i pregled sanitetskih zrakoplova

1. Sanitetskim zrakoplovima, koji nadlijeću zone koje stvarno kontrolira protivnićka stranka ili.zone u kojima stvarna kontrola nije jasno ustanovljena, može se naložiti slijetanje, ovisno o slućaju, na kopno ili na vodu kako bi se omogućio pregled u skladu sa slijedećim stavcima. Sanitetski se zrakoplovi moraju pokoriti svakom takvom nalogu.

2. Ako takav zrakoplov sleti na kopno ili na vodu, bilo po nalogu ili iz drugih razloga, on se može podvrgnuti pregledu samo radi utvrđivanja ispunjava li uvjete spomenute u stavćima 3. i 4. Pregledu se mora pristupiti bez odgode i mora se brzo obaviti. Stranka koja obav"Ija pregled ne smije

zahtijevati da se ranjenici i bolesnici iskrcaju ir zrak~plova.

osim ako je to iskrcavanje prijetko potrebno za pregled. Ona se svakako mora brinuti da taj pregled ili to iskrcavanje ne pogorša sta,nje ranjenika i bolesnika. '

3. Ako se pregledom utvrdi da zrakoplov:

a) jest sanitetski zrakoplov u smislu točke f) članka 8, b) poštuje uvjete propisane u Članku 28. i

c) nije letio bez prethodnog sporazuma ili da ga nije kršio, kad je takav sporazum potreban,

zrakoplovu, s osobama koje se u njemu nalaze bilo da pripadaju protivničkoj stranki, bilo neutralnoj dr”zavi ili nekoj drugoj državi koja nije stranka sukoba, odobrit će se da nastavi let bez zadržavanja.

4. Ako se pregledom utvrdi da zrakoplov:

a) nije sanitetski zrakoplov u smislu točke f) članka 8, b) ne poštuje uvjete ptopisane u Članku 28. ili

c) jest letio bez prethodnog sporazuma ili da ga je kršio, kad je takav sporazum potreban,

zrakoplov se može zaplijeniti. S osobama koje se u njemu nalaze mora se postupati sukladno odgovarajućim odredbama Konvencija i ovoga Protokola. Ako se zaplijenjeni zrakoplov upotrebljavao kao stalni sanitetski zrakoplov, on se nakon toga može upotrijebiti samo kao sanitetski zrakoplov.

Članak 31.

Neutralne države i druge države koje nisu stranke sukoba t. Sanitetski zrakoplovi ne smiju nadlijetati područje neutralne države ili druge dri.ave koja nije stranka sukoba, niti na takvo područje sletjeti na kopno ili na vodu, osim na temelju prethodnog sporazuma. Ako, međutim, takav sporazum postoji, ti se zrakoplovi moraju poštovati tijekom ćitavog leta i ako slete da bi kasnije nastavili let. Oni se ipak moraju pokoriti svakom nalogu za slijetanje, ovisno o slućaju, na kopno ili na vodu.

2. Sanitetski zrakoplov koji, u nedostatku sporazuma ili ne poštujući odredbe sporazuma, nadlijeće područje neutralne drLave ili druge države koja nije stranka sukoba, bilo zbog navigacijske pogreške ili zbog izvanrednih okolnosti koje ugrožavaju sigurnost leta, mora ućiniti sve što može da notificira svoj let i da se identificira. Ćim ta dri.ava prepozna takav sanitetski zrakoplov mora ućiniti sve što razumno može radi izdavanja naredbe za slijetanje na kopno ili na vodu, navedene u stavku I. Članka 30, ili radi poduzimanja drugih mjera kako bi se zaštitili interesi te države i u oba slučaja dalo vremena zrakoplovu da se pokori naredbi, prije nego što ga napadne.

3. Ako sanitetski zrakoplov, sukladno sporazumu ili u okolnostima spomenutima u stavku 2, sleti na kopno ili na vodu na područje neutralne dri.ave ili druge drž.ave koja nije stranka sukoba, bilo po nalogu ili iz drugih razloga, on se moie podvrgnuti pregledu radi utvrđivanja radi li se stvarno o sanitetskom zrakoplovu. Pregledu se mora _pristupiti bez odgode i mora se brzo obaviti. Stranka koja obavlja pregled ne smije zahtijevati da se ranjenici i bolesnici koji pripadaju stranki koja se koristi zrakoplovom iskrcaju iz zrakoplova, osim ako je to iskrcavanje prijeko potrebno za pregled. Ona se svakako mora pobrinuti da taj pregled ili to iskrcavanje ne pogorša stanje ranjenika i bolesnika. Ako se pregledom utvrdi da se stvarno radi o sanitetskom zrakoplovu, tom će se zrakoplovu s osobama koje se u njemu nalaze, izuzimajući one koje se moraju zadr~ati na temelju pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjivih u orui,anim sukobima, odobriti da nastavi let i pružiti odgovarajuće olakšice za nastavak leta. Ako se pregledom utvrdi da taj zrakoplov nije sanitetski zrakoplov, on će se za

plijeniti, a s osobama koje se u njemu~nalaze postupat će se u skladu s stavkom 4.

4. Ra,njenike, bolesnike i brodolomce, izuzimajući one koji su iskrca,ni privremeno, isk.rcane iz sanitetskog zrakoplova uz pristanak mjesnih vlasti na područje neutralne države ili druge dri.a,ve koja nije stranka sukoba, ako se ta država i stranke sukoba nisu drukčije sporazumjele, ta će drž,ava zadrzati kad pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjiva u oružanim sukobima to zahtijevaju, kako ne bi mogli ponovno sudjelovati u neprijateljstvima. Troškove hospitalizacije i internacije snosi država kojoj te osobe pripadaju.

5. Neutralne dri.a,ve ili druge dciave koje nisu stranke sukoba jednako će na sve stranke sukoba primjenjivati uvjete i moguća, ograničenja što se odnose na prolazak sanitetskih zrakoplova njihovim podrui:jima ili na slijetanje tih zrakoplova na ta područja.

ODJELJAK III. NESTALE I UMRLE OSOBE

Članak 32. Opća načela

U primjeni ovog odjeljka, djelovanje visokih stranaka ugovornica, stranaka sukoba i međunarodnih humanitarnih organizacija spomenutih u Konvencijama i u ovome Protokolu potaknuto je prije svega pravom obitelji da saznaju za. sudbinu svojih članova.

Članak 33. Nestale osobe

1. čim to okolnosti dopuste, a najkasnije ćim završe aktivna neprijateljstva, svaka stranka sukoba mora traiiti osobe ćiji je nestanak prijavila protivnićka stranka. Ta protivnička stranka mora dostaviti sve nužne podatke o tim osobama da bi se olakšale potrage.

2. Da bi se olakšalo prikupljanje podataka predviđeno u prethodnome stavku, svaka stranka sukoba, glede osoba koje ne bi uživale povoljniji poloi.aj na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola, mora:

a) registrirati podatke, predviđene u Članku 138. četvrte konvencije, o onim osobama koje su.bile zatoćene, zatvorene ili na drugi način lišene slobode duže od dva tjedna zbog neprijateljstava ili okupacije ili o onima koje su umrle za vrijeme zatoćeništva;

b) što je najviše moguće olakšati i, ako je potrebno, sama poduzeti potragu i registrirati podatke o tim osobama ako su umrle u dfugim okolnostima zbog neprijateljstava ili okupacije.

3. Podaci o osobama čiji je nestanak prijavljen primjenom stavka 1. i zahtjevi koji se odnose na te podatke dostavljaju se bilo izravno, bilo posredovanjem sile zaštitnice, Središnje agencije za traženje Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa ili nacionalnih društava Cn~enog kriia (Crvenog polumjeseca, Crvenog lava i sunca). Ako ti podaci nisu dostavljeni posredovanjem Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa i njegove Središnje agencije za traienje, svaka će stranka sukoba osigurati da se dostave i Sredisnjoj agencijf za traženje.

4. Stranke sukoba nastojat će se složiti o odredbama koje ekipama omogućuju traženje, identifikaciju i uklanjanje mrtvih s bojišta; te odredbe mogu predvidjeti da osoblje protivnićke stranke, ako je to umjesno, prati te ekipe kad obavljaju svoju misiju u zonama koje su pod kontrolom te protivnićk'e stranke. Osoblje tih ekipa mora se poštovati i štititi dok iskljućivo obavlja te dužnosti.

Članak 34.

Posmrtni ostaci umrlih osoba r 1. Posmrtni ostaci umrlih osoba koje šu umrle. iž razlo-'

ga vezanih uz okupaciju ili dok su bile zatočene kao posljedica okupacije ili neprijateljstava, te onih osoba koje nisu bile državljani zemlje u kojoj su umrle zbog neprijateljsta,va, moraju se poštovati, a grobnice svih tih osoba moraju se poštovati, održavati i označiti kako je to predviđeno u članku 130. četvrte konvencije, ako ti ostaci ili grobnice ne bi uživali povoljniji položaj na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola.

2. Ćim okolnosti i odnosi između protivničkih stranaka to dopuste, visoke stranke ugovornice, na čijim su područjima smješteni grobovi i, ovisno o šlučaju, druga mjesta gdje se nalaze posmrtni ostaci osoba koje su umrle zbog neprijateljstava, za vrijeme okupacije ili u zatočeništvu, moraju sklopiti sporazume kako bi se:

a) članovima obitelji umrlih osoba i predstavnicima službenih službi za registr~,ciju grobova olakšao pristup grobnicama i utanačile praktične mjere za takav pristup;

b) osigurala stalna zaštita i održavanje tih grobnica; c) olakšalo vraćanje posmrtnih ostataka umrlih osoba i njihovih osobnih stvari u zemlju podrijetla na zahtjev te zemlje ili na zahtjev obitelji, ako se ta zemlja tome ne protivi.

3. U nedostatku sporazuma predviđenih u točkama b) i c) stavka 2. i ako zemlja podrijetla tih umrlih osoba nije spremna osigurati održavanje tih grobnica o svom trošku, visoka stranka ugovornica na čijem su području te grobnice smještene može ponuditi da će olakšati vraćanje posmrtnih ostataka u zemlju podrijetla. Ako ta ponuda ne bude prihvaćena, visoka stranka ugovornica može, nakon što istekne pet godina od datuma ponude i pošto je propisno obavijestila zemlju podrijetla, primijeniti odredbe predviđene u njezinu zakonodavstvu, a koje se odnose na groblja i grobove.

4. Visokoj stranki ugovornici na čijem su području smještene grobnice navedene u ovome članku dopušteno je ekshumirati posmrtne ostatke jedino:

a) u skladu sa stavcima 2.c) i 3, ili

b) ako eskhumaciju nameću razlozi javnog. interesa, ukljućujući slučaj medicinske potrebe ili potrebe istrage, u kojem slučaju visoka stranka ugovornica mora u svako doba poštovati posmrtne ostatke i obavijestiti zemlju podrijetla o svojoj namjeri da ih ekshumira, priopćavajući joj i podrobnosti o predviđenom mjestu ponovnog ukopa.

D I O III.

METODE I SREDSTVA RATOVAN7A

STATUS BORACA I RATNlH ZAROBUENIKA

ODJELJAK I.

METODE I SREDSTVA RATOVANJA

Članak 35.

Osnovna pravila

1. U svakom oružanom sukobu pravo stranaka sukoba na izbor metoda ili sredstava ratovanja nije neograničeno. 2. Zabranjeno je upotrebljavati oružje, projektile i tvari

te metode ratovanja takve prirode da prouzrokuju suvišne ozljede i nepotrebne patnje.

3. Zabranjeno je upotrebljavati metode ili sredstva ratovanja kojih je svrha, ili od kojih se to može oćekivati, prouzročiti prostorno znatne, trajnije i velike štete na prirodnom okolišu.

Članak 36. Nova oružja

Prilikom proučavanja; usavršavanja, nabavljanja ili prihvaćanja novog oružja, novih sredstava ili nove metode ratovanja visoka je stranka ugovornica obvezana utvrditi bi li njihova upotreba, u nekim ili u svim okolnostima, bila zabranjena ovim Protokolom ili bilo kojim drugim pravilom međunarodnog prava primjenjivim na tu visoku stranku ugovornicu. Članak 3~.

Zabrana perfidije

1. Za.branjeno je ubiti, raniti ili zarobiti neprijatelja služeći se perfidijom. Perfidijom se smatraju ćini kojima se zadobiva povjerenje protivnika kako bi ga se uvjerilo da ima pravo na zaštitu ili obvezu da pruži zaštitu na temelju pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjivih u oružanim sukobima, s namjerom da se to povjerenje iznevjeri. Ovi su čini primjeri perfidije:

a) hinjenje namjere pregovaranja koristeći se zastavom parlamentara ili hinjenje predaje;

b) hinjenje onesposobljenosti zbog rana ili bolesti; c) hinjenje statusa civila ili neborca;~

d) hinjenje zaštićenog statusa upotrebom znakova, obiIježja ili odora Ujedinjenih naroda, neutralnih država ili drugih drža,va koje nisu stranke sukoba.

2. Ra,tne varke nisu zabranjene. Takvim se varkama smatraju ćini kojih je svrha zavesti protivnika u bludnju ili navesti ga da se ponaša nesmotreno, ali kojima se ne krši nijedno pravilo međunarodnog prava primjenjivo u oružanim sukobima i koji nisu perfidni jer se njima ne zadobiva povjerenje protivnika glede zaštite na temelju toga prava. Ovo su primjeri takvih varki: upotreba kamuflaže, mamaca, lažnih operacija i dezinformacija.

Članak 38.

Priznata obilježja

1. Zabranjeno je nepropisno upotrebljavati znak ras” poznavanja crvenog križa., crvenog polumjeseca, crvenog lava i sunca ili druga obiljei.ja, znakove ili signale predviđene Konvencijama ili ovim Protokolom. Zabranjeno je, također, u oruža.nom sukobu namjerno zloupotrijebiti druga međunarodno priznata obiljeija, znakove ili signale za.štite, uključujući zastavu parlamentara i obilježje zaštite kulturnih dobara.

2. Zabranjeno je upotrebljavati obilježje raspoznavanja Ujedinjenih naroda, osim kad ta organizacija to odobri.

Članak 39.

Nacionalna obilježja

1. Zabranjeno je u oru7anom sukobu upotrebljavati zastave ili ptamence, simbole, vojne oznake ili odore neutralnih država ili drugih dr~cava koje nisu stranke sukoba.

2. Zabranjeno je upotrebljavati zastave ili plamence, simbole, vojne oznake ili odore protivnićkih stranaka za vrijeme napada ili da bi se prikrile, podržale, zaštitile ili omele vojne operacije.

3 Nijedna odredba ovoga Članka ili stavka 1- d) Članka 37. ne utjeće na postojeća općepnznata prawta međunarodnog prava primjenjiva na spijunažu ili na upotrebu plamenaca za vrijeme oružanih sukoba na moru

Članak 40.

Milost

Zabranjeno je narediti da ne smije biti pre: ivjelih. time prijetiti protivniku ili na toj osnovi voditi neprijateljsma.

Članak 41.

Zaštita neprijatelja koji je izvan bojnog ustroja ("hors de combat")

1. Nijedna osoba kojoj se priznaje ili kojoj, s obzirom na okolnosti, treba priznati da je izvan bojnog ustroja ne smije biti predmet napada.

2. Izvan bojnog ustroja je svaka osoba: a) koja je u vlasti protivnićke stranke,

b) koja jasno izražava namjeru da se preda, ili

c) koja je u besvjesnom stanju ili je na drugi na.čin onesposobljena zbog rana ili bolesti i prema tome nesposobna da se brani,

pod uvjetom da se u svakom takvom slućaju suzdr-zava od svakoga neprijateljskog ćina i da ne pokušava pobjeći.

3. Kad osobe koje imaju pravo na zaštitu kao ratni zarobtjenici padnu pod vlast protivničke stranke u neuobičajenim okolnostima borbe zbog kojih je onemogućena njihova evakuacija, kako je to predviđeno u odjeljku I. dijela III. Treće konvencije, one se moraju osloboditi i moraju se poduzeti sve mjere opreza da se osigura njihova sigurnost.

Članak 42.

Osobe koje se nalaze u zrakoplovima

1. Nijedna osoba koja padobranom iskaće iz zrakoplova u nevolji ne smije za vrijeme spuštanja biti predmet napada.

2. Pošto se spusti na područje koje kontrolira protivnlčka stranka, osobi koja je padobranom iskočila iz zrakoplova u nevolji omogućit će se da se preda, osim ako je očito da poduzima neprijateljski ćin.

3. Zračno-desantne postrojbe nisu zaštićene ovim člankom.

ODJELIAK II.

STATUS BORACA I RATNIH ZAROBLJENIKA

Članak 43.

Oružane snage

1. Oružane snage stranke sukoba sastoje se od svih organiziranih oruža.nih snaga, naoruianih grupa i naoruža-I nih jedinica koje su pod zapovjedništvom odgovornim toj stranki za ponašanje svojih potćinjenih, ćak i kad tu stranku zastupa vlada iti vlast koju protivnićka stranka ne priznaje. Te oružane snage moraju biti podvrgnute unutrašnjem disciplinskom sustavu koji, među ostalim, osigurava poštovanje pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjivih u oružanim sukobima.

2. Pripadnici orui.anih snaga stranke sukoba (osim sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja navedenog u Članku 33. Trećel konvencije) jesu borci, što znaći da imaju pravo izravno sudjelovati u neprijateljstvima.

3. Stranka sukoba koja u svoje oruiane snage ukljući paravojnu organizaciju ili naoružanu redarstvenu službu mora to notificirati ostalim strankama sukoba.

Članak 44.

Borci i ratni zarobljenici

1. Svi borci koji padnu pod vlast protivničke stranke s~l ratni zarobljenici.

2. Iako su svi borci dužni poštovati pravila međunarod nog prava primjenjiva u oružanim sukobima, kršenje tit pravila ne lišava borca njegova prava da se smatra borcen ili, ako padne pod vlast protivnićke stranke, njegova pravt

da se smatra ratnim zarobljenikom, osim u slučajevima predviđenima u stavcima 3. i 4.

3. Da bi pojaćali zaštitu clvilnog stanovništva od posljedica. neprijateljstava, borci su se dužni razlikovati od civilnog stanovništva dok sudjeluju u napadu ili u pripremnoj vojnoj operaciji za napad. Međutim, s obzirom na to da postoje situacije u oruianim sukobima kad se, zbog prirode neprijateljstava, naoružani borac ne može razlikovati od civilnog stanovništva, on zadržava status borca pod uvjetom da u takvim situacijama otvoreno nosi svoje oružje:

a) za vrijeme svakog vojnog djelovanja, i

b) za vrijeme dok ga protivnik može vidjeti tijekom razvrstavanja u bojni poredak koje prethodi izvodenju napada u kojemu mora sudjelovati.

čini koji se ravnaju prema uvjetima predviđenima ovim stavkom ne smatraju se perifidnim u smislu stavka I.c) Članka 37.

4. Svaki borac koji padne pod vlast protivničke stranke kad ne ispunjava uvjete predviđene u drugoj rečenici stavka 3. gubi pravo da se smatra ratnim zarobljenikom, ali ipak uživa zaštitu koja je u svakom pogledu istovrijedna onoj koja se ratnim zarobljenicima prui.a Trećom konvencijom i ovim Protokolom. Ta zaštita uključuje istovrijednu zaštitu onoj koja se ratnim zarobljenicima pruža Trećom konvencijom u slučaju kad je takva osoba izvedena pred sud i osudena za bilo koja djela što ih je počinila.

5. Borac koji padne pod vlast protivničke stranke kad ne sudjeluje u napadu ili u pripremnoj vojnoj operaciji za napad ne gubi zbog svojih ranijih aktivnosti pravo da se smatra borcem i ratnim zarobljenikom.

6. Ovaj Članak ne dira u pravo bilo koje osobe da bude ratni zarobljenik prema ćtanku 4. Treće konvencije.

7. Nije svrha ovoga članka da izmijeni općeprihvaćenu praksu dr-žava glede nošenja odora boraca koje su propisane za redovite oružane jedinice stranke sukoba u kojima se nose odore.

8. Uz kategorije osoba spomenute u članku 13. Prve i Druge konvencije, svi pripadnici oružanih snaga stranke sukoba, kao što je to određeno u Članku 43. ovoga Protokola, imaju pravo na zaštitu na temelju tih konvencija ako su ranjeni ili bolesni ili, u slućaju Druge konvencije, ako su dožiyeli brodolom na moru ili na drugim vodama.

Članak 45.

Zaštita osoba koje su sudjelovale u neprijateljstvima

1. Z.a osobu koja sudjeluje u neprijateljstvima i padne pod vlast protivnićke stranke predmijeva se da je ratni zarobljenik i, prema tome, zaštićena Trećom konvencijom ako zahtijeva status ratnog zarobljenika, ili ako izgleda da ima pravo na takav status, ili ako stranka kojoj pripada zahtijeva za nju takav status notifikacijom sili koja je drži ili sili zaštitnici. Ako postoji bilo kakva sumnja u njezino pravo na status ratnog zarobljenika, ta će osoba, dok nadle~ni sud ne utvrdi njezin status, uživati pogodnosti toga statusa i. prema tome, zaštitu Treće konvencije i ovoga Protokola

2. Ako osoba koja padne pod vlast protivničke st,ranke ne bude zadriana kao ratni zarobljenik i ta joj stranka mora suditi za djelo vezano uz neprijateljstva, ta osoba ima pravo da na sudu dokazuje svoje pravo na status ratnog zarobljenika i da se o tom pitanju donese presuda. Kad je god to moguće s obzirom na primjenjivi postupak, ta se presud<r rnora donijeti prije sudenja za poćinjeno djelo. Predstav

nici sile zaštitnice imaju pravo prisustvovati raspravi koja se vodi da bi se donijela presuda o tom pitanju, osim ako se, iznimno, rasprava odražava u tajnosti, u interesu državne sigurnosti. U tom slućaju sila koja tu osobu drzi mora obavijestiti silu zaštitnicu.

3. Svaka osoba koja je sudjelovala u neprijateljstvima, a nema pravo na status ratnog zarobljenika i ne uživa povoljniji postupak u skladu s Ćetvrtom konvencijom, ima u svako doba pravo na zaštitu iz članka 75. ovoga Protokola. Takva osoba, osim ako je zadr`zana zbog špijunaže, na okupiranom području također uživa, bez obzira na odredbe članka 5. četvrte konvencije, pravo općenja predviđeno spomenutom Konvencijom.

Članak 46. špijuni

1. Bez obzira na svaku drugu odredbu Konvencija ili ovoga Protokola, pripadnik oruia.nih snaga stranke sukoba koji padne pod vlast protivničke stranke dok se bavi špijunažom nema pravo na status ratnog zarobljenika i s njim se može postupati kao sa špijunom.

2. Ne smatra se da se pripadnik oružanih snaga stranke sukoba, koji u ime te stranke na području što ga kontrolira protivnička stranka prikuplja ili pokušava prikupiti informacije, bavi špijunažom ako, dok to ćini, nosi odoru svojih orui,anih snaga.

3. Ne smatra se da se pripadnik oruža.nih snaga stranke sukoba, čije je boravište na području što ga je okupirala protivnička stranka i koji u ime stranke kojoj pripada na tom području prikuplja ili pokušava prikupiti informacije vojnog karaktera, bavi špijunažom, osim ako to ćini pod tažnom izlikom ili namjerno djeluje potajno. Uz to, ta osoba ne gubi pravo na status ratnog za.robljenika i s njom se ne moi.e postupati kao sa špijunom, osim ako je uhvaćena dok se bavila špijunažom.

4. Pripadnik oružanih snaga stranke sukoba, ćije boravište nije na području što ga je okupirala protivnićka stranka i koji se na tom području bavi špijunažom, ne gubi pravo na status ratnog zarobljenika i s njim se ne može postupati kao sa špijunom, osim ako je uhvaćen prije nego što se pridružio orui,anim snagama kojima pripada.

Članak 47. Plaćenici

1. Plaćenik nema pravo na status borca ili ratnog zarobljenika.

2. Plaćenik je svaka osoba koja:

a) je lokalno ili u inozemstw posebno regrutirana da bi se borila u orui.anom sukobu;

b) stvarno izravno sudjeluje u neprijateljstvima;

c) sudjeluje u neprijateljstvima uglavnom radi osobne koristi i kojoj je stranka sukoba ili netko u njezino ime obećao materijalnu naknadu znatno višu od one koja je obećana ili plaćena borcima odgovarajućeg položaja i s odgovarajućom funkcijom u oružanim snagama te stranke;

d) nije daavljanin stranke sukoba niti joj je boravište na području pod kontrolom stranke sukoba;

e) nije pripadnik oružanih snaga stranke sukoba; i

f) nije poslana od države koja nije stranka sukoba po sluibenoj dužnosti kao pripadnik njezinih oružanih snaga.

D I O IV. CIVILNO STANOVNIŠTVO

ODJELIAK I.

OPĆA ZAšTITA OD POSLIEDICA NEPIi~IJATELISTAVA

GLA VA L

OSNOVNO PRAVILO I POLJE PRIMJENE Članak 48.

Osnovno pravilo

Da bi osigurale poštovanje i zaštitu civilnog stanovništva i civilnih objekata, stranke sukoba moraju u svako doba razlikovati civilno stanovništvo od boraca, kao i civilne objekte od vojnih ciljeva, te prema tome usmjeriti svoje vojne operacije samo na vojne ciljeve.

Članak 49.

Definicija napada i pnlje primjene

1. .Napadi" znaće ćine nasilja protiv protivnika, bilo da su ti ćini napadaćki ili obrambeni.

2. Odredbe ovoga Protokola glede napada primjenjuju se na sve napade, bez obzira na to na kojem se području izvode, ukljućujući drLavno područje koje pripada stranki sukoba, ali koje je pod kontrolom protivnićke stranke.

3. Odredbe ovog odjeljka primjenjuju se na kopneno, zraćno ili pomorsko ratovanje koje može pogoditi civilno stanovništvo, pojedine gradanske osobe ili civilne objekte na kopnu. Uz to, one se primjenjuju na sve napade s mora ili iz zraka na ciljeve na kopnu, ali ne utjeću inaće na pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjiva u orui,anim sukobima na moru ili u zraku.

4. Odredbe ovog odjeljka dopunjuju pravila u humanitarnoj zaštiti sadaana u četvrtoj konvenciji, posebice u njezinu dijelu II, te u drugim međunarodnim sporazumima koji veiu visoke stranke ugovornice, kao i druga pravila međunarodnog prava koja se odnose na zaštitu civila i civilnih objekata na kopnu, na moru ili u zraku od posljedica neprijateljstava.

GLAVA IL

GRADANSKE OSOBE I CIVILNO STANOVNIŠTVO Članak 50.

Definicija gradanskih osoba i civilnog stanovništva

I . Gradanskom osobom smatra se svaka osoba koja ne pripada nijednoj od kategorija navedenih u točkama 1, 2, 3. i 6. Članka 4.A. Treće konvencije i u Članku 43 ovoga Protokola U slućaju sumnje, dotična se osoba smatra gradanskom osobom

2. Civilno stanovništvo obuhvaća sve gradanske osobe. 3. Nazoćnost među civilnim stanovništvom pojedinaca koji se ne uklapaju u definiciju gradanskih osoba ne lišava to stanovništvo njegova civilnog karaktera.

Članak 51.

Zaštita civilnog stanovništva

1. Civilno stanovnišri~o i gradanske osobe uiivaju opću a.aštitu od opasnosti koje proizlaze iz vojnih operacija. Radi ostvarenja te zaštite slijedeća se pravila, koja dopunjuju druga primjenjiva pravila međunarodnog prava, moraju poštovati u svakoj prilici

2 Niti civilno stanoc~ništvo kao takvo, ni gradanske osobe ne smiju biti predmet napada. Zabranjeni su ćini na

silja ili prijetnje nasiljem kojih je glavna svrha terorizirati civilno stanovništvo.

3. Gradanske ošobe uživaju za.štitu koju im pruža ovaj ~ odjeljak, osim ako i dok izraVno sudjeluju u neprijateljstvima.

4. Za.branjeni su napadi nasumce. "Napadi nasumce. znaće:

a) napade koji nisu usmjereni na određeni vojni cilj; b) napade u kojima se upotrebljavaju metode ili sredstva vodenja borbe koja se ne mogu usmjeriti na određeni vojni cilj;

c) napade u kojima se upotrebljavaju metode ili sredstva vodenja borbe kojih se posljedice ne mogu ogranićiti kako to propisuje ovaj Protokol,

i koji su, prema tome, u svakom od tih sluća,jeva, takve prirode da bez razlikovanja pogadaju vojne ciljeve i gradanske osobe ili civilne objekte.

5. Smatra se da su, među ostalim, ove vrste napada izvedene nasumce:

a) napad bombardiranjem, bez obzira na upotrijebljene metode ili sredstva, prilikom kojega se kao jedinstveni vojni cilj uzima određeni broj jasno odvojenih i razlićitih vojnih ciljeva smještenih u nekom gradu, selu ili bilo kojoj drugoj zoni gdje je slićna koncentracija gradanskih osoba ili civilnih objekata;

b) napad od kojeg se može oćekivati da će prouzroćiti slućajne gubitke života među civilnim stanovništvom, ranjavanje gradanskih osoba, štete na civilnim objektima ili kombinaciju toga, što bi bilo prekomjerno u odnosu na predviđenu stvarnu i izravnu vojnu prednost.

s. Za,branjeni su napadi na civilno stanovništvo ili na gradanske osobe s naslova represalija.

7. Nazoćnost ili pokreti civilnog stanovništva ili gradanskih osoba ne smiju se upotrijebiti da se određena mjesta ili određene zone zaštite od vojnih operacija, osobito ne u pokušaju da se vojni ciljevi zaštite od napada ili da se zaštite, podae ili ometu vojne operacije. Stranke sukoba ne smiju usmjeravati pokrete civilnog stanovništva ili gradanskih osoba u pokušaju da vojne ciljeve zaštite od napada ili da zaštite vojne operacije.

8. Nijedno kršenje tih zabrana ne oslobada stranke sukoba njihovih pravnih obveza glede civilnog stanovništva i gradanskih osoba, ukljućujući obvezu poduzimanja mjera opreza predviđenih Člankom 57.

GLAVA lll. CIVILNI OBJEKTI

Članak 52.

Opća zaštita civilnih objekata

1. Civilni objekti ne smiju biti predmet napada ili represalija. Civilni objekti su svi objekti koji nisu vojni ciljevi u smislu stavka 2.

2. Napadi se moraju strogo ogranićiti na vojne ciljeve. ~to se tiče objekata, vojni su ciljevi ogranićeni na one objekte koji po svojoj prirodi, po svome smještaju, po svojoj namjeni ili po svojoj upotrebi djelotvorno pridonose vojnoj akciji i kojih potpuno ili djelomićno uništenje, zauzimanje ili neutralizacija donosi u datim okolnostima oćitu vojnu prednost.

3. U sluaćju sumnje, predmijeva se da se objekt koji je redovito namijenjen civilnoj upotrebi, kao što je mjesto bogoslužja, kuća, neka druga nastamba ili škola, ne upotrebljava da bi djelotvorno pridonio vojnoj akciji.

Članak 53.

Zaštita kuiturnih dobara i mjesta bogoslužja

Ne dirajući odredbe Haške konvencije za zaštitu kulturnih dobara u slučaju oruia,nog sukoba od 14. svibnja 1954. i drugih međunarodnih instrumenata, zabranjeno je:

a) vršiti bilo kakve neprijateljske ćine usmjerene protiv povijesnih spomenika, umjetničkih djela ili mjesta bogoslužja koji ćine kulturnu ili duhovnu baštinu naroda;

b) upotrebljavati takva dobra za potporu vojnim naporima;

c) da takva dobra budu predmet represalija.

Članak 54.

Zaštita dobara prijeko potrebnih za preživljavanje civilnog stanovništva

1. Za.granjeno je izgladnjivanje gradanskih osoba kao metoda ratovanja.

2. Zabranjeno je napasti, uništiti, ukloniti ili ućiniti neupotrebljivima dobra prijeko potrebna za preživljavanje civilnog stanovništva, kao što su i.ivežne namirnice i poljoprivredna područja gdje se one proizvode, usjevi, stoka, instalacije za pitku vodu, zalihe te vode i postrojenja za navodnjavanje, kako bi se, zbog vrijednosti tih dobara za opskrbu, njih lišilo civilno stanovništvo ili protivnička stranka, bez obzira na to je li motiv izgladnjivanje gradanskih osoba, izazivanje njihova iseljenja ili bilo koji drugi.

3. Zabrane iz stavka 2. ne primjenjuje se ako nabrojana dobra protivnićka stranka upotrebljava:

a) iskljućivo za opskrbu pripadnika svojih oruž.anih snaga; ili,

b) ako ne za opskrbu, ali za izravnu potporu vojnoj akciji, pod uvjetom, međutim, da se ni u kojem slućaju protiv tih dobara ne poduzimaju akcije od kojih se moi,e oćekivati da će civilnom stanovništvu ostaviti tako malo hrane ili vode da bi to izazvalo njegovo izgladnjivanje ili ga prisililo na iseljenje.

4. Ta dobra ne smiju biti predmet represalija.

5 S obzirom na vitalne potrebe bilo koje stranke sukoba u obrani svoga državnog područja od invazije, odstupanje od zabrana predviđenih u stavku 2. dopušteno je stranki sukoba na tom području koje je pod njezinom kontrolom kad to zahtijevaju imperativne vojne potrebe.

Članak 55.

Zaštita prirodnog okoliša

1. Prilikom ratovanja treba paziti da se prirodni okoliš zaštiti od prostorno znatnih, trajnijih i velikih šteta. Ta zaštita ukljućuje zabranu upotrebe metoda ili sredstava ratovanja kojih je svrha, ili od kojih se to može oćekivati, prouzroćiti na prirodnom okolišu takve štete da se time ugrožava zdravlle ili preživljavanje stanovništva.

2 Zabranjeni su napadi na prirodni okoliš s naslova represalija

Članak 56.

Zaštita postrojenja i instalacija koje sadrie opasne sile

1 Postrojenja ili instalacije koje sadrže opasne sile, to jest brane. nasipi i nuklearne elektrane, neće biti predmet napada. ćak m kad su vojni ciljevi, ako takvi napadi mogu prouzroćitr oslobadanje tih sila i posljedićno velike gubitke rnedu civilnim stanowištvom Drugi vojni ciljevi, smješteni u tim postrojenjima ili instalacijarna ili u njihovoj blizini, ne smiju biti predrnet napada ako bi takvi napadi mogli

prouzroćiti oslobadanje opasnih -sila i posljedično velike gubitke među civilnim stanovništvom.

2. Posebna zaštita od napada predviđenih stavkom 1. prestaje:

a) za branu ili za nasip, samo ako se ne upotrebljava u uobičajene nego u druge svrhe te za redovitu, važnu i izravnu potporu vojnim operacijama i ako su takvi napadi jedini mogući način da se ta potpora prekine;

b) za nuklearne elektrane, samo ako opskrbom elektrićne energije pru~aju redovitu, vai.nu i izravnu potporu vojnim operacijama i ako su takvi napadi jedini mogući način da se ta potpora prekine;

c) za ostale vojne ciljeve smještene u tim postrojenjima ili instalacijama ili u njihovoj blizini, samo ako se upotrebljavaju za redovitu, vainu i izravnu potporu vojnim opera,cijama i ako su takvi napadi jedini mogući način da se ta potpora prekine.

3. U svim slućajevima civilno stanovništvo i gradanske osobe zadri.avaju pravo na svu zaštitu koju im pruia međunarodno pravo, ukljućujući mjere opreza predviđene člankom 57. Ako zaštita prestane i ako bilo koje postrojenje, instalacija ili vojni cilj spomenut u stavku 1. bude napadnut, moraju se poduzeti sve moguće praktične mjere opreza da bi se izbjeglo oslobadanje opasnih sila.

4. Zabranjeno je da bilo koje postrojenje, instalacija ili vojni cilj spomenut u stavku 1. bude predmet represalija. 5. Stranke sukoba nastojat će izbjeći smještanje vojnih

ciljeva u blizinu postrojenja ili instalacija spomenutih u stavku 1. Ipak, dopušteno je postavljanje instalacija kojih je jedina svrha obrana zaštićenih postrojenja ili instalacija od napada i one same ne smiju biti predmet napada, pod uvjetom da se ne upotrebljavaju u neprijateljstvima, osim za obrambene akcije potrebne da se odgovori na napade na zaštićena postrojenja ili instalacije, te da je njihovo naoružanje ograničeno na oružje koje omogućuje samo da se neprijateljska akcija protiv zaštićenih postrojenja ili instalacija odbije.

6. Pozivaju se visoke stranke ugovornice i stranke sukoba da međusobno sklope druge sporazume kako bi se osigurala dodatna zaštita objekata koji sadrže opasne sile.

7. Da bi se olakšala identifikacija objekata zaštićenih I ovim Člankom, stranke sukoba mogu ih oznaćiti posebnim znakom koji se sastoji od skupa od tri jarko narančasta kruga poredana na istoj osi, kako je to određeno u Članku I7. Priloga L' ovome Protokolu. Nedostatak takve oznake ni u ćemu ne oslobada stranke sukoba obveza na temelju ovoga Članka.

GLAVA IV MJERE OPREZA

Članak 57.

Mjere opreza prilikom napada

1. Prilikom izvodenja vojnih operacija treba stalno paziti da se poštede civilno stanovništvo, gradanske osobe i civilni objekti.

2. Što se tiče napada, moraju se poduzeti ove mjere opreza:

a) oni koji planiraju ili odlućuju o napadu moraju:

(i) ućiniti sve što je moguće kako bi provjerili da ciljevi koje će napasti nisu ni gradanske osobe niti civilni objekti il

' Prema izvorniku trebalo bi stajati "Članku Ie. Prilog G. Međutim, Prilog I. u

međuvremenu je izmijenjen i kao takav se niie objavljuje, pa je taj broj član

ka uskladen s novim tekstom (op. ur.).

da nisu pod posebnom zaštitom, nego da su vojni ciljevi u smislu stavka 2. Članka 52. i da odredbe ovoga Protokola ne za.branjuju da ih se napadne;

(ii) poduzeti sve moguće mjere opreza prilikom izbora sredstava i metoda napada kako bi se i2bjegli, i u svakom slučaju sveli na minimum, slućajni gubici i.ivota među civilnim stanovništvom, ranjavanje gradanskih osoba i štete na civilnim objektima;

(iii) suzdri,ati se od donošenja odluke o izvodenju napada od kojega se može očekivati da će prouzroćiti slućajne gubitke života među civilnim sta.novništvom, ranjavanje gradanskih osoba, štete na civilnim objektima ili kombinaciju toga, što bi bilo prekomjerno u odnosu na predviđenu stvarnu i izravnu vojnu prednost;

b) napad se mora opozvati ili prekinuti ako postane jasno da cilj nije vojni, ili da je pod posebnom zaštitom, ili da se od napada moi.e očekivati da će prouzroćiti slućajne gubitke života među civilnim stanovništvom, ranjavanje gradanskih osoba, štete na civilnim objektima ili kombinaciju toga, što bi bilo prekomjerno u odnosu na predviđenu stvarnu i izravnu vojnu prednost.

c) u slućaju napada koji može pogoditi civilno stanovništvo mora se unaprijed dati djelotvorno upozorenje, osim ako to okolnosti ne dopuštaju.

3. Kad je moguć izbor između više vojnih ciljeva da bi se postigla slićna vojna prednost, mora se izabrati onaj cilj za koji se moi.e oćekivati da će napad na njega izazvati najmanju opasnost za gradanske osobe i civilne objekte.

4. Prilikom izvodenja vojnih operacija na moru ili u zraku svaka stranka sukoba mora, sukladno svojim pravima i dužnostima n~ temelju pravila međunarodnog prava primjenjivih u oruianim sukobima, poduzeti sve razumne mjere opreza da bi se izbjegli gubici života među civilnim stanovništvom i štete na civilnim objektima.

5. Nijedna se odredba ovoga Članka ne može tumaćiti tako da odobrava bilo kakav napad na civilno stanovništvo, na gradanske osobe ili na civilne objekte.

Članak 58

Mjere opreza u odnosu na posljedice napada U najvećoj će mogućoj mjeri stranke sukoba:

a) ne dirajući Članak 49 Ćetvrte konvencije, nastojati iz blizine vojnih ciljeva udaljiti civilno stanovništvo, gradanske osobe i civilne objekte što su pod njihovom kontrolom,

b) izbjegavati smještanje vojnih ciljeva unutar ili u blizini gusto naseljenih zona,

c) poduzimati druge potrebne mjere opreza za zaštitu civilnog stanovništva, gradanskih osoba i civilnih objekata što su pod njihovom kontrolom od opasnosti koje su posljedica vojnih operacija

GLAVA V.

MJESTA I ZONE POD POSEBNOM ZAŠTITOM

Članak 59.

Nebranjena mjesta

1. Strankama sukoba zabranjeno je bilo kojim sredstvima napadati nebranjena mjesta

2. Nadležne vlasti stranke sukoba mogu kao nebranjeno mjesto izjavom proglasiti svako naseljeno mjesto unutar ili u bliz.ini zone u kojoj su oru~.ane snage u dodiru i koja je otvorena za okupaciju od protivnićke stranke. Takvo mjesto mora ispunjavati ove uvjete

a) svi borci, kao i pokretno naoru~anje i pokretna vojna oprema, moraju biti evakuirani:

b) nepokretne vojne instalacije ili ustanove ne smiju se upotrijebiti u neprijateljske svrhe;

c) niti vlasti ni s'tanovništvo neće izvršiti nikakav neprijateljski čin; i

d) ne smije biti nikakvoga djelovanja kao potpore vojnim operacijama.

3. Nazočnost u tom mjestu osoba posebno zaštićenih na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola i policijskih snaga zadrianih s jedinom svrhom održavanja javnog reda nije suprotno uvjetima postavljenima u stavku 2.

4. Izjava dana na temelju stavka 2. mora se uputiti protivničkoj stranki i mora što je moguće točnije odrediti i opisati granice nebranjenog mjesta. Stranka sukoba kojoj je izjava upućena mora potvrditi njezin primitak i odnositi se prema tom mjestu kao nebranjenom mjestu, osim ako uvjeti postavljeni u stavku 2. nisu stvarno ispunjeni, u kojem slučaju mora bez odgode obavijestiti stranku koja je dala izjavu. Ćak i ako uvjeti postavljeni u stavku 2. nisu ispunjeni, mjesto će i daije uživati zaštitu predviđenu drugim odredbama ovoga Protokola i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava primjenjivim u oruianim sukobima.

5. Stranke sukoba mogu se sporazumjeti o ustanovljenju nebranjenih mjesta čak i ako takva mjesta ne ispunjavaju uvjete postavljene u stavku 2. Sporazum bi morao što je moguće točnije odrediti i opisati granice nebranjenog mjesta; ako je potrebno, može odrediti načine nadzora.

6. Stranka koja kontrotira mjesto koje je predmet takvoga sporazuma mora ga, utoliko koliko je to moguće, oznaćiti znacima o kojima se može sporazumjeti s drugom strankom, a koji se moraju istaknuti tamo gdje će biti jasno vidljivi, posebice na perimetru i na granicama mjesta te na glavnim cestama.

7. Mjesto gubi status nebranjenog mjesta kad više ne ispunjava uvjete postavljene u stavku 2. ili u sporazumu spomenutom u stavku 5. U takvom slućaju mjesto i dalje ui.iva zaštitu predviđenu drugim odredbama ovoga Protokola i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava primjenjivim u oružanim sukobima.

Članak 60.

Demilitarizirane zone

1. Strankama sukoba zabranjeno je širiti svoje vojne operacije na zone kojima su sporazumom dodijelile status demilitarizirane zone ako je takvo širenje suprotno odredbama toga sporazuma.

2. Sporazum treba da bude izričit, može biti sklopljen usmeno ili pismeno, bilo izravno ili posredovanjem sile zaštitnice ili bilo koje nepristrane humanitarne organizacije, i može se sastojati od uzajamnih i sukladnih izjava. Sporazum se može sklopiti u vrijeme mira, kao i nakon izbijanja neprijateljstava, i morao bi što je moguće toćnije odrediti i opisati granice demilitarizirane zone; ako bude potrebno, odredit će načine nadzora.

3 Predmet takvoga sporazuma obićno će biti zona koja ispunjava ove uvjete:

a) svi borci, kao i pokretno naoružanje i pokretna vojna oprema, moraju biti evakuirani;

b) nepokretne vojne instalacije ili ustanove neće se upotrijebiti u neprijateljske svrhe;

c) niti vlasti ni stanovništvo neće izvršiti nikakav neprijateljski ćin; i

d) svako djelovanje vezano uz vojne napore mora prestati.

b) nepokretne vojne instalacije ili ustanove ne smiju se upotrijebiti u neprijateljske svrhe;

c) niti vlasti ni s'tanovništvo neće izvršiti nikakav neprijateljski čin; i

d) ne smije biti nikakvoga djelovanja kao potpore vojnim operacijama.

3. Nazočnost u tom mjestu osoba posebno zaštićenih na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola i policijskih snaga zadrianih s jedinom svrhom održavanja javnog reda nije suprotno uvjetima postavljenima u stavku 2.

4. Izjava dana na temelju stavka 2. mora se uputiti protivničkoj stranki i mora što je moguće točnije odrediti i opisati granice nebranjenog mjesta. Stranka sukoba kojoj je izjava upućena mora potvrditi njezin primitak i odnositi se prema tom mjestu kao nebranjenom mjestu, osim ako uvjeti postavljeni u stavku 2. nisu stvarno ispunjeni, u kojem slučaju mora bez odgode obavijestiti stranku koja je dala izjavu. Ćak i ako uvjeti postavljeni u stavku 2. nisu ispunjeni, mjesto će i daije uživati zaštitu predviđenu drugim odredbama ovoga Protokola i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava primjenjivim u oruianim sukobima.

5. Stranke sukoba mogu se sporazumjeti o ustanovljenju nebranjenih mjesta čak i ako takva mjesta ne ispunjavaju uvjete postavljene u stavku 2. Sporazum bi morao što je moguće točnije odrediti i opisati granice nebranjenog mjesta; ako je potrebno, može odrediti načine nadzora.

6. Stranka koja kontrotira mjesto koje je predmet takvoga sporazuma mora ga, utoliko koliko je to moguće, oznaćiti znacima o kojima se može sporazumjeti s drugom strankom, a koji se moraju istaknuti tamo gdje će biti jasno vidljivi, posebice na perimetru i na granicama mjesta te na glavnim cestama.

7. Mjesto gubi status nebranjenog mjesta kad više ne ispunjava uvjete postavljene u stavku 2. ili u sporazumu spomenutom u stavku 5. U takvom slućaju mjesto i dalje ui.iva zaštitu predviđenu drugim odredbama ovoga Protokola i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava primjenjivim u oružanim sukobima.

Članak 60.

Demilitarizirane zone

1. Strankama sukoba zabranjeno je širiti svoje vojne operacije na zone kojima su sporazumom dodijelile status demilitarizirane zone ako je takvo širenje suprotno odredbama toga sporazuma.

2. Sporazum treba da bude izričit, može biti sklopljen usmeno ili pismeno, bilo izravno ili posredovanjem sile zaštitnice ili bilo koje nepristrane humanitarne organizacije, i može se sastojati od uzajamnih i sukladnih izjava. Sporazum se može sklopiti u vrijeme mira, kao i nakon izbijanja neprijateljstava, i morao bi što je moguće toćnije odrediti i opisati granice demilitarizirane zone; ako bude potrebno, odredit će načine nadzora.

3 Predmet takvoga sporazuma obićno će biti zona koja ispunjava ove uvjete:

a) svi borci, kao i pokretno naoružanje i pokretna vojna oprema, moraju biti evakuirani;

b) nepokretne vojne instalacije ili ustanove neće se upotrijebiti u neprijateljske svrhe;

c) niti vlasti ni stanovništvo neće izvršiti nikakav neprijateljski ćin; i

d) svako djelovanje vezano uz vojne napore mora prestati.

Stranke sukoba sporazumjet će se o tumačenju uvjeta postavljenog u točki d) i o osobama koje se mogu primiti u demilitariziranu zonu osim onih spomenutih u stavku 4.

4. Nazočnost u toj zoni osoba posebno zaštićenih na temelju Konvencija i ovoga Protokola i policijskih snaga zadrianih s jedinom svrhom odr~zavanja javnog reda nije suprotno uvjetima postavljenima u stavku 3.

5. Stranka koja kontrolira takvu zonu mora je, utoliko koliko je to moguće, označiti znacima o kojima se može sporazumjeti s drugom strankom, a koji se moraju istaknuti tamo gdje će biti jasno vidljivi, posebice na perimetru i na granicama zone te na glavnim cestama.

6. Ako se borbe približe demilitariziranoj zoni i ako su se stranke sukoba tako sporazumjele, nijedna od njih ne može upotrijebiti tu zonu u svrhe vezane uz izvođenje vojnih operacija ili jednostrano ukinuti njezin status.

7. Ako jedna stranka sukoba bitno povrijedi odredbe stavaka 3. do 6, druga se stranka oslobada obveza na temelju sporazuma kojim se zoni dodjeljuje status demilitarizirane zone. U takvom slućaju zona gubi svoj status, ali i dalje uživa zaštitu predviđenu drugim odredbama ovoga Protokola i drugim pravilima međunarodnog prava primjenjivim u orui.anim sukobima.

GLAVA Vl. CIVILNA ZAŠTITA

Članak 61.

Definicije i polje primjene

U svrhe ovoga Protokola:

a) >civilna zaštita" znaći obavljanje nekih ili svih nii.e spomenutih humanitarnih zadataka kako bi se civilno stanovništvo zaštitilo od opasnosti od neprijateljstava ili katastrofa i kako bi mu se pomoglo da se oporavi od njihovih izravnih posljedica, te kako bi mu se osigurali potrebni uvjeti za preživljavanje. Ti su zadaci:

(i) slui.ba uzbunjivanja; (ii) evakuacija;

(iii) stavljanje na raspolaganje i organizacija skloništa; (iv) provedba mjera zamraćenja:

(v) spašavanje;

(vi) sanitetska služba, ukljućujući prvu pomoć i vjersku pomoć;

(vii) borba protiv poi,ara;

(viii) otkrivanje i oznaćavanje opasnih zona;

(ix) dekontaminacija i druge slićne zaštitne mjere; (x) hitni smještaj i opskrba:

(xi) hitna pomoć u uspostavljanju i održavanju reda u postradalim zonama;

(xii) hitno uspostavljanje prijeko potrebnih komunalnih usluga;

(xiii) hitne pogrebne usluge,

(xiv) pomoć u oćuvanju dobara bitnih za preživljavanje: (xv) dopunske aktivnosti potrebne za obavljanje bilo kojeg od spomenutih zadataka, ukljućujući, ali ne iskljućivo, planiranje i organizaciju;

b) "organizacije civilne zaštite" -rnaće ustanove i druge jedinice koje su nadležne vlasti stranke sukoba organizirale ili ovlastile za obavljanje bilo kojeg od zadataka spomenutih u točki a) i koje su namijenjene i upotrebljavaju se iskljućivo za te zadatke;

c) "osoblje" organizacija civilne z~.štite znaći osobe kojima je stranka sukoba namijenila iskljućivo obavljanje zadataka nabrojenih u točki a), ukljućujući osoblje kojemu je stranka sukoba namijenila isključivo upravljanje tim organizacijama;

d) .materijal" organizacija civilne zaštite znači opremu, zalihe i prijevozna sredstva što ih te organizacije upotrebljavaju za obavljanje zadataka nabrojanih u točki a).

Članak 62.

Opća zaštita

1. Civilne organizacije civilne zaštite i njihovo osoblje poštovat će se i štititi sukladno odredbama ovoga Protokola i osobito odredbama ovog odjeljka. One imaju pravo obavljati svoje zadatke civilne zaštite, osim u slućaju imperativne vojne potrebe.

2. Odredbe stavka 1. također se primjenjuju na civile koji se, iako ne pripadaju ot`ganizacijama civilne za,štite, odazovu molbi nadleinih vlasti i pod njihovom kontrolom obavljaju zadatke civilne zaštite.

3. Na zgrade i materijal što se upotrebljavaju u svrhe civilne zaštite i na skloništa namijenjena civilnom stanovništvu primjenjuje se Članak 52. Objekti koji se upotrebljavaju u svrhe civilne zaštite ne mogu se uništiti niti im se može promijeniti namjena,,osim ako to ućini stranka kojoj pripadaju.

Članak 63.

Civilna zaštita na okupiranim područjima

1. Na okupiranim područjima vlasti će civilnim organizacijama civilne zaštite pružiti olakšice potrebne za. obavljanje njihovih zadataka. Ni u kojim okolnostima njihovo se osoblje ne smije prisiliti na aktivnosti koje bi ometale primjereno obavljanje tih zadataka. Okupacijska sila ne može mijenjati ustroj ili osoblje takvih organizacija na bilo kakav način koji bi ugrozio djelotvorno obavljanje njihove misije. Od tih se organizacija neće zahtijevati da daju prednost drž.avljanima ili interesima te sile.

2. Okupacijska sila ne smije natjerati, prisiliti ili navesti civilne organizacije civilne zaštite da obavljaju svoje zadatke na bilo kakav način koji bi štetio interesima civilnog stanovništva.

3. Okupacijska sila moie razorui,ati osoblje civilne zaštite iz sigurnosnih razloga.

a. Okupacijska sila ne smije odvratiti od primjerene upotrebe niti rekvirirati zgrade ili materijal što pripadaju organizacijama civilne zaštite ili što ih one upotrebljavaju ako bi takvo odvraćanje ili takva rekvizicija štetila civilnom stanovništvu

5 Okupacijska sila može rekvirirati ta sredstva ili im promijeniti namjenu pod uvjetom da se i dalje poštuje opće' pravilo iz stavka 4 i pod ovim posebnim uvjetima:

a) da su zgrade i materijal nužni za druge potrebe civilnog stanovništva, i

b) da rekvizicija ili promjena namjene traje samo dok takva potreba postoji.

6 Okupacijska sila ne moLe promijeniti namjenu niti rekvirirati skloništa koja su stavljena na raspolaganje civilnom stanovništvu ili su nužna za potrebe toga stanovništva

Članak 64.

Civilne organizacije civilne za,štite neutralnih drisva ili drugih država koje nisu stranke sukoba i međunarodne organizacije za koordinaciju

1. Članci 62, 63, 65. i 66. također se primjenjuju na osoblje i materijal civilnih organizacija civilne zaštite neutralnih drža,va i drugih država koje nisu stranke sukoba, a koje na području stranke sukoba, uz pristanak i pod kontrolom te stranke, obavljaju zadatke civilne zaštite nabrojane u članku 61. čim to bude moguće o takvoj će se pomoći izvršiti notifikacija svakoj zainteresiranoj protivničkoj stranki. Ni u kojim okolnostima ta se djelatnost neće smatrati kao miješanje u sukob. Ta bi se djelatnost, međutim, morala obavljati s dužnim obzirom prema interesima sigurnosti zainteresiranih stranaka sukoba.

2. Stranke sukoba koje primaju pomoć spomenutu u stavku 1. i visoke stranke ugovornice koje je pruiaju morale bi, kad je to umjesno, olakšati međunarodnu koordinaciju takvih akcija civilne zaštite. U tom se slučaju odredbe ove glave primjenjuju na odgovarajuće međunarodne organizacije.

3. Na okupiranim područjima okupacijska sila moi,e spriječiti ili ograničiti djelovanje civilnih organizacija civilne zaštite neutralnih država ili drugih d~”zava koje nisu stranke sukoba i međunarodnih organizacija za koordinaciju samo ako može osigurati primjereno obavljanje zadataka civilne zaštite vlastitim sredstvima ili sredstvima okupiranog područja.

Članak 65.

Prestanak zaštite

1. Zaštita na koju imaju pravo civilne organizacije civilne zaštite, njihovo osoblje, njihove zgrade, njihova skloništa i njihov materijal može prestati samo ako izvrše ili ako se upotrijebe za vršenje, izvan svojih primjerenih zadataka, čina štetnih za neprijatelja. Zaštita, međutim, prestaje tek nakon upozorenja koje, svaki put kad do toga dode, odreduje razuman rok i pošto je ono ostalo bez učinka.

2. Ne smatraju se činima štetnim za neprijatelja:

a) činjenica da se zadaci civilne zaštite obavljaju pod vodstvom ili pod nadzorom vojnih vlasti;

b) činjenica da civilno osoblje civilne zaštite u obavljanju zadataka civilne zaštite suraduje s vojnim osobljem ili da je neko vojno osoblje pridodano civilnim organizacijama civilne zaštite;

c) činjenica da obavljanje zadataka civilne zaštite može slućajno koristiti vojnim žrtvama, posebice onima koje su izvan bojnog ustroja.

3. Ne smatra se ćinom štetnim za neprijatelja ako civilno osoblje civilne zaštite nosi lako osobno naoružanje radi održavanja reda ili za vlastitu zaštitu Međutim, u zonama u kojima se vode kopnene borbe ili gdje će se vjerojatno voditi, stranke sukoba poduzet će odgovarajuće mjere da ograniće to oruije na ručno, kao što su pištolji i revolveri, kako bi se olakšalo razlikovanje osoblja civilne zaštite od boraca. ~ak i ako osoblje civilne zaštite u tim zonama nosi drugo lako osobno naoru7.anje, mora se poštovaV i štititi ćim bude priznato kao takvo

4.Činjenica da su civilne organizacije cmilne zaštite organizirane po uzoru na vojne, kao ni obvezatna sluLb<r u njima, također ih ne lišava zaštite koju im pruž.a ova glava

Članak 66.

Identifikacija

l. Svaka stranka sukoba mora nastojati osigurati identifikaciju svojih organizacija civilne zaštite, njihovpg osoblja, njihovih zgrada i njihovog materijala dok su namijenjeni iskljućivo obavljanju zadataka civilne zaštite. Skloništa stavljena na raspolaganje civilnom stanovništvu morala bi se moći identificirati na sliča,n način.

2. Svaka stranka sukoba mora, također, nastojati usvojiti i provesti metode i postupke koji omogućuju prepoznavanje civilnih skloništa, kao i osoblja, zgrada i materijala civilne zaštite što nose ili ističu međunarodni znak raspoznavanja civilne zaštite.

3. Na okupiranim područjima i u zonama u kojima se vode borbe ili gdje će se vjerojatno voditi, civilno osoblje civilne zaštite prepoznat će se, u pravilu, po međunarodnom znaku raspoznavanja civilne zaštite i po osobnoj iskaznici kojom se Potvrđuje njegov~status.

4. Međunarodni znak raspoznavanja civilne zaštite istostranićan je plavi trokut na narančastom polju kad se upotrebljava za zaštitu organizacija civilne zaštite, njihovih zgrada, njihovog osoblja i njihovog materijala ili za zaštitu civilnih skloništa.

5. Osim znaka raspoznavanja, stranke sukoba mogu se sporazumjeti o upotrebi signala raspoznavanja u svrhu identifikacije službi civilne zaštite.

6. Primjena odredaba stavaka l. do 9. uredena je glavom V. Priloga I. ovome Protokolu.

7. Znak opisan u stavku 4. može se u vrijeme mira, uz pristanak nadležnih drzavnih vlasti, upotrebljavati u svrhu identifikacije sluibi civilne zaštite. .

8. Visoke stranke ugovornice i stranke sukoba poduzet će potrebne mjere radi nadzora upotrebe međunarodnog znaka raspoznavanja civilne zaštite i radi sprečavanja i suzbijanja njegove zloupotrebe.

9. Identifikacija sanitetskog i vjerskog osoblja, sanitetskih jedinica i sredstava sanitetskog transporta civilne zaštite također je uredena člankom 18.

Članak 67.

Pripadnici oruianih snaga i vojne jedinice dodijeljene organizacijama civilne zaštite

1. Pripadnici oruianih snaga i vojne jedinice dodijeljene organizacijama civilne zaštite poštovat će se i štititi pod uvjetima:

a) da su to osoblje i te jedinice stalno dodijeljene i namijenjene iskljućivo obavljanju bilo kojega zadatka spomenutog u članku 61;

b) da to osoblje, ako je tako dodijeljeno, za vrijeme sukoba ne obavlja druge vojne zadatke;

c) da se to osoblje jasno razlikuje od ostalih pripadnika oružanih snaga vidljivo ističući međunarodni znak raspoznavanja civilne zaštite, koji mora biti toliko velik koliko je to primjereno, i da je takvo osoblje opskrbljeno osobnom iskaznicom navedenom u glavi V. Priloga I. ovome Protokolu, kojom se Potvrđuje njegov status;

d) da su to osoblje i te jedinice opskrbljene samo lakim osobnim naoružanjem radi održavanja reda ili za vlastitu obranu U tom se slućaju također primjenjuju odredbe stavka 3. Članka 65;

e) da to osoblje izravno ne sudjeluje u neprijateljstvima i da ne vrši ili da se ne upotrijebi za vršenje, izvan svojih zadataka civilne zaštite, ćina štetnih za protivnićku stranku;

f) da to osoblje i te jedinice obavljaju svoje zadatke civilne zaštite jedino na drzs,vnom području njihove stranke. Zabranjeno je nepoštovanje uvjeta izloženih u točki e) od bilo kojega pripadnika oru~anih snaga koji je vezan uvjetima propisanima u točkama a) i b).

2. Članovi vojnog osoblja koji služe u organizacijama civilne zaštite, ako padnu pod vlast protivničke stranke, bit će ratni zarobljenici. Na okupiranom području oni se mogu, ali samo u interesu civilnog stanovništva toga područja, upotrijebiti za za.datke civilne zaštite u mjeri u kojoj je to potrebno, pod uvjetom, međutim, da to čine dobrovoljno ako je taj rad opasan.

3. Zgrade i glavni dijelovi opreme i prijevoznih sredstava vojnih jedinica, što su dodijeljeni organizacijama civilne zaštite, moraju se jasno označiti međunarodnim znakom raspoznavanja civilne zaštite. Taj znak mora biti toliko velik koliko je to primjereno.

4. Zgrade i materijal vojnih jedinica stalno dodijeljeni organizacijama civilne zaštite i - namijenjeni iskljućivo obavljanju zadataka civilne zaštite, ako padnu u ruke protivničkoj strani, ostaju podvrgnuti ratnome pravu. Njihova se namjena, međutim, ne može promijeniti dok su potrebni za obavljanje zadataka civilne zaštite, osim u slučaju imperativne vojne potrebe ako su prethodno poduzete mjere da se na odgovarajući na~ćin zadovolje potrebe civilnog stanovništva. ,

ODJELIAK II.

POMOĆ CIVILNOM STANOVNIŠTVU

Članak 68.

Polje primjene

Odredbe ovog odjeljka primjenjuju se na civilno stanovništvo kako je definirano u ovome Protokolu i dopunjuju članke 23, 55, 59, 60, 61. i 62. te druge odgovarajuće odredbe četvrte konvencije.

Članak 69.

Osnovne potrebe na okupiranim područjima

1. Osim dužnosti nabrojanih u članku 55. ~etvrte konvencije glede opskrbe živeinim namirnicama i lijekovima, okupacijska će sila, također, u najvećoj mogućoj mjeri što se tiče sredstava kojima raspolaže i bez ikakvoga nepovoljnog razlikovanja, osigurati dobavu odjeće, posteljine, sredstava za hitno ukonačenje i drugih zaliha bitnih za preživljavanje civilnog stanovništva okupiranog područja te predmeta za vjerske obrede.

2. Akcije pomoći civilnom stanovništvu okupiranog područja uredene su Člancima 50, 60, 61, 62, to8, io9, i io i 111. Cetvrte konvencije, kao i člankom 71. ovoga Protokola, a provest će se bez odgode.

Članak 70.

Akcije pomoći

1. Ako je civilno stanovništvo područja koje je pod kontrolom stranke sukoba, osim